SUMMER MUSIC SCHOOLFOR ROMA CHILDRENCERAIN v 2009 NOVI SAD (SERBIA) – BANJA LUKA (BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA) www.terraforming.se/cerain
CONTENTS1.1 Contact with Roma Association 1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEA - preconditions for the project 1.2 Children Musicians 1.3 The Experience of Emigration1.4 Experience Gained by Working on Integration And Familiarity with the Western Balkans1.5 Frame “Creative Force”1.6 Decade of Roma People2.1 Inspiration 2. GOALS2.2 Education 2.3 Support and Recognition 2.4 Mapping 2.5 Networking and Matching 2.6 Advocacy 3.1 Students of The School3. IMPLEMENTATION • 3.1.a Promoting the School • 3.1.b Students of the “Cerain” School • 3.1.c Motivating the Children to Participate in the School Programme3.2 Programme 3.3 Lecturers3.4 Cooperation with the University and Student Trainees • 3.5.a Principle of Openness3.5 Organization of the School • 3.5.b Principle of Free Discussion • 3.5.c Daily School Schedule
4.1 Music as a Universal Language4. METHODOLOGY • 4.1.a Blues Story • 4.1.b Music Genres • 4.1.c Work In Symphonic Orchestras • 4.1.d Musical English Language4.2 Modern Pedagogical Tools: Multimedia and Workshop4.3 Roma and “Non-Roma” Children Together – a Multiethnic Character of the School4.4 Role of Student Trainees4.5 Study Visits to Institutions of Culture4.6 Guest Lectures of the Representatives of Government and State Institutions4.7 Guest Lectures of Well-known Musicians and Other Role Models4.8 Leitmotif: Various Professions4.9 Performing Together in a Public Concert4.10 Our Method of Work Has Been Universally Successful5.1 Roma Organizations5. PARTNERS5.2 Cultural and Educational Institutions 5.3 Government and Local Authority Institutions 6.1 Knowledge and New Experiences6. ACHIEVEMENTS • 6.1.a Children – Students of the School 6.1.a-1 Identity of the Full Right Members of the Society 6.1.a-2 Encounter of Roma and Non-Roma Culture 6.1.a-3 Practical Knowledge in Fighting the Discrimination 6.1.a-4 Need for Education 6.1.a-5 Self-Organizing 6.1.a-6 New Knowledge from the Field of Basic Culture and Education 6.1.a-7 Motivation of the Children Musicians to Continue Schooling • 6.1.b Student Trainees 6.1.b-1 Gaining Practical Experience for Future Professions 6.1.b-2 Intercultural Dialogue 6.1.b-3 Project Organization and Work Experience from the Cultural Projects • 6.1.c Lecturers6.2 Advocacy • 6.2.a Roma Problems are Problems of the Overall Society… • 6.2.b Meeting With the Institutions of Government and Other Authorities • 6.2.c Work With the Institutions of Culture and Education • 6.2.d Media Coverage and Attention6.2 Mapping6.3 Networking and Matching7. FURTHER WORK IN THE AREA
SUMMER MUSIC SCHOOLFOR ROMA CHILDRENCERAIN v 2009 AUGUST 17 - 22/2009 NOVI SAD (SERBIA) AUGUST 24 - 29/2009 BANJA LUKA (BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA)“Čerain” Summer Music School for Roma Children is a project of theSerbian Youth Organization in Sweden, which was developed andcarried out from March to September by “Terraforming”, a groupof independent cultural workers, and it was financially supportedby the Swedish Institute. In cooperation with the local Roma as-sociation and the University the summer school for Roma childrenwas organized in Novi Sad and Banja Luka where by the languageof music the basic concepts of human rights were presented to the -children. They were inspired and encouraged to continue theirschool education by putting a special emphasis on building theirself-confidence and making them aware of the fact that they arefull rights citizens who has the same rights as all others. “Čerain” is a Roma word that means “the guiding star”.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEA - PRECONDITIONS FOR THE PROJECTThe Roma people are undoubtedly one of the most threat- Within the programme “Creative Force” The Swedish Insti-1.1 Contact with Roma Association 1.5 Frame “Creative Force”ened social groups in the Western Balkans. It is especially tute (SI) supported Swedish cooperation projects with coun-hard on Roma children. We got acquainted with the Roma tries in the Western Balkans. The overarching theme of thesituation in more details through our contacts with the Roma project was children’s and young people’s opportunities forAssociation “Čerain”, founded by a group of Roma musicians cultural experiences and for their own creativity.from Novi Sad who for ten years have been working on pres-ervation of Roma culture and tradition, as well as on projects SI has given priority to projects promoting democracy in theaimed at helping Roma children develop their rights and op- field of culture that take up diversity and equality from theportunities in the society. There is also a children’s orchestra perspective of a child/young person, focusing on the rightswithin the “Čerain” Association. of children and young people, facilitate and enhance chil- dren’s and young people’s opportunities for cultural experi- ences and their own creativity in innovative ways.The Roma children musicians are incredibly gifted and re- The programme “Creative Force” matched our ideas, values1.2 Children Musiciansgardless of their young age (between 11 and 16 years old) and plans, thereby making possible realization of our projectthey already perform in professional Roma orchestras in idea.restaurants and cafes. These orchestras normally consists ofthree generations of musicians – grandfathers, fathers andgrandsons playing together – which is a tradition passedon from generation to generation. The children musicians At the time Serbia was a presiding country within the Eu- 1.6 Decade of Roma Peoplespend nights in cafes entertaining guests and by day they ropean decade of Roma people. Within frameworks of thatsleep instead of going to school. Many of them never get to action Roma population started to organize themselves bet- ter through associations, Offices for inclusion of the Romafinish primary school because of that. people and by cooperation with various NGOs. Local social actors – including both Roma associations and government institutions – started to engage themselves showing a greatThe Roma situation in the Balkans, and our emigration ex- interest for working on issues specific for Roma population.1.3 The Experience of Emigrationperience of fighting for establishing ourselves in society, In that context we wanted to make use of momentum by giv-overlap in many aspects. Just like Roma people, we, who ing our contribution to that field.arrived to the Western Europe from the former Yugoslavia,also had to prove ourselves and fend for ourselves, overcomeobstacles of mutual prejudices, distrust, and it was only dueto our persistence, education and good results in work andcareer that we managed to become the full rights citizens inour new homelands.1.4 Experience Gained by Working onIntegration And Familiarity with theWe wanted to apply our experience gained from many yearsWestern Balkansof working on the issue of integration and emancipation inSweden and Holland to the Roma children in the WesternBalkans. We are familiar with methodology, models and in-struments necessary for the work with issues like the ste-reotype’s, building the self-confidence, integration in newcultures and societies, self-organization, - the issues whichthe large groups of newcomers and immigrants have beendealing with before in Holland and Sweden. We possess alsoa deep and essential knowledge of the social situation, andthe mentality and culture in the Western Balkans.
