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Open and Distance Learning: History, Status and Trends


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Presentation on 22/03/2010 at the Refresher Programme in Distance Education organized by STRIDE

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Open and Distance Learning: History, Status and Trends

  1. 1. Open and Distance Education: History, Status and Conceptual analyses IGNOU-STRIDE Sanjaya Mishra
  2. 2. Let’s Begin with the Terminologies… Correspondence education Home study Independent study External studies Continuing education Distance teaching Self instruction Open learning Flexible learning Distributed learning IGNOU-STRIDE
  3. 3. Open Learning <ul><li>medium or media, whether print, on-line, television or video; </li></ul><ul><li>place of study, whether at home, in the workplace or on campus; </li></ul><ul><li>pace of study, whether closely paced or unstructured; </li></ul><ul><li>support mechanisms, whether tutors on demand, audio conferences or computer-assisted learning; and </li></ul><ul><li>entry and exit points. </li></ul>The educational philosophy of open learning emphasizes giving learners choices about: IGNOU-STRIDE
  4. 4. Distance Learning <ul><li>separation of teacher and learner in time or place, or in both time and place; </li></ul><ul><li>institutional accreditation ; that is, learning is accredited or certified by some institution or agency. This type of learning is distinct from learning through your own effort without the official recognition of a learning institution; </li></ul><ul><li>use of mixed-media courseware , including print, radio and television broadcasts, video and audio cassettes, computer-based learning and telecommunications. Courseware tends to be pre-tested and validated before use; </li></ul>Most definitions of distance learning pay attention to the following characteristics: IGNOU-STRIDE
  5. 5. <ul><li>two-way communication allows learners and tutors to interact as distinguished from the passive recipient of broadcast signals. Communication can be synchronous or asynchronous; </li></ul><ul><li>possibility of face-to-face meetings for tutorials, learner–learner interaction, library study and laboratory or practice sessions; and </li></ul><ul><li>use of industrialised processes ; that is, in large-scale open and distance learning operations, labour is divided and tasks are assigned to various staff who work together in course development teams. </li></ul>Distance Learning Cont’d… IGNOU-STRIDE
  6. 6. Teaching-Learning Scenario IGNOU-STRIDE   Same time Different time Same place Classroom teaching, face-to-face tutorials and seminars, workshops and residential schools Learning resource centres, which learners visit at their leisure. Different place Audio conferences and video conferences; television with one-way video, two-way audio; radio with listener–response capability; and telephone tutorials. Home study, computer conferencing, tutorial support by e-mail and fax communication.
  7. 7. History of ODL <ul><li>Boston Gazette, March 20, 1728: Advertisement for Short hand course </li></ul><ul><li>Popularly known, 1840: Sir Isaac Pitman's Short hand course </li></ul><ul><li>First distance teaching university, University of South Africa in 15 Feb 1946: </li></ul><ul><li>First Open University, 1969: UKOU </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  8. 8. The Idea of Open University <ul><li>China's Imperial Examination system in 6 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindranath Tagore's idea of home-based study influenced Leonard Elmhirst (Agricultural adviser), who started Dartington Hall. Michael Young was a pupil there who went on to propose the idea of the UK Open University and started the National Extension College as a pilot </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  9. 9. Status <ul><li>Over 90 Open Universities around the World </li></ul><ul><li>15 in India alone </li></ul><ul><li>First Open University in India started in 1982; and the National Open University of India was established in 1985. </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  10. 10. Open University Movement <ul><li>Principle of egalitarianism (open to all) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of equality of educational opportunities (barriers of caste, economy, gender to be removed) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of lifelong and ubiquitous learning </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of flexible curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of learner-orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of autonomous learning </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of learning through communication and interaction </li></ul>Source : Peters, 2008 IGNOU-STRIDE
  11. 11. Generations of Distance Education IGNOU-STRIDE First Generation- Correspondence Model: Only print based Second Generation- Multi-media Model: Print, Audio, Video, CBL(CAI/CML) Third Generation- Telelearning Model: Audio Teleconferencing, Video Teleconferencing, Audiographics, Broadcast Radio/TV Fourth Generation- Flexible Learning Model: Interactive Multimedia, Internet/WWW, CMC Fifth Generation- Interactive Flexible Learning Model: Automated response systems, Virtual Learning space
  12. 12. Advantages of ODL <ul><li>Overcoming physical distance </li></ul><ul><li>Solving time and scheduling problems </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding the limited number of space available </li></ul><ul><li>Democratizing education </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing quality education to the doorstep of millions </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with cultural, religious and political considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-effective education suitable to developing nations </li></ul><ul><li>Provides second chance to those who miss education </li></ul><ul><li>Enables lifelong learning </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  13. 13. Limitations? <ul><li>Attitudinal bias </li></ul><ul><li>Believed as second rate </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is questioned all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to start – takes lot of planning time </li></ul><ul><li>Requires trained, committed human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Any other? </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  14. 14. Why ODL? <ul><li>Access and reach </li></ul><ul><li>Equity and Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance and lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Cost and Efficiency </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  15. 15. Access and Reach <ul><li>880 millions illiterate population </li></ul><ul><li>By 2015 about 100 million school aged children would not be in school </li></ul><ul><li>Only 668 millions enrolment in Primary schools </li></ul><ul><li>Education is a basic human right, and how are we going to achieve the gigantic task </li></ul><ul><li>School enrolment rate have to be increased up to 10% for many countries to meet the goals of Education for All by 2015 </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  16. 16. Equity and Gender <ul><li>Equity refers to the fairness in distribution of educational resources </li></ul><ul><li>Equity in gender </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable access to education for people in rural, hilly, and remote islands </li></ul><ul><li>Female enrolment in all stages of education is less than 50% </li></ul><ul><li>64% of the total illiterate population is female; in China female illiteracy is more than 70% </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  17. 17. Quality and Effectiveness <ul><li>Not just access, people need access to quality education </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of HIV/AIDS on supply of education services: In Zambia the mortality rate amongst teachers because of HIV/AIDS was more than the general adult population </li></ul><ul><li>World average for teachers is just 16 for 1000 population; in developing countries it is more less </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and student-centred design has a strong role to play in improving quality </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  18. 18. Relevance and Lifelong Learning <ul><li>Societal change from labour intensive work to knowledge intensive work </li></ul><ul><li>Need to teach the 7Cs: </li></ul><ul><li>Constant change and advancement in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Career development </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  19. 19. Globalization and Technology <ul><li>Globalization refers to the package of economic reforms including liberalization, privatization and decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Education as a commodity and trans-boarder flow of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is the mover in the age of globalization, especially the Internet, and its WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing digital divide: only 4.8 persons per thousand online </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  20. 20. Cost and Efficiency <ul><li>Governments are by far the largest funding bodies in education </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of commitment, Governments are not in a position to invest more as there are other important areas like health, environment, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The public expenditure in education varies between 2-6% of GNP in many countries; world average is just 4.8% of GNP </li></ul><ul><li>Private participation required to increase efficiency; Governments can focus more on primary education </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE
  21. 21. ODL: Issues and Challenges <ul><li>Mandate vs performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Dropouts and cost-effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty workload </li></ul><ul><li>Research on ODL teaching and learning practices </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility vs professional demands </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating technology mediated synchronous learning </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization and emergence of Cyber universities </li></ul>IGNOU-STRIDE