Alternative Assessment Techniques


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Presentation in the Wokshop on Assessment in Open and Distance Education, 5th October 2009.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology

Alternative Assessment Techniques

  1. 1. Alternative Assessment Techniques Sanjaya Mishra
  2. 2. What is Assessment? <ul><li>Meaning? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Assessment? <ul><li>Meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Assessment? <ul><li>Meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes? (assessing... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking and higher order cognitive abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving problems and developing plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing procedures and demonstrating techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing and developing oneself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing and managing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrating knowledge and understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing, creating and performing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is Assessment? <ul><li>Meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes? </li></ul><ul><li>Types? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment for Learning </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is Assessment? <ul><li>Meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes? </li></ul><ul><li>Types? </li></ul><ul><li>Methods? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative methods </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Problems in Assessment <ul><li>Subjectivity in Essays </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of rote learning </li></ul><ul><li>Quantification in objective tests </li></ul><ul><li>Poor recognition of abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Poor feedback and diminished chance of development </li></ul>
  8. 8. Trends in Assessment <ul><li>Shift from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of course test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norm-referenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass/Fail summative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Towards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing skills and understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of variety of methods/evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative identification of strengths and weaknesses and recording of positive achievements I addition to summative </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Qualities of Good Assessment <ul><li>Aligning assessment with objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit/open criteria and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic and holistic tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitative degree of structure to promote self-direction </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient and timely formative feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced tension between workload and time </li></ul>
  10. 10. Alternative Assessment Techniques <ul><li>Self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios/e-Portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Online discussions/ eGroups </li></ul><ul><li>Concept maps </li></ul><ul><li>Projects (individual/group) </li></ul><ul><li>Term papers and seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Oral presentations, debate and interviews </li></ul>
  11. 11. Self-Assessment <ul><li>One of the psycho-pedagogic basis of distance learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes self-monitoring of progress by learners </li></ul><ul><li>Develops independent and self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Important to apply for recognition of prior learning </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes self knowledge and understanding </li></ul>
  12. 12. Self-Assessment <ul><li>Research shows that high achievers tend to under-estimate and low achievers tend to over-estimate (Falchikov and Boud, 1989; and Mishra, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor feedback is important </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment criteria for self-assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What I have been doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How have I been doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I think of what I have been doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could I improve my approach? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Peer-Assessment <ul><li>Used for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing learners' skills of assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepening their understanding of the process of assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthening their understanding of the topic and methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop their skills of group, task management, and power of articulation to provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate self-assessment and reflective thinking </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Peer-Assessment <ul><li>Is useful, when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate training in small group work is given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate training on self- and peer-assessment given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning task is clearly defined with marking criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is moderated by the teacher and feedback given to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group tasks are to be evaluated </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Portfolios <ul><li>Collection of evidence that learning has taken place </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of what learners themselves judge to be most meaningful representation of their learning in a subject </li></ul><ul><li>Both a learning as well as assessment tool </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental growth of a learner over a period of time can be tracked </li></ul><ul><li>Also useful to prospective employers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunity for self-reflection </li></ul>
  16. 16. Portfolios <ul><li>Reflects evidence of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of key principles and/or processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of understanding and hence future learning needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originality and creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievements in different context and application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key skills development </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Reflective Journaling <ul><li>Reflection is important for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: Reflection-on-action and Reflection-in-action </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection is a systematic meaning making process that requires attitude to value the personal and intellectual growth of oneself and others. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not just writing diary </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reflective Journaling <ul><li>Use action verbs in the level beyond &quot;Remember&quot; in revised Blooms Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Cover critical reflection approach by using questions such as what, how and why </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunity for contextualize, theorize, personalize, and generalize </li></ul>(Source: Mishra and Panda, 2007)
  19. 19. Assessment Tools <ul><li>Marking Scheme </li></ul>(Source: Morgan & O'Reilly, 1999) High distinction (85-100) Consistently high level synthesis of ideas and argument; original and thought-provoking ideas; evidence of systematic and creative use of sources, extremely pleasing prose Distinction (75-84) Understand and systematically compares theories and concepts; evidence of wide use of sources, makes critical comment, sustained argument, stylish composition. Credit (65-74) Concepts and theory well applied, some useful insights, reasonable use of sources, reasonable argument, although could be improved. Pass (50-64) Readable; descriptive rather than analytical, a limited use of sources, seeks to address major issues; acceptable although major improvements possible. Fail (below 50) No significant grasp of concepts, irrelevant material included, incomplete, unreadable, misunderstands the topic, little evidence of significant efforts.
  20. 20. Assessment Tools <ul><li>Structured Observation of Learning Outcomes (Biggs, 1999) </li></ul>SOLO Level Description Example of verbs associated Pre-structural The task itself is not attacked in an appropriate way. The student has not understood the point. Missed point Uni-structural One relevant aspect of task is picked up and there is no relationship between facts or ideas. Understanding is nominal. Identify, Do simple procedure. Multi-structural Several (two or more) independent aspects are picked up or understood serially but are not interrelated. Enumerate, Describe, List, Combine, Do algorithms Relational Relevant aspects are integrated into an overall coherent structure. Compare, Contrast, Explain causes, Analyse, Relate, Apply. Extended abstract The coherent whole is generalised or re-conceptualised to a higher level of abstraction. Theorize, Generalize, Hypothesize, Reflect.
  21. 21. Assessment Tools <ul><li>Use of Rubrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating scales or scoring guides that consists of specific pre-defined performance criteria used in assessing student performances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types: Holistic rubrics and Analytic rubrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use online tools such as Rubistar to develop Rubrics at </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Assessment Tools <ul><li>Holistic Rubrics </li></ul>( Source : Mertler, 2001 ) Score Description 5 Demonstrate complete understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are include in response 4 Demonstrates considerable understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are included 3 Demonstrates partial understanding of the problem. Most requirements of task are included 2 Demonstrates little understanding of the problem. Many requirements of task are included 1 Demonstrates no understanding of the problem 0 No response/ task not attempted
  23. 23. Assessment Tools <ul><li>Analytic Rubrics </li></ul>( Source : Mertler, 2001 ) Beginning 1 Developing 2 Accomplished 3 Exemplary 4 Score Criteria #1 Criteria #2 Criteria #3 Criteria #4
  24. 24. Designing Scoring Rubrics <ul><li>Consider the table of specifications in your Blueprint (re-examine the learning objectives) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the grading pattern and schemes </li></ul><ul><li>List the objectives covered in the item/test, as criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the observable attributes for each of the objectives/criteria </li></ul><ul><li>For holistic rubrics, write narrative descriptions for each level of the grading scheme incorporating specific attributes </li></ul><ul><li>For analytic rubrics, write narrative descriptions for each individual criteria for the grading scheme incorporating specific attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct peer-review of the rubrics and apply to representative student work to identify problems, if any </li></ul><ul><li>Notify to students prior to the assessment task. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Implementing Alternative Assessment Techniques <ul><li>Is change necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost of not changing to contemporary practices? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the problems to change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy, and policy-makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes of teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative procedures </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Implementing Alternative Assessment Techniques <ul><li>Is change necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost of not changing to contemporary practices? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the problems to change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy, and policy-makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes of teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative procedures </li></ul></ul>Certainly knowledge and skill is not the problem....
  27. 27. Thank You... Your comments and questions are welcome...