2. GOALS - Since we have a unique advantage of having a “double iden-We wanted to make Roma children stronger by inspiring tity” (Swedish and Dutch on the one hand and Balkans-Yugo-2.1 Inspirationthem and teaching them that many obstacles can be over- slav on the other) and the fact that we understand the lan-come by work and learning. We wanted to encourage their guage, mentality and valuations of “both our worlds” downenthusiasm, and teach them about their rights, potentials to the minute details, we wanted to make a unique effort toand opportunities by expanding their knowledge, awaken- make use of our field work experience and get a helicopter-ing their curiosity and - above all - by building their self-con- view of needs and potentials that can be useful for the fur-fidence before the future. ther work. We attached great importance to getting acquainted with the 2.5 Networking and MatchingApart from the obvious goal to teach children some new and most important social actors who are concerned with “our2.2 Educationimportant matters through the school programme, our main sphere of interest”: organizations and institutions of culture,goal of our educational part of the project was to teach Roma education, and government, political organizations, NGOs,people, as well as the cultural institutions and the decision Roma and other associations, journalists, artists, culturalmakers about the ways of solving problems which Roma workers, influential people, pedagogues, professors etc. sopeople encounter: prejudice, discrimination, social isolation, that we could get a clearer picture of who and how could co-passive mood in cultural and social interaction etc. We par- operate on this project now and in future. Besides, we want-ticularly insisted on training of our student trainees, as well ed to perceive and link together various complementary andas other partners in the project, in order to create a core, a compatible social actors and help them start mutual coop-well-trained team that could continue these activities in the eration – locally, but also abroad.future. One of the important goals of ours was to make the ideas 2.6 AdvocacyBy composing a programme which focuses on Roma chil- and valuations we wanted to affirm and promote be heard2.3 Support and recognitiondren, by working by methods which fully concentrates on and understood by as many people as possible. That is whyRoma children and their needs in the way that is familiar, we put a greater emphasis on detail and frequent reports ofunderstandable and interesting to them, and by respecting our work through our web site and Facebook, press releasestheir opinion, ideas and creativity we wanted to support and press conferences, media and public appearances. Aparttheir sense of their own identity, emphasizing and affirming from publicity, equal importance was attached to embeddingtheir right to full rights, their responsibility in taking active of the project and the ideas behind it into institutions of cul-role in the society, and their equality with all other people. ture, education and government and the very Roma people and their organizations in particular.By offering equal cooperation on this international projectsupported by the Swedish Institute, we wanted to pay duerespects to Roma associations and social actors who are con-cerned with problems of Roma people, for all their work, andto help them realize a part of their programme goals, encour-aging them to continue their work.Working on field, meeting “ordinary people”, visiting Roma2.4 Mappingassociations, NGOs, institutions of culture, education andgovernment, and political organizations, getting acquaintedwith journalists, teachers, the media and artists, and follow-ing the public atmosphere, interests and mood on the spot,we wanted to make a detailed analysis of situation, needs, ac-tivities, possibilities and potentials of improving and devel-oping work on further promotion of human rights in general,particularly the human rights of Roma population.
3. IMPLEMENTATION -For our field of work we chose Novi Sad and Banja Luka - two big, but not the biggest cities. Both cities are regional centers,but often in the shadow of capitals (Belgrade and Sarajevo respectively). Partly, the idea was to link Serbia and Bosnia-Her-zegovina by this kind of mutual projects, too.3.1 STUDENTS OF THE SCHOOL -3.1.a PROMOTING THE SCHOOLFirst of all students of the summer music school were en-1. ROMA ASSOCIATIONSgaged in cooperation with local Roma associations. It wasthe Roma Association Čerain that helped us recruiting thestudents for the summer school by informing its membersabout the school programme in Novi Sad through its organi-zational channels and by agitating for it.In Banja Luka we cooperated with the Federation of Romain Republic of Srpska – an umbrella federation of Roma as-sociations. There we spread information about the schoolprogramme by posters and advertisements in the premisesof local Roma associations. In this way we mainly found stu-dents of Roma nationality.2. MEDIA APPEARANCES, ADVERTISMENTSSome of our students were engaged by media appearances.AND POSTERS, CONTACTS WITH SOCIAL WORKERSIn the preparatory phase of the project we appeared on TVand radio a couple of times (more than once in programs inRoma language). We used these opportunities to inform thepublic about our project, as well as to invite all interestedchildren to sign up. Several newspapers, both in paper andInternet editions, published articles with the similar con-tents.Apart from that, we put up our posters around the city, par-ticularly on the notice boards of schools, culture and art as-sociations, and youth centers. In this manner we engaged apart of Roma students who are not members of any of Romaassociations, as well as the most of our non-Roma students.Besides, several social workers who work with Roma peo-ple in smaller residential areas were animated to agitate inRoma families informing children about the programme ofour school.
3.1.b STUDENTS OF THE “CERAIN” SCHOOLNOVI SADNUMBER OF STUDENTS: We had total of 23 students in Novi Sad.ROMA AND ”NON-ROMA” STUDENTS: 13 of them were Roma, and 10 of them were non-Roma students.FEMALE AND MALE STUDENTS: We had 4 girls and 19 boys. Sex balance was improved by the studenttrainees who were females – all five of them, one of them being a Roma.AGE: Students in Novi Sad were mostly from 11 to 16 years of age: the youngest student being 8, and theoldest one 18.BEING INTO MUSIC: All students can play some instrument or they have already been actively into music insome other way. Fifteen of them used to or still attend some form of music school. All Roma children have beenactively into Roma tamburica music.SCHOOLING: Seven of Roma children regularly attend school (six being students of elementary, and three ofsecondary school), but five of them quit school before they finished their elementary education, and five ofthem did not continue their education after finishing elementary school. All non-Roma children regularlyattend elementary school.CHILDREN WORKERS: A large number of our Roma children have been performing professionally in Romaorchestras in pubs around Novi Sad thus actively earning their money.REGULAR ATTENDANCE OF THE SUMMER SCHOOL “ČERAIN”: In Novi Sad we had a concept of an open,free, but not obligatory “Čerain” school and thus we reckoned that some of the students would attend only onepart of the programme. However, the most were present during the whole programme of our school, and just asmaller part of them only attended the lessons that were of special interest to them. A part of children startedto attend the school only on the second or third day (invited by other students or later informed about ourschool through media) but kept regular attendance until the end of programme. ROMA AND NON-ROMA CHILDREN & STUDENT TRAINEES 25 Non-Roma Students 20 15 Roma Students 10 5 Novi Sad Banja Luka 0
BANJA LUKANUMBER OF STUDENTS: We had total of 15 students in Banja Luka.ROMA AND ”NON-ROMA” STUDENTS: All 15 of them were Roma students, but we had 11 student trainees-10 of them non-Roma and one being a Roma.FEMALE AND MALE STUDENTS: We had 4 girls and 11 boys. Among student trainees there were 3 male and8 female students.AGE: Students were mostly from 10 to 14 years of age: the youngest being six and the oldest being 14.BEING INTO MUSIC: Four children have been playing actively some music instrument, and several of them“wanted to learn to play an instrument.” All of them like singing and they are generally interested in music.None of the children has ever attended a music school or any other music course.SCHOOLING: All children are regular students of elementary school.CHILDREN WORKERS: Almost all of our Roma children have worked at fairs and amusement parks thusearning money for their parents.REGULAR ATTENDANCE OF THE SUMMER SCHOOL “ČERAIN”: Since the children were staying at the Stu-dent dormitory during the whole course of the summer school, they all attended the whole programme fromthe beginning until the end. GENDER: CHILDREN & STUDENT TRAINEES 25 Female 20 15 Male 10 5 Novi Sad Banja Luka 0
3.1.c MOTIVATING CHILDREN TO PARTICIPATE IN THE SCHOOL PROGRAMMENOVI SAD BANJA LUKAThe most of Roma children students of the summer school Roma children students of summer school “Čerain” in Banja“Čerain” in Novi Sad come from villages or small nearby Luka came from two undeveloped small towns: Prnjavor andtowns. It means that they had to make special efforts to travel Derventa - 50 and 80 km away from Banja Luka, respectively.from home to school and back. Though we provided most of The children were selected and organized by local Roma as-them with transportation it still meant 45-60 minute drive by sociations in Prnjavor and Derventa, Selection was done bycar in one direction. The children were enthusiastic and will- the following criteria: a) children allowed by their parentsing to come, especially as the course went on and we got to to come to Banja Luka for a whole week; b) children fromknow better each other. However, it must be pointed out that the socially most threatened families; c) children who arethe most of Roma children in Novi Sad come from relatively successful at school d) children interested in music. Thuswell-to-do families, which must be understood in the context we had fewer children who have been actively into music inof the fact that Roma people are among the most threatened Banja Luka than we had in Novi Sad. On the other hand, thesocial groups in society. Our Roma children have relatively children in Banja Luka come from poorly educated familiesnormal living conditions (in comparison to the most of Roma from the very bottom of social ladder. These children livepopulation): they live mainly in their own built houses pro- in very poor economic conditions, they don’ t have regularvided with water and power supply, they have regular meals, and satisfactory meals, they don’t have enough or adequatethey are dressed in the same fashion as their non-Roma clothes, or appropriate personal hygiene and hygiene hab-peers, they are clean, and they have been encouraged and its, and probably live in unfit and unsatisfactory dwellings.motivated to attend our school by some of their elders in the Part of problem was the fact that first of all parents had tofamily (a parent or a grandparent) or local social workers. A allow their children to leave their homes for a whole week.couple of adult members of Roma Association “Čerain” were On the one hand parents were worried about their femalecoming every day following the whole programme of our children (that is why the girl students that participated inschool, too. They took their children to lessons, and helped our programme mostly came with their brothers or cousins),us in work by their presence. Thus grandfathers, fathers and on the other they needed their children for work in localand grandsons were sitting together in school benches. Be- fairs. However, the children who attended the school had fulling musicians themselves the adult Roma people were also support of their parents and representatives of local Romacurious about and sincerely interested in lessons we had in associations. Their main concern was to provide a trip forthe programme, sometimes even taking part in discussions their children during their summer vacations and fill it withwith children and lecturers. All of that made our Roma chil- any such contents. Our children in Banja Luka have almostdren in Novi Sad feel motivated, good and comfortable in the never traveled anywhere for vacations, thus this trip to Banjasummer school Čerain. As they told us at the end, also the Luka was very exciting for them. Taking all in consideration,non-Roma children felt comfortable and natural, enjoying the children in Banja Luka were very motivated and eagerthat unusually mixed group with Roma children as majority - to participate in the programme of our school and after hav-something they never have experienced before. ing got to know each other better in a day or two, they were relaxed, extremely happy and actively took part in lessons.
