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Objectives in Self-Learning Materials


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2k50515: A telecon presentation for the students of PGD in Higher Education

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Objectives in Self-Learning Materials

  1. 1. Formulation of Objectives Sanjaya Mishra
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What are objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual developments </li></ul><ul><li>Writing objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Why should you use objectives? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are objectives? <ul><li>Dictionary meaning: aim, goal and intention </li></ul><ul><li>It is an aid to the learners as well as to the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>It helps in planning the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>It also helps in identification of appropriate activities, methods and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>It helps in assessment of learner performance, and then provide feedback on learning/ teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives are defined as what the students should be able to do following instuction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anecdote Person A : Where does this road goes? Person B : Where do you want to go? Person A : I don’t know. Person B : Then it does not matter, where this road goes. Moral : If you don’t know where you are going, then you will reach no where.
  5. 5. Conceptual developments <ul><li>Educational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Mager’s instructional objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Educational objectives <ul><li>Change in behaviours that an educational institution seeks to bring in its students </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, 1948 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Blooms’ taxonomy (1956) <ul><li>Primarily for assessment of student performance </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-Understanding-Application-Analysis-Synthesis-Evaluation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Instructional Objectives (1962) <ul><li>Unambiguous action verbs, conditions and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Though instruction is used, Mager believed objectives to be what the students should be able to do at the end of instruction </li></ul>
  9. 9. Behavioural Objectives <ul><li>Excess emphasis on the use of action verbs and behavioual objectives led to this phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Duchastel and Merrill (1973) said behavioural objectives serve three functions: direction for teaching and curriculum development, guidance in evaluation, and facilitation of learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Personal outcomes: interpersonal skills, teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Learning objectives: subject centred, but not necessarily behavioural </li></ul><ul><li>Generic outcomes: critical thinking, analysis, synthesizing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Objectives and Knowledge Domain Affective Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Value concept Psychomotor Perception Set Guided response Mechanisms Complex overt response Adaption Origination Cognitive Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
  12. 12. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Originally one-dimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Now in 2-dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive process dimension </li></ul>
  13. 13. Remember Apply Understand Analyze Evaluate Create Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-cognitive
  14. 14. Writing objectives <ul><li>Performance : use action verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions : circumstances under which the students are expected to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Standard : criterion that defines acceptable performance. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Performance <ul><li>The learner will be able to define… </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will be able to identify the components… </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will be able to determine the kind of nutrients… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Condition <ul><li>Given a list of examples… </li></ul><ul><li>Given a list of terms… </li></ul><ul><li>While in the laboratory… </li></ul><ul><li>Using a soil sample kit… </li></ul><ul><li>After observing a videotape… </li></ul>
  17. 17. Standard <ul><li>… accurate to the nearest tenth </li></ul><ul><li>… according to the steps listed in the manual </li></ul><ul><li>… within twenty minutes </li></ul><ul><li>… at the rate of 100 per hour </li></ul><ul><li>… without any errors </li></ul>
  18. 18. Example <ul><li>Given a list of generic drugs, the learner will be able to identify the antibiotics with 95% accuracy. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Criticism <ul><li>Objectives are written at a minimum acceptable standard </li></ul>
  20. 20. Criticism <ul><li>Objectives dehumanize by focusing on requirements and not on students </li></ul>
  21. 21. Criticism <ul><li>It takes time, and teachers’ workload are unrealistic </li></ul>
  22. 22. Criticism <ul><li>Objectives are difficult to set for affective domain </li></ul>
  23. 23. Criticism <ul><li>Objectives ‘lock’ the curriculum and are not flexible </li></ul>
  24. 24. Criticism <ul><li>It sets the tone of “teach and test” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Criticism <ul><li>Objectives stop creativity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Criticism <ul><li>It is not useful to the teachers in colleges </li></ul>
  27. 27. ABCD of objectives <ul><li>A udience </li></ul><ul><li>B ehaviour </li></ul><ul><li>C onditions </li></ul><ul><li>D egree of performance </li></ul>
  28. 28. Objectives should be SMART <ul><li>S pecific </li></ul><ul><li>M easurable </li></ul><ul><li>A chievable </li></ul><ul><li>R ealistic </li></ul><ul><li>T ime-bound </li></ul>