1 basic computer operations


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1 basic computer operations

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO LINUX CS 11 Lab Introduction to Computer Science Cheza Marie R. Vianzon Lecturer
  2. 2. History of Linux <ul><li>Mid 1980's </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Stallman & Free Software Foundation has developed functional alternatives to every major UNIX component except the kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki (Finland) developed the original Linux kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 1992 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux v1.0 was officially released </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History of Linux <ul><li>1992 onwards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Hat Linux – most commonly used distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slackware – offers the full range of expected utilities, tools, and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caldera OpenLinux – comes into two editions: eDesktop 2.4 (workstations) and eServer 2.3 (servers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S.u.S.E. Linux – popular Linux distribution available in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debian/GNU – offers more than 3950 software packages using its own package-management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corel – newest major Linux distribution; explicitly targeted as a replacement for Microsoft Windows on desktop </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. File System <ul><li>Linux has a hierarchical, unified filesystem </li></ul><ul><li>Supports 256-character filenames </li></ul><ul><li>All command line entries are case sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Uses slash '/' and not backslash '' </li></ul><ul><li>Four types of files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special device files </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Prompt <ul><li>Login as root -> machinename:~# </li></ul><ul><li>Login as user -> machinename:~$ </li></ul><ul><li>Tilde charcater (~) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents home directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appended to the end of a filename, which means a backup of a file that has been edited </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Shell Account <ul><li>echo $SHELL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bourne Shell - /bin/sh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bourne Again Shell - /bin/bash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korn shell - /bin/ksh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C-shell - /bin/csh </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 10 Basic Linux Commands <ul><li>man – Unix manual </li></ul><ul><li>ls – lists files </li></ul><ul><li>pwd – shows what directory you are in </li></ul><ul><li>cd – changes directory </li></ul><ul><li>more – shows the contents of text files </li></ul><ul><li>whereis – same with 'find' and 'locate' </li></ul><ul><li>vi – editing program </li></ul><ul><li>grep – extracts info from files </li></ul><ul><li>chmod – change file permission </li></ul><ul><li>rm – delete file </li></ul>
  8. 8. LAN and Internet Exploration Tools <ul><li>telnet – allows you to login remotely from a remote computer to a host server running any linux or linux clone system </li></ul><ul><li>who – shows you who else is currently logged in on you ISP's LAN </li></ul><ul><li>netstat – all sorts of statistics on your LAN, including all Internet connections </li></ul><ul><li>whois – get lots of info on Internet hosts outside your LAN </li></ul><ul><li>nslookup – get a whole bunch more info on other Internet hosts </li></ul>
  9. 9. LAN and Internet Exploration Tools <ul><li>dig – even more info on Internet hosts </li></ul><ul><li>finger – get you valuable info about users on other Internet hosts </li></ul><ul><li>ping – to find out if a distant computer is alive and run diagnostic tests </li></ul><ul><li>traceroute – maps Internet connections, reveals routers and boxes running firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>ftp – use it to upload and download files to and from other computers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Listing Directories <ul><li>List files in alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><li>Useful options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'-a' lists all files, including hidden files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'-A' lists all files, except the current and parent directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'-c' sorts file by time (oldest first) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'-d' lists only the name of a directory, not its contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'-l' lists in long format (permissions and other details) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Listing Directories <ul><li>Other useful options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'-r' lists in reverse order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'-t' sorts files by time (newest first) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'-x' lists all files across the page instead of in columns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current directory (.) </li></ul><ul><li>Parent directory (..) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Permissions <ul><li>Read, write, or execute a file or command in a directory </li></ul><ul><li>chmod </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeric system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chmod 764 SomeFile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chmod g+x SomeFile </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Wildcards <ul><li>Three types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asterisk (*) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any number of characters anywhere in the filename </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question mark (?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single character </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brackets ([ ]) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific characters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Processes <ul><li>Shell acts as the intermediary between the user and the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Shell can run multiple commands at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Shell can run commands in the background </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple requests to the shell are called processes </li></ul><ul><li>Use 'ps' to list the current processes </li></ul><ul><li>Use 'kill' to stop a process </li></ul>
  15. 15. Using the VI editor <ul><li>Two modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything you type appears in the document at the place where the blinking cursor is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keystrokes perform special functions rather than actually inserting text to the document </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Running an Executable File in Linux <ul><li>Create a C program i.e. Hello.c </li></ul><ul><li>Compile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gcc -o Hello Hello.c </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Execute/Run </li></ul><ul><ul><li>./Hello </li></ul></ul>