3.2 PROGRAMME -Programme of the summer school comprises five thematic blocks:1. MUSICAL THEORY2. MUSICAL HISTORY AND MUSICAL GENRES3. INTERNET AS A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND INFORMATION4. HUMAN RIGHTS5. MUSICAL ENGLISH LANGUAGEAll these thematic blocks were presented through more fragments by several different lectures and lecturers. Subjects weremutually interwoven and lectures followed on from each other merging together.Thus e.g. a part of music theory lecture on symphonic orchestra instruments was presented on Musical English languagelessons. Lecture on Work of Symphonic Orchestras followed on from that one merging with it. A part of Musical English lan-guage lessons was presented while we were lecturing on the blues as a music genre, and lecture on Human Rights mergedwith the one on the blues music and African Americans and so on.In the course of the summer school programme the following lectures and workshops were held:• Basic Concepts on Human Rights;• Discrimination and Schooling;• Prejudices, discriminations, diversity, tolerance;• Musical English;• Music and the Internet;• The Beginnings of Music and What Does It Mean to Be a Musician?;• EU and Human Rights;• Rock’n’roll Story (Rock Music History);• Blues Story (History of the Blues Music and Fight of African American People for Their Rights);• Tamburica Music History (History of the Roma People in the Balkans);• World Orchestras and Conductors;• Music and Computers;• Music Genres and Trend of Fusion of Different Music Styles – Music Is Free;• Music Production – Work of Music Producer and Work in Music Studio;• Police Work on Fight against Discrimination;• Concept of “Ombudsman” and How to Protect Your Rights?;• Pictures and Sounds – in the Gallery of Matica Srpska;• How and Why Did I Become a Musician?;• Rights of National Minorities and Work in Cultural Associations;• History of Fight for Human Rights;• Work of Social Services and Children’s Rights;• Trafficking – What Is It and How to Fight Against It?;• Theatre Art and Profession;• Percussion Orchestra;• Presentation of a Selected Museum Exhibits through Use of Various Art Techniques;• Non-conflict communication;• Technique of Self -Presentation;• What is Dorm Life Like?;• Series of Lectures and Music Concerts “My Instrument”: - Violin; - Clarinet; - Guitar; - Piano; - Trumpet; - Voice (Opera Singing);Apart from lectures, we had also some sport-recreational activities in Banja Luka: karate, football tournament, table tennis,volleyball, walks through city streets and walks in nature.We also had some special programme activities consisting of study visits to institutions of culture.
3.3 LECTURERS -All our lecturers are excellent experts in their fields, talented pedagogues,and they all worked with the children with a great enthusiasm.REGULAR LECTURERS OF SUMMER SCHOOL ”ČERAIN”: Professor of music and violinist in the Professor of Latin, ancient Greek and Predrag Novović - Stockholm, Aleksandar Stanišić - Novi Sad, Swedish Royal Opera Orchestra; English, and pianist; Journalist, pop musician and vocalist Music producer, guitar player and peda- Dejan Cukić - Belgrade, Mustafa Čengić - Bologna/Italy, (ex: Bajaga i Instruktori –one of the most gogue (ex: Zabranjeno Pušenje –one of the popular pop bands of all the times in the most popular punk/new wave bands in former Yugoslavia); the former Yugoslavia); Professor of the English language, guitar Percussionist and pedagogue for children Vladimir Kajević - Sarajevo, Toni Pešikan - Sarajevo, player and blues musician (Don Guido with special needs; band); Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs Bass guitar player and blues expert; Radoslav Živković - Stockholm, Karlo Janović - Novi Sad, Diplomatic Training Programme; Roma musician violinist; Human rights and projects of international Jovica Nikolić - Novi Sad, Nevena Bajalica - Stockholm, cultural cooperation; The Internet and multimedia expert, Miško Stanišić - Stockholm, pedagogue and musician;
Some of the lecturers were members of the regular teach- Within the school programme our lecturers were recruitedREGULAR AND GUEST LECTURERS LOCALLY, REGIONALLY, & INTERNATIONALLYing team. They gave lectures referring to the basic subjects locally (from Novi Sad and Banja Luka), from other cities in(fields) of the planned school programme in Novi Sad and the region (from Belgrade and Sarajevo), and finally inter-Banja Luka. Others were guest lecturers that we met and nationally (from Sweden and Italy). Thus the lecturers fromengaged during our fieldwork, whose expertise fit into the Bosnia-Herzegovina gave lectures in Serbia and vice versa.broader objective of our project. The lecturers who came from Sweden and Italy were born in Serbia or Bosnia-Herzegovina, and since they know the language, and the situation in the field, they understood the basic purpose and idea of the project very well.GUEST LECTURERS WHO HELD SPECIAL LECTURES AND WORKSHOPSREFERRING TO THEIR EXPERT FIELDS: Police Colonel - Lecture on police work Kosta Stefanović - Novi Sad, Dušanka Miholić - Banja Luka, and fight against discrimination; of the Republic of Srpska - A workshop Curator Chief of the National Museum on drawing museum exhibits; Provincial Ombudsman - Lecture on pro- Dr Petar Teofilović - Novi Sad, Bojan Arula - Banja Luka, tection of rights of citizens with a special Social worker, expert in protection of overview of the rights of Roma people; ficking - Lecture on children’s rights and children’s rights and fight against traf- problems of Roma children; Provincial Ombudsman Officer - Actor in the Children’s Theatre – A Svetlana Lazić - Novi Sad, Velimir Blanić - Banja Luka, Lecture on the children’s rights; workshop in theatre; Provincial Ombudsman Officer - Ankica Dragin - Novi Sad, Stevo Havreljuk - Banja Luka, A workshop on what and how does the Minorities Associations – Chairman of the Board of the National Ombudsman Office work; Lecture on National Minorities rights; Office for Inclusion of Roma students - Curator in the Gallery of Matica Srpska - Aleksandar Jovanović - Novi Sad, Tijana Palkovljević - Novi Sad, Presentation of the rewarded video spot A workshop on colors and sounds on the on discrimination against Roma people works of the famous Serbian painters and a lecture on motivation of Roma arranged by the Gallery of Matica Srpska; children for schooling;
3.4 CO OPER ATION WITH THEUN IVERSITY AND STUDENT TRAINEES - Student trainees in Banja LukaSome student trainees were selected by credentials of uni- school, which were implemented in the course of the projectversity professors we contacted in the preparatory phase of by the students of pedagogy. Through talks with and inter-the project, and others contacted us directly by answering views of children these students gathered the material forour advertisements on the Facebook. We cooperated with pedagogical analysis of our work, the results of which will bestudents of pedagogy, journalism, sociology, social work, psy- available to us after being presented to the university profes-chology, and music academy within the project. Their task sors.comprised: working directly with children students of oursummer school, giving some lectures, and work on organiza- The enthusiasm and understanding we encountered at thetion and contacts with local institutions of culture. On the University in Banja Luka surpassed all our expectations. Theother hand, we taught students about work on international prorector for international cooperation at the University,cultural projects, project management, communication and the dean of the Art Academy, and assistant professors at theorganization. The idea was to leave a well worked out net- Music Academy were extremely helpful to us: first of all bywork of trained and inspired young people who would con- enabling us to organize a large part of the programme of ourtinue this work in the future after the end of the project. summer music school in the premises of the Art Academy at the University. Besides, University PR helped us to informWe have to point out that universities did meet our requests. the media about our project, and eventually to hold a pressWe had a particularly good cooperation with Institute of conference in the University Ceremonial Hall together withPedagogy both at the University in Novi Sad and the Univer- the prorector for international cooperation at the University.sity in Banja Luka. By cooperating with them we developedinstruments and methods of following up the work of our
