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Designing Reflective Activities


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2k60906: A workshop presentation at IGNOU

Published in: Education, Technology

Designing Reflective Activities

  1. 1. Designing Reflective Activities <ul><ul><li>Sanjaya Mishra </li></ul></ul>Designing Reflective Activities Designing Reflective Activities
  2. 2. Please think of something you are good at. Write how you became good at it. <ul><li>Trial and error, reading, observing, experimentation, reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Reading, discussion, practice, reflection on practice </li></ul><ul><li>By doing it, by talking to people about it </li></ul><ul><li>Trying different methods, thinking about the issue , reflecting on mistakes </li></ul>Your responses could be anything of the following: IGNOU-STRIDE In summary, the following emerge: <ul><li>Practice, Doing it </li></ul><ul><li>Trial and Error </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting </li></ul>Activity to begin with…
  3. 3. Types of Activities Source: Mishra and Gaba (2001)‏ Activities Question-based Reflective Action-based With immediate feedback (e.g ITQ)‏ With model answer/ feedback at the end (e.g. SAQ)‏ With no answer but hints (e.g. Exercises)‏ Things to do (e.g. Collection of data)‏ Experiential (e.g. Writing a note after watching a TV programme)‏
  4. 4. Why use activities? <ul><li>Think for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with explanations/solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Sort out the features of an argument </li></ul><ul><li>Draw inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Relate own ideas and experiences to topic </li></ul>To help learners
  5. 5. <ul><li>Be exposed to competing ideas and views </li></ul><ul><li>Experience those tasks that are typical of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Practice important objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress </li></ul><ul><li>Check their understanding/mastery of the concepts and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on implications of their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Actively use the materials </li></ul>Why use activities? To provide opportunities for learners to:
  6. 6. Importance of Reflection <ul><li>Donald Schon (1983)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection-in-action </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection-on-action </li></ul><ul><li>David Kolb (1984): Learning Cycle </li></ul>Concrete experience Abstract conceptualization Reflective observation Active experimentation
  7. 7. <ul><li>Dictionary meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>(n): 1. an instance of reflecting; 2. a thought, idea or opinion formed or a remark made as a result of mediation; 3. consideration of some subject matter, idea or purpose </li></ul><ul><li>(adj): marked by reflection: thoughtful, deliberate </li></ul>What is Reflection?
  8. 8. John Dewey (1933): How we think? <ul><li>Reflection is a meaning making process </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic, disciplined way of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection happen in community, in interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection requires attitude that value the personal and intellectual growth of oneself and others. </li></ul>
  9. 9. J. Mezirow (1977)‏ <ul><li>Non-reflective action </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughtful </li></ul><ul><li>Introspection </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective action </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Premise </li></ul>
  10. 10. M. Van Manen (1977)‏ Technical Contextual Dialectical
  11. 11. Sparks-Langer et al (1991)‏ <ul><li>Framework for Reflective thinking </li></ul><ul><li>No descriptive language </li></ul><ul><li>Simple layperson description </li></ul><ul><li>Events labeled with appropriate terms </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation with tradition or personal preference given as rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation with principle or theory given as rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation with principle or theory and consideration of context </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation with consideration of ethical, moral and political issues </li></ul>
  12. 12. J. Moon (1999)‏ <ul><li>Meaningful, reflective, restructured by learner, creative </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful, reflective, well structured </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful, well integrated ideas linked </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction of ideas, ideas not well linked, memorized representation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reflection is a constructivist way of learning <ul><li>Construction of knowledge by learner </li></ul><ul><li>Active involvement of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linear way of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to apply and question </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through experiential problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Situated and contextual </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is not reflection? <ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>List </li></ul><ul><li>All lower order behavioral objectives </li></ul>
  15. 15. Designing Reflective activities Revised Blooms Taxonomy <ul><li>Knowledge Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Factual </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-cognitive </li></ul>Cognitive Process Domain x Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create
  16. 16. Guidelines/ Components <ul><li>Use action verbs in the level of </li></ul><ul><li>U-A-A-E-C </li></ul><ul><li>Cover Mezirow’s critical reflection approach – What, how and why type question </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunity for contextualize, theorize, personalize, and generalize </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exercise <ul><li>Develop at least 2 reflective activities in a topic of your choice. </li></ul>