A discusion about Riccardo Muti’s conducting3.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOL - tures. Some of the lectures, especially those given by famousOur summer school in Novi Sad was open to all interested and acknowledged musicians, had a great attendance of the3.5.a PRINCIPLE OF OPENNESSchildren, meaning that the school was open not only to “the students of the University at Banja Luka, the students of theelect” children, nor only to Roma children, nor it required Music Academy in particular. Thanks to all that, Roma chil-filling of some application forms. Everybody who attended dren had an opportunity to meet many new and interestinglectures was welcome. Further on, the school was not obliga- young people, which enabled Roma and non-Roma youths totory: lecture attendance was a matter of choice depending get to know each other better and become friends.solely on interests, curiosity and personal wishes of thechildren. The programme and timetable were publicly pub-lished (on noticeboards and our webpage) allowing children We insisted on the principle of free discussion both in Novi 3.5.b PRINCIPLE OF FREE DISCUSSIONto choose what is of interest to them and when to come ac- Sad and Banja Luka, meaning that everybody had the rightcordingly. By doing this we particularly attracted non-Roma to raise one’s arm to ask a question or state one’s commentchildren. They came to the lectures that were interesting to or opinion any time during the lectures, workshops or studythem, possibly feeling a bit uneasy since it was the school visits. To our great content, both children in Novi Sad and infor Roma children, but after seeing for themselves how good, Banja Luka accepted the principle in the flash using it all thecreative and interesting the school atmosphere was, mostly time. Consequently, we had many excellent and interestingkept their attendance until the end of the programme. More discussions.over, on the next day many students used a principle ofschool openness to invite and bring along their friends thus One scene in Novi Sad has impressed in our minds. Namely,expanding the number of the school students in form of con- during the lecture on discrimination in schools an excellentcentric circles like circles on the surface of a pond. :) discussion developed in which Roma and non-Roma children started to name their examples talking about personal expe-The same principle went for our school in Banja Luka, but riences. Roma and non-Roma children were complementingsince our Roma children came from other towns long away each other speaking openly, objectively, self-critically, thus il-from Banja Luka, they couldn’t invite their friends to join us. lustrating this complicated issue from their point of view. ItOn the other hand, principle of openness was used by our was a positive confirmation that it was so fruitful to mix thestudent trainees who often invited their friends to the lec- children.
3.5.c DAILY SCHOOL SCHEDULENOVI SADThose children who live in the very city of Novi Sad came to After lunch we would walk through the centre of Novi Sad toschool by public transport, but for the most of children we the Youth Theatre, where the other part of a schoolday washad to organize transport by vans and cars, since they live in organized. Walking as a small physical activity and exercisenearby towns and villages. was ever welcome. Change of environment made already tired children awake arousing their interest and improvingThe schoolday began at 11.00 h every day From 11-11.20 h their concentration. It was a great advantage that premiseswe would gather round in the school yard of the Music School in the Youth Theatre were air-conditioned, which provided“Isidor Bajić”. The schoolyard is an enjoyable green park with excellent and indispensable refreshment in unbearable heatthick shades of trees, which was very pleasant in hot sum- in Novi Sad. Recently renovated small hall of the Youth The-mer days. We would sit on the park benches and had a re- atre is a typical theatre hall with stage, spotlights, curtainlaxed conversation with the students about everyday mat- and comfortable armchairs for the audience. Partly the ideaters, mostly about their plans and thoughts for the future. was to take children into such places and to hold workshopsJuice drinks and fresh fruit were available to the children all all together on the stage – which gave everything more ex-the time and they would grab a glass of juice the minute they citing appearance and context. There we also had musicalcame to school because of summer heatwave. equipment, a projector, as well as a big film screen, and more quality sound system. That is why those multimedia presen-The timing of lectures was not fixed. Thus if some discussion tations in which the sound and pictures were an importantflared up, we would let it last for as long as possible, delaying issue were mainly held in there. Besides, lectures of the mostthe beginning of the next lecture. Only the timing of lectures eminent and the most interesting guests were usually held inof guest lecturers was strictly fixed (e.g. lecture of a repre- the theatre hall, because of its bigger capacity.sentatives of police or of Provincial Ombudsman). Around 15.00 h new refreshment would be brought into theLectures and workshops were held in the premises of mu- theatre: sandwiches, cookies, biscuits and juice drinks. Thosesic school from 11-14.00 h. There we had a simple, ordinary cookies, and biscuits were prepared specially for our sum-classroom at our disposition, but we equipped it with a pro- mer school “Čerain”, every day different kinds, and definitelyjector, sound system and the Internet connection. There was helped us gained golden points with the children. We taughta piano in the classroom, and we would bring amplifiers, gui- them so literally, that knowledge is “sweet”. After that wetar and double bass according to need. The students were would make another break walking to the next stop. Namely,sitting in circle, because we wanted to avoid classical situa- it was time for our study visits to some of institutions of cul-tion of a teacher being on one and students on the other side ture in Novi Sad. Some of the student trainees would be sentsitting in school benches. Roma and “non-Roma” students earlier to announce our visit and the curator of a museumwere sitting mixed together with student trainees, other would be already waiting for us even at the entrance, readylecturers, and most of the time a couple of adult members to guide us through it.of association “Čerain”, who attended the lectures togetherwith the children. It was partly due to the fact that it is one of After all that we had to see children off to the appointed placesthe most famous music schools in Serbia, and further afield, where drivers were waiting to take them to their homes. Wecelebrating a 100 years jubilee, that we chose these premises would have a cup of coffee with our student trainees evaluat-for a part of the activities of our school. ing the results of that day. Usually it was the time when we would meet some of lecturers arriving from abroad, and thenAround 13:30 h lunch and juice drinks would be brought, we had to deal with their accommodation and acquaintingwhich we served in the schoolyard. Even during lunch we them with the working atmosphere. Days were too short, -would continue discussions from previous lectures - not that pretty soon a Pannonian evening would come, and with everwe planned it, but the children were sincerely interested and present uneasy feeling that it must have been something elsespontaneously continued the discussions started earlier. to be done - we fell asleep dead tired.
BANJA LUKADaily school schedule in Banja Luka was very different form the students trainees, and the others would go back to class-the one in Novi Sad, namely, we had to take care of the chil- rooms to go on with their work.dren for 24 hours. Five students “trainees” were sleeping inthe secondary school dorm with children in shifts, looking At 14.00 h we would serve brought lunch in the park or class-after them by night and organizing them in the morning. A room. After the lunch we would have one more item – mostlyday would start at 08.00 h with waking up, morning hygiene a music concert or a jam session – or simply let the childrenand breakfast. Then we would walk for about 20 minutes try themselves on music instruments. After that it was usual-through city parks by the river Vrbas to the University cam- ly time for a study visit. Depending on the distance, we wouldpus. This summer was very warm, and that is why we pro- walk through the city or take all children students to the des-vided the children with a lot of water, juice drinks and fruit tination by a van. Some of the student trainees would meetthroughout the day. us there with a host who would take us and be our guide.The premises in the Art Academy where we organized our Around 18.00 h we would come back to the Dorm, to have alectures consist of several classrooms with different charac- longed- for dinner. Although it was unbearably hot in Banjateristics, so we used one or the other depending on the form Luka, children seemed not to be tired at all, that is why af-of a lecture or a workshop. In the big “ceremonial” classroom ter the dinner we would organize football tournaments forwe organized concerts of classical music arranged by the the boys on a sport court of the Dorm, while girls we morestudents of the Music Academy. And in the smaller one we interested in mixing with the teachers and student traineesinstalled music equipment, a DVD player, TV set and sound cheering the boys on.system. Thus there we held multimedia presentations, jamsessions, and children also had an opportunity to try them- Around 21.00 h children would take an obligatory showerselves on the various music instruments. The big park of the and after that they were free. All the excitement, mixingUniversity campus enabled us to have numerous activities in with other people, and loads of impressions throughout thethe open: ranging from discussions and lectures, to games day would eventually knock them out and by 23.00 h mostand running. of them would have already fallen asleep. Most of the time we had meetings with the student trainees during the din-Brunch would be brought in at 11.00 h: sandwiches, dough- nertime or later while the children were under showers.nuts and juice drinks. Then we would make a break spending There we would evaluate our day’s work. We were fortu-time in the park. Since we had a group of children with very nate enough to have a lot of student trainees who helped us.various predisposition (e.g. one boy suffered from epilepsy, Otherwise it would have been very difficult for us to do allthe other was mentally challenged child) sometimes we our practical duties and solve all problems that had to bewould leave a couple of kids in the park to rest with some of solved on the run.
4. METHODOLOGY -4.1 MUSIC AS A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE -Our basic pedagogical method comes down to one thing: “music as a universal language”. Music is familiar to all people,it communicates directly by feelings breaking down the barriers of prejudices. Music awakes feelings shared by all people,and thereby they recognize similarities and commonalities between them.It is due to the fact that music is especially familiar to young people, and that it is often very close to the very centre of theirsphere of interests that we used music as a metaphor when presenting complicated and abstract concepts to children. Wealso used music to build ties and trust between the children and us working in the pedagogical team, as well as among thechildren themselves.Subjects we were lecturing on through music were the following: prejudices, tolerance, discrimination, human rights, free-dom of speech, encounter between different cultures and their symbiosis, culture as a part of identity, creativity and art asan expression of freedom, or a method of realizing freedom and one’s own personality etc.Similarly, through subjects referring to music we were trying to make children understand and accept the idea of schoolingeducation as an indispensable element for realization of one’ se own personality and one’s rights in society.Here are some examples:This group of lectures was about the history of blues mu- selves with the black people who had been deprived of their• BLUES STORYsic in the USA. These lectures were interwoven with a story rights. They were very impressed by the fact that it was pos-about black slaves brought from Africa bereft of all rights sible to fight for one’s rights by music, too.and freedoms and forced to work for white slave masters.Following the development of blues music we followed thedevelopment of fight of African-American people for theirfreedom and realization of their basic human rights. Theexample of black and white musicians playing jazz togethershowed how in the American society of that time, in spite ofracism and deprivation of rights of black people, black mu-sicians had gradually been accepted and established in thesociety because of their outstanding musical talent. By play-ing together in mixed orchestras black and white musiciansset an example and showed that life together based on mu-tual respect and equal rights is possible and necessary. Moreover, we showed how the musicians had actively worked onadvocacy and embedding of idea of equality in all people,criticizing society in their songs thus instigating positivechanges to come.These lectures were extremely well accepted by the studentsof our school. Though we were very careful never openly tosuggest that, the Roma children very easily identified them- Karlo Janović lectured about the history of Blues, and the fight of African-American slaves for freedom
An interesting phenomenon was important for our choice of• MUSIC GENRESa method of work: by preferring different music genres, ina way students of our school identified themselves at oncewith different social groups in society. Most of the Roma chil-dren were familiar only with Balkan folk and Roma music,while most of the non-Roma children were more acquaintedwith modern pop music. There were also a few of them (bothRoma and non-Roma children) who have attended classicalmusic school thus being familiar with classical music. Thispicture perfectly reflected the social status, education andposition in the society of the social environment they comefrom.A part of the school programme was meant to present dif-ferent, so far new and unknown music genres and styles tothe children. Thus we acquainted the children with the folkmusic of new and unknown cultures to them by presentingIndian, South American, Chinese, Australian music, as wellas various kinds of fusion music, such as world-fusion, jazz-rock, ambient music, electronica and so on. At the same timewe were arguing for the thesis that there is only one music,and it is free, without borders, each its genre being worthyof respect. We taught that different cultures have always in-fluenced each other leaving its own trace in music, and thatmusical beauty, rhythm, harmony, dancing, charm, talent,knowledge and skill of a musician have been present in allmusic styles and cultures. We gave some examples of com-bining the different music styles: e.g. modern western elec-tronic music with a lot of beats and samples combined withthe acoustic instruments typical of folk music of the MiddleEast or Africa playing the lead parts. We also held workshopsin which we “composed” music, combining samples of eth- explaining to and teaching each other in a friendly way aboutnic/folk, classical, and electro-pop music on the computer. the music styles they prefer. Through music we developed a true intercultural dialogue between Roma and non-RomaThe results of this work could have been seen very soon children, a dialogue full of respect that showed that there is athrough socialization of the students: instead of grouping lot of positive and interesting things to be learned from eachthemselves according to different kinds of music they prefer other.- thus reflecting the different social structures of society theybelong to - the children started to “cross the borders of their Besides, the fact that we all have different music tastes of-social differences” with a great enthusiasm and curiosity ac- fered us an example for practicing respect of pluralism oftively trying to communicate with other children by helping, opinions and ideas.
In this part of programme a work of great conductors at re-•WORK IN SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRAShearsals of well-known world symphonic orchestras waspresented to the children through a series of short movies.The point was to show that a successful (music) result re-quires discipline, practice, a lot of effort and work, organi-zation and agreement, and it can only be achieved by mu-tual respect and cooperation of all orchestra members. E.g.children could follow a development of a symphonic work ofclassical music – starting from the rehearsal where a youngconductor commands music virtuosos much older thanhim; they watched how musicians persistently repeat oneshort musical part without question, aspiring all together to Predrag Novović lectured about the work in worldsachieve a perfect result, and finally after numerous rehears- famous symphonic orchestrasals, children could hear how magnificently performance ofthat music sounds when played by a big symphonic orches-tra in full splendor.We must confess that we were a little bit skeptical about howstrong, concentrated and interested children would be to un-derstand that what we wanted to teach them by this part ofthe programme, partly because it was concerned with a “bor-ing” classical music. While in Novi Sad we had some studentswho have had some kind of general music pre-knowledge,in Banja Luka we had a group of children who probably metfor the first time with classical music. However, all our fearsvanished into thin air the minute we saw that children’seyes were widely open watching films and lectures with thegreatest interest. They took an active part in discussionsabout that and commented on persistence and efforts madeby musicians shown at rehearsals. The children were trulyimpressed. It is an old pedagogical trick to make students interested in a • MUSICAL ENGLISH “boring“ and “hard” subject until then, making it interesting and attractive, by wrapping it up in the contents that is inter- esting and familiar to children. Thus we did not have an “or- dinary” English within the school programme, but a special “music” English. The contents of lectures comprised music theory terms (notes, harmonies, music signs), musical in- struments, taxonomy of musical instruments (wind, bowed instruments, percussions), exotic instruments (ranging from Australian didgeridoo to Japanese koto). We had some exer- cises in which students would listen to sound samples and then they would try to guess which and what kind of instru- Musical English - Aleksandar Stanišić ment they listened to – all, of course, in English. lectured about musical instruments Soon it turned out that the English language was very in- teresting to children, for they were taught about topics that are very interesting and familiar to them. More over, it also turned out that English came easily to them and that it “was not that terribly hard” as they had thought before. Finally, they realized what the point in knowing English is - as one student put it: “When we meet our fellow musicians from abroad we will be able to understand each other and play together.”
4.2 MODERN PEDAGOGICAL TOOLS: MULTIMEDIA & WORKSHOPWe used modern pedagogical methods: -Digital teaching tools: multimedia presentation, the internet, interactive teaching tools, computers, DVD, media play-ers, digital musical instruments, digital recording tools, and so on.Workshop as a method of a work: active participation of students in work, combination of game and learning, “per-sonal experience” of teaching subject matter, “feel and try” using “hands-on” method and so on. The exhibition of children’s drawings in the National Museum in Banja Luka Teaching tools: Video, multimedia presentations, computers and Internet Digital and acoustic instruments - differences and similarities
4.3 ROMA AND NON-ROMA CHILDREN TOGETHER - A MULTIETHNIC CHARACTER OF THE SCHOOL -One of the essential conditions for the success of the project in the region, multi-ethnic character of the project was ofwas engaging Roma and “non-Roma” children and student extreme importance to make all participants of the projecttrainees in the programme of the school. We wanted to give feel comfortable, accepted and free.them chance to get to know each other well – which is thebest method to break down prejudices. So we created an at-mosphere of a permanent intercultural dialogue as an openand respectful exchange of views between two groups thatled to a deeper understanding of the other’s world percep-tion.That multi-ethnic and multi-confessional region of the Bal-kans - that complex and sophisticated range of complicateddivisions and groupings, both locally, nationally, confession-ally, culturally, and socially - cannot be explained in a simplemanner, nor there is enough room in this report for that.Instead, we shall conclude that the summer school “Čerain”had a multi-ethnic character in a broader sense of the word.Among our Roma students there were both Orthodox Chris-tian and Muslim children there.Our teachers and student trainees were also from variousethnic backgrounds: there were Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks,Jews, Macedonians and Hungarians. Given ethnic tensions Percussion workshop with Toni Pešikan
4.4 STUDENT TRAINEES AS ROLE MODELS -Student “trainees” who worked with us in summer school,among other things, had to promote schooling education bytheir own example and by their active contact with children,thus showing that it is the right way to the future for everyyoung man, thereby being role models, too.
4.5 STUDY VISITS TO INSTITUTIONS OF CULTURE - Art gallery Banski Dvor in Banja Luka Museum of Vojvodina in Novi SadA great part of our programme consisted of study visits toinstitutions of culture. In the course of the project we vis-ited the Gallery of Matica Srpska, the Museum of Vojvodinaand club “Sklonište (Shelter)” in Novi Sad, and Banski Dvorbuilding (City Hall), the Gallery of Banski Dvor, the NationalMuseum, the Children’s Theater, the broadcasting board ofTelevision of Republic of Srpska, Centre of National Minori-ties and Kastel (ruins of medieval old town) in Banja Luka.Everyday teaching process was also organized in some im-portant and well-known institutions of culture: at renownedmusic school “Isidor Bajić” and at the Youth Theatre in NoviSad, and in the premises of the Art Academy of the Universityat Banja Luka in the city of Banja Luka. We wanted to takechildren into beautiful spaces. Workshop in the National Museum in Banja LukaOwing to us, most of the Roma children entered those insti-tutions for the first time of their lives, which is of extreme im-portance. Besides, the children were accepted everywherewith respect, love and special attention.Unfortunately, it should be understood that it is high unlikelythat those children would have been admitted into the insti-tutions at all without us, and what is even more regrettable– it would have never occurred to the children to try to enter.The programmes of institutions of culture mostly don’t eventouch upon Roma children and they are not adapted for norare interesting to them.That is why these study visits, and the way we were acceptedpresented a unique experience for the children and were ofextreme importance in the context of forming a picture ofoneself being a full rights citizen. We wanted to show to thechildren that every door is open to them, they are fully en-titiled to that, and all those institutions are their homes, too. Workshop in the Gallery of Matica Srpska in Novi Sad
Workshop in the Children’s Theater in Banja Luka The National Museum in Banja LukaBanski Dvor Cultural Center in Banja Luka The Presidential Ceremonial Hall in Banja LukaKastel - the medieval old town in Banja Luka City park and the Vrbas river
4.6 GUEST LECTURES OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF GOVERNMENT AND STATE INSTITUTIONS - Bojan Arula, social worker, lecture on children’s rights Ankica Dragin, ombudsman officer, held a workshop on what and and problems of Roma children how does the Ombudsman Office workGuest lectures given by representatives of government and various social organizations at our school were equally importantfor building self-confidence and forming a picture of one’s own value.The fact that a police lieutenant, the provincial ombudsman, and the social worker in charge of the central state project offight against trafficking and trade of children came only because of them and exclusively for them, left a great impression onthe children. Police colonel Kosta Stefanović, lecture about the police work on fight against the discrimination
4.7 GUEST LECTURES OF WELL-KNOWN MUSICIANS AND OTHER ROLE MODELS -We were especially pleased by the fact that several famousmusicians accepted our invitation to give lectures at ourschool, which significantly increased the interest of the me-dia, consequently raising the rating of our programme in theeyes of other collaborators. But the most important thing isthat the children had a unique opportunity to meet some fa-mous musicians, listen to their lectures and mix with them.The musicians showed a great enthusiasm and got alongwith the children extremely well on their part.Apart from celebrities, some other role models took partin our programme. One of our guest lecturers was a youngRoma student who was near to graduate in pedagogy, beingan activist of the Office for Inclusion of Roma Students inSecondary Schools at the same time. Legendary leader of themost famous Roma tamburica orchestra, Jovica Nikolic, gavea lecture on the history of Tamburica music as well as on thehistory of Roma people in the Balkans. Among the studenttrainees there were also two of Roma ethnic background. Itwas important to make the children feel that Roma peoplewere not only in school benches, but equally represented Aleksandar Jovanović, video maker and Roma activist,among the lecturers. lectured about the discrimination in schools Mustafa Čengić, famous guitarist, today a music producer in Italy, lectured about the music production Vlado Kajević aka Don Guido, the frontman of the “Don Guido Dejan Cukić, one of the most famous rock musicians & the Missionaries”, and teacher of the Musical English in the of ex-Yugoslavia, lectured the History of Rock “Čerain” school
4.8 LEITMOTIF: VARIOUS PROFESSIONS -Everybody who was met by the students of our school wasasked to explain his or her profession and what schools theyhad to finish in order to work in their professions. It was aleitmotif recurring throughout the course of our school.So every lecturer, from English teacher to music producer,explained his or her profession and education. And so did allour hosts and collaborators in the project: a museum cura-tor, a theatre director, an ombudsman, a social worker, ourguide at the City Hall, an actor, editor of a broadcasting boardof TV station, and so on. All of them explained their profes-sions and what it took in the way of education to get wherethey were now. Music concerts and lectures about musicalBesides, all of our student trainees had a special task to instruments - students of the Music Academyexplain the profession they were studying, their motives forit, and what they would like to do in the future. Professions,such as psychologist, pedagogue, sociologist, social worker,and journalist were presented to the children in that way,and it was explained what it takes in the way of education tobecome one of them.Students of the Music Academy held concerts of classical mu-sic to our students every day presenting their instrumentsand providing motives for their choice of study. In that way,violin, clarinet, trumpet, piano, guitar, percussion, as well asopera singing were presented to the children. How to become a TV journalist? TV station in Banja Luka How to become a cameraman? How to become an archaeologists? the “Čerain” school in Novi Sad Museum in Novi Sad
4.9 PERFORMING TOGETHER IN A PUBLIC CONCERT -On the last day of our school programme in Novi Sad we orga-nized a public music concert in the club “Sklonište”(Shelter)where all participants of our school performed – both stu-dents and lecturers. The Club “Sklonište” is a real air-raidshelter that was used during NATO air attacks on Novi Sad.But now it is leased out to the “Club of Good Music Lovers”.It was almost symbolic that, just as the whole society hasturned towards optimism, the shelter was echoing with chil-dren laughter and loud music instead of bombs.The idea was to invite as many people, guests, and friends aspossible in order to show to everybody (to children them-selves, too) how talented our children are, as well as to pres-ent our school and show what we learned and how different Roma children, the “Čerain” school studentsmusic genres and styles could merge into single harmony.Parents, friends and other interested people could have seenand listened to students and teachers of summer school“Čerain” on the stage. Musicians of different music styleslistened to each other with a great interest, curiosity andrespect to fellow musicians.During the evening some of our students performed solo,mostly playing classical music, and some in small orchestrasof various configurations playing Roma music later on. Arock band “Take Five” formed by a couple of teachers of ourschool also performed, as well as a famous Roma tamburicaorchestra “Luluđi”, which made the evening unforgettable Roma tamburica orchestra “Luludji”by their performance. Among the players of “Luluđi” therewere two grandfathers of our students. And as the eveningwent on music orchestras and styles, as well as generationsmixed together in a spontaneous jam-session in their mutuallove for music playing until late at night.One small and seemingly unimportant scene made a strongimpression to us. There was an old tamburica player by nameBrataš, a living legend among the Roma musicians, who,among other things, wrote music for and played in “Skupljačiperja” (“I even met happy gypsies”) a cult film about Romapeople which was awarded a Golden Palm in 1968 at theCannes Film Festival and received an Oscar nominationfor best foreign language film, too. That evening he stood the “Čerain” school teachers are rocking on there quietly against the wall next to the keyboard player of the band that were performing music of an American rock band The Doors, watching with the greatest interest how he played, what scales and what harmonies he used and what his technique was. Although he is already 75 and there are “no secrets” for him in Roma music and playing technique, old Brataš is still curious and interested to learn new things and new music styles whenever there is a chance for it. And children students of our school followed all that with their eyes wide open. Brataš, a living legend of Roma music
4.10 OUR METHOD OF WORK HAS BEEN UNIVERSALLY SUCCESSFUL -There were some differences between the preconditions ofour work in Novi Sad and those in Banja Luka, which is resultof specific, completely different conditions of living in thosetwo regions. While in Novi Sad our children live in relatively“normal” conditions, our children in Banja Luka come fromthe poorest layers of the society. While in Novi Sad all ourchildren have actively been in music, playing in Roma or-chestras, and even attending music schools, in Banja Lukaour children for the most part have had no music educationat all because they come from illiterate or families with verypoor education, and the children have to work in fairs andamusement parks.However it turned out that our method of work through lan-guage of music functioned extremely well and was excep-tionally well accepted in both groups of students. English lecture...? Or music lecture...? Both! For us the most important thing was to teach children about their rights, inspire them to continue their schooling educa- tion, and to strengthen their personalities through musical metaphors, lectures about music and visits to institutions of Lecture about the music production... culture - all that interwoven with these important messag- And how to fight the prejudices and intolerance. es. And it all proved to be very successful. Both children in Novi Sad and Banja Luka actively participated in discussions, were eager to learn and felt happy, being able to identify Nevena Bajalica lectured in the basic concepts of themselves with subjects of our teaching programme and to human rights, prejudice, diversity & tolerance recognize their own issues following our school programme with a great enthusiasm. There was only one difference: the children who have al- ready been into music could have better understood music part of our programme and developed more as musicians. Yet the other children expanded their views about music and in general, too. But the basic messages of our school were accepted by all children with no difference.
Pictures on the wall in “Sklonište” (The Shelter Club): old Roma orchestrasfrom 1950’s - 1960’s. Those great guys are looking better then Little Richard orJames Brown! We saw the pictures of them playing for president Tito, RichardBarton and Lis Taylor, King Hussein of Jordan, Resa Pahlavi etc.
5.PARTNERS - In the preparation and the implementation of the Project we have cooperated with the following partners in the field: 5.1 ROMA ORGANIZATIONS -NOVI SAD: BANJA LUKA:ROMA CULTURE ASSOCIATION ČERAIN ASSOCIATION OF ROMA NGOS OF REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA www.bhric.baTHE OFFICE FOR THE INCLUSION OF THE ROMA STUDENTS ROMA ASSOCIATION PRNJAVOR ROMA ASSOCIATION DERVENTA 5.2 CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS -NOVI SAD: BANJA LUKA:UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD UNIVERSITY OF BANJA LUKAwww.ns.ac.yu www.unibl.orgTHE YOUTH THEATER NATIONAL MUSEUM OF RSwww.pozoristemladih.co.rs www.muzejrs.comTHE GALLERY OF MATICA SRPSKA CHILDREN’S THEATERwww.maticasrpska.org.yu www.djecijepozoristers.rs.baVOJVODINA MUSEUM BANSKI DVOR (CULTURE CENTER) BANJA LUKAmuzejvojvodine.org.yuMUSIC SCHOOL “ISIDOR BAJIC”www.isidorbajic.edu.rs
5.3 GOVERNMENT AND LOCAL AUTHORITY INSTITUTIONS -NOVI SAD: BANJA LUKA:PROVINCIAL SECRETARIAT FOR EDUCATION - VOJVODINA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION END CULTUREwww.obrazovanje.vojvodina.gov.rs - REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA www.vladars.netPROVINCIAL SECRETARIAT OF CULTURE - VOJVODINA DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES OF BANJA LUKAwww.vojvodina.gov.rs www.csrbl.orgTHE CULTURE DEPARTMENT OF THE CITY OF NOVI SAD BOARD OF THE NATIONAL MINORITIES ASSOCIATIONSwww.gradnovisad.org.rs www.snm.rs.baMAYOR’S OFFICE OF THE CITY OF NOVI SAD OSCE BiH (BANJA LUKA)www.gradnovisad.org.rs www.oscebih.orgPOLICE AUTHORITY OF NOVI SADwww.gradnovisad.org.rsTHE OMBUDSMAN OFFICE OF THE VOJVODINA PROVINCEwww.ombudsmanapv.org
6. ACHIEVEMENTS - 6.1 KNOWLEDGE AND NEW EXPERIENCES -6.1.a CHILDREN – STUDENTS OF THE SCHOOLAll the children had have an interesting and meaningful activity to fill the long summer holiday’s months. A lot of our Romachildren had en unique opportunity to have a “real summer vacation”, leave their homes and visit other places.6.1.a-1 IDENTITY OF THE A FULL RIGHTS MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETYThe children attending our school have, no doubts, learnedmany new things – each of them from his own prospectiveand in accordance with his own predisposition and interests.But, all of them developed a completely new and clear pro-spective concerning the awareness of their own identities asfull right members of the society in which they live. Judgingby the comments of the children themselves, the greatestimpression on them was made by a part of the programmeconcerning the concept of human rights, discrimination, di-versity, and tolerance.6.1.a-2 ENCOUNTER OF CULTURESThe second important and distinct moment for the childrenstudents was the meeting of Roma and non-Roma culturethrough communication and discussions with the other chil-dren and the student trainees. This intercultural dialogue en-couraged both parties and showed closeness thus overcom-ing the many prejudices. This has certainly made a lastingimpression on the children, even if only subconsciously. Thisincludes the encounters with the institutions of the cultureand education: museums, theaters, universities, etc., wherethese institutions and our Roma children both discoveredeach other. The “Cerain” diploma
6.1.a-3 PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE IN FIGHTING THE DISCRIMINATIONThe third, very practical part of the new knowledge, was ob-tained through the visits of the representatives of the insti-tutions of government, culture and local authorities to oursummer school. Practical advices of the ombudsman, socialworker, police officer and others, were accepted very seri-ously and with unhidden enthusiasm. The children discov-ered that there existed institutions to protect them, and thatthe laws, jurisdiction and the government bodies, are “ontheir sides”. Roma children who were used to the refusals,restrictions and segregations, did understand that the dis-crimination is not a “normal situation” but that, it is, in fact,a criminal act, just the same “as if somebody steels yourmobile”, as proven during the discussions with the ombuds-man. The example that was elaborated was that some Romachildren were not allowed to go to the public swimmingpool. The children then, went to the ombudsman office andcomplained to ombudsman who afterwards intervened withthe owner of the pool, so the children were allowed to jointhe others. That left great impression on the students of ourschool. Video interviews with the “Čerain” students: impressions, conclusions, and the ideas for the future6.1.a-3 NEED FOR EDUCATIONThe fourth issue was the awareness of needs for education.Apart from the fact that we presented education as the bestway to fulfilling one’s personality, fight the discrimination,and the way to implement our own dreams, the children gotan experience that learning and schooling did not have tobe a tedious and boring burden, neither the environment inwhich they should feel inferior, stupid, nor unwelcomed.6.1.a-4 SELF-ORGANIZINGWe have continuously pointed out that by studying and mak-ing efforts to improve yourself, our students could gain pow-er and strength to fight against any problem. In particular,we stressed out the importance of self-organizing, joining to-gether, and explained how powerful and great results couldbe achieved by fighting as “many voices together”. Examplesin our lectures included also our own experiences, lives ofthe emigrants and the importance of joining with others withsimilar problems and needs. The very example was also theorganization of our School, where together with the Romaassociations, universities, and other institutions – we provedthat good results could be obtained by joined efforts.6.1.a-5 NEW KNOWLEDGE FROM THE FIELD OF BASIC CULTURE AND EDUCATIONAll the knowledge that the children learned from the broad-er basic culture fields, such as history, English language, theother cultures in the world, about art and music in general,also serve to raise the self-esteem and self confidence of apersonal moral.
6.1.A-7 MOTIVATION OF THE CHILDREN MUSICIANS TO CONTINUE SCHOOLINGThere is a specific problem with the Roma children musi-cians, connecting with their motivation to continue musicaleducation. Many of them are musically very talented andskilled instrumentalists. Although very young, they are ableto play with professional Roma orchestras. The problem istwofold: the children should not work, especially not in pubsduring the night hours. The young boys do not develop nor-mally in such environments - neither mentally nor physically,and often become alcoholics as young as teenagers. Numbertwo: the children should go to school. Those talented ones inmost cases do not attend school, because they play duringnights and sleep during daytime.Another aspect of the problem is that the programme andmethods of work in a conventional music schools are notflexible, and not adjustable according to individual needs ofstudents. Several of our children tried to continue educationin the music schools, but the teaching programme offeredthere was far beyond their technical playing skills, dealingmostly with classical music at the very basic level, with in-sufficient challenge, and unable to inspire the interest of astudent. As the children musicians exclusively play Romatamburica music they could not understand and accept thatwhat was thought at the music school could by any means beof use to them. Therefore many of the talented children mu-sicians had (of course very wrong) idea that they had alreadyreached their maximums as musicians, and were of the opin-ion that they “knew everything” and that there was “no useof further schooling”.Therefore we paid particular attention to the musically mosttalented Roma students, and a part of the lectures were de-voted to this subject. We showed the students that the musicworld is wider then their street, village or several local pubs,by showing them the richness of the world music heritage,music of different cultures, types, techniques and styles, par-ticularly insisting on a fusion music in which traditional andmodern music are combined. Students musicians very wellunderstood the brilliant technique of Django Reinhardt (fa-mous Roma jazz guitarist) although until that moment the Nemanja, clarinet playerjazz music was absolutely unknown to them. They also un-derstood how much effort the musicians of a symphonic or-chestra make, and how much knowledge and skills is neces-sary for those complicated, but overwhelming music works.Their music horizons were widened in our summer school,and they realized how much more there is to be learned. Asa result of that, three of our students, decided to prepare theentrance exams for the secondary music schools and contin-ue their schooling. And maybe, even more important is whatStevan told us in Novi Sad: “I understood, that as a child, I do not have to work in the pubs, but need to go to school!” Stevan, tamburica player
6.1.b STUDENT TRAINEES6.1.B-1 GAINING PRACTICAL EXPERIANCE FOR FUTUR PROFESSIONSStudent trainees had the opportunity to practice in realitytheir future profession and the academic knowledge obtainso far. All of them had tasks connected to their professions:students of journalism communicated with the media, stu-dents of pedagogy did evaluation of pedagogical aspect ofour work, students of music academy held concerts and gavelectures about their instruments, etc.6.1.B-2 INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUEAn important aspect of our work was based on the conceptof intercultural dialogue. With the practical work with theRoma children, student trainees had an opportunity to learnabout the methods and instruments of implementation ofthe human rights concept, interpersonal appreciation andrespect, to participate in the dialogue, and work on them-selves. Last day of the School all the kids recived the “Cerain” diploma and the pencil set6.1.B-3 WORK EXPERIENCE FROM THE CULTURAL PROJECTSSpecial attention was paid to teach the student traineesabout the organization of the cultural projects. We explainedthe process of the project from the very idea, establishmentof the project plan, searching for resources and subsidies/grants, planning and organizing project implementation,communication, marketing, budget etc. Our student train-ees were very interested in this field and they had many oftheir own ideas presented to us looking for advices and com-ments. The best way of learning was through the practicalexperience from our project. The students had an opportu-nity to learn about our ways of work through their own en-gagement. We hope that many of their ideas will be realizedin some excellent cultural projects in the future.6.1.c LECTURERSMajority of our lecturers are the professionals with great ex-perience in teaching, giving public lectures, organizing work-shops for young people and children. But for the most ofthem, this was the first time that they were working focusedon the Roma children. That was a very valuable experience.Also, it should be pointed out that by working in this projectmany lecturers guested other countries and cities, (lecturersfrom Serbia teaching in Bosnia-Herzegovina and vice versa,and also from Italy and Sweden) which was a new experi- Music producer Mustafa Čengić came all the way from Italy to teach our students in Novi Sad & Banja Lukaence.
6.2 ADVOCACY -6.2.A ROMA PROBLEMS ARE PROBLEMS OF THE OVERALL SOCIETYDuring the implementation of the project we focused ourideas in one message that we repeated over and over againto the representatives of the media, organizations and insti-tutions of culture, education, and government, political or-ganizations, NGOs, Roma and other associations, journalists,artists, cultural workers, influential people, pedagogues, col-leagues and others: Roma people are not a temporary or occasional “problem” of the society, nor an exotic jewel to be shown from time to time at cultural festivals. Roma are a perma- nent, natural and integral part of the society, and as such, all the Roma problems are at the same time the problems of the overall society. In the same way, all the problems of the society are the problems of the Roma population. Therefore these problems can be resolved only throught the work on the structural and sustain- able changes in all the segments of the society, and by the joined efforts of the Roma and non-Roma population.This statement was quoted often in the press, and we have sent that message many times through the TV and Radio broad-cast programs that we participated in.6.2.B MEETINGS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNEMENT AND OTHER AUTHORITIESProbably the most important input of this segment of ourwork was the advocacy with the different institutions of theauthorities, representatives of the executive bodies, deci-sion-makers, and the governmental bodies and institutions.During the preparatory activities for our project we werewelcomed by main, important representatives of the au-thorities at the local, city, regional and governmental levels.We met the Minister for Culture and Education of Republic ofSrpska, Secretary for Education and the Secretary for Cultureof the Vojvodina Province, Deputy Mayor of Novi Sad, Headof the Culture Department of the City of Novi Sad, Executivesecretary of City Council of Banja Luka, etc.We have presented our project, and our ideas and values thatguided us in our work. The proof that our messages and am-bitions were taken seriously is the fact that the institutionsand the representatives of different authorities that we metaccepted our project with pleasure and enthusiasm. Theywere very cooperative and helpful during the implementa-tion of the project. Provincial Secretary of Culture - Vojvodina, Milorad Djurić
6.2.C WORK WITH THE INSTITUTIONS OF CULTURE AND EDUCATIONIn the same manner, we made efforts to point out the prob- one. He also promised that he would report and warn his col-lems of Roma population and the methods of work with leagues about this and promised that in a shortest possiblethose problems to the institutions of culture and education. time the map would be updated.We collaborated with many such organizations: university,theaters, music schools, museums etc. We made an impact That was probably the first time that the curator met with anon their awareness about Roma people as full-righted part organized group of Roma children visiting his museum. Butof the society, but also as a consumer group that should be in the same time it was probably the first time for our Romataken in count when making culture program plans. children that they dared to complain publicly and to request their place on the map of the country where they live.Here, we would like to give just one example:During the visit to the Vojvodina Museum in Novi Sad, wewere received and guided by the Museum Curator. In the Eth- Vojvodina Museumnographic department we noticed the map of ethnic minori- - the map is going to be updatedties of Vojvodina province. Curator explained that Vojvodinais a multiethnic region with more then 25 ethnic minorities.It was shown in different colors on the map where each ofthem was inhabited. Our Roma students noticed that Romapopulation was not presented on the map and asked the cu-rator for an explanation. The curator was very embarrassedand surprised. He did apologize by saying that it was a fretfailure, as the Roma population is one of the most numerous6.2.D MEDIA COVERAGE AND ATTENTIONWe had a very good response of the local media during theTV, RADIO AND NEWSPAPERSpreparation and implementation of the project. We wereguests on the TV programs of informative and debating char-acters, as well as in the morning programs. As far as we couldkeep traces, at least 5 TV and 7 radio stations did broadcastitems about our project, including the main national TV andradio channels in the top information programs: morning,noon and evening TV News, and Radio News.It should be underlined that we appeared as guests on TVprograms given in Roma language on several occasions. Forinstance, we appeared in the most famous culture-debateprogram, hosted by the editor in chief of the Roma TV edito-rial board of national TV of Vojvodina. That 30-minute’s pro-gram was entirely dedicated to our project.Various TV and radio teams visited us regularly during theimplementation of the project, and broadcasted items aboutour summer school, explaining about our work, includingthe interviews with our children-students.Apart for radio and TV, several items about our project werealso published by main local and regional newspapers, bothonline and in their paper edition. An Interview for the National Television in Novi Sad