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Basic Facilitation Skills


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Many fear going up front to speak, present, chair, facilitate etc. more than that they are usually not organized, prepared or systematic. This kills their confidence and invariably the effectiveness of facilitation
This set of slides just adds to the knowledge and skills of facilitation. The literature is ample and the sources of such information are overwhelming too. hope this little contribution shall help the weaker presenters.

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Basic Facilitation Skills

  1. 1. Basic Facilitation Skills: Developing Facilitative Leadership PRESENTED BY R. MASILAMANI
  2. 2. Objectives The aims of this three day workshop are to,  Clarify the roles and responsibilities of the facilitator  Differentiate the facilitator from his counterparts like trainer, consultant etc.  Establish the clear capability requirements of a facilitator  Provide the attitudes, tools, techniques and principles for effective management of facilitation, and  Highlight some other requisites of great facilitation e.g. communication skills
  3. 3. Content DAY ONE  Module 1: Responsibilities of a facilitator  Module 2: How Facilitation Differs from Training and Presenting  Module 3: Suggestions for Facilitators  Module 4: Effective Communication Skills for Facilitators DAY TWO  Module 5: Body Language and Facilitation  Module 6: Group Process Techniques  Module 7: Handling Difficult Team Members DAT THREE  Module 8: Personal Attributes of the Cultural Diversity Facilitator  Module 9: Active Listening Skills  Module 10: Facilitator Moments  Module 11: Summary tips
  4. 4. The Facilitator  The workshop will be facilitated by Mr. R. Masilamani. He is an active trainer, consultant and corporate manager. He has been exposed to Kepner Tregoe, Mc Kenzie, Dale Carnegie and many other prominent learning technologies. He himself has designed and developed many programs. He worked for 25 years in PETRONAS, including as internal trainer/consultant. He has been the General Manager, COO and Financial Controller of other institutions like METEOR, Open University Malaysia and BATC. He has had formal training and certifications in learning, training and consulting technologies. He continues to train and consult in management and leadership.
  5. 5. References  Dale Hunter, ‘the art of facilitation- the essentials for leading great      meetings and creating group synergy’, Jossey Bass,2007 Bens, Ingrid, ‘Facilitating with Ease! A Step-by-Step Guidebook with Customizable Worksheets on CD-ROM’, Jossey Bass, January 2000. Kaner, Sam, ‘Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory Decision Making’, New Society Pub, July 1996. Hackett, Donald, and Charles L. Martin, ‘Facilitation Skills for Team Leaders’, Crisp Publications, Menlo Park, CA, 1993. Rees, Fran, ‘How to Lead Work Teams: Facilitation Skills’, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, May 2001. Schwarz, Roger M., ‘The Skilled Facilitator: A Comprehensive Resource for Consultants, Facilitators, Managers, Trainers, and Coaches’, Jossey-Bass, 2002’
  6. 6. Ice breaker activities - FIRST IMPRESSIONS  I love "feel good" types of ice breaker activities.  Here is a wonderful one for new teams and/or small or large training classes.  Use this ice breaker activity to start your meeting, presentation or training. You might consider ending the day with another one of my other favourite ice breaker/team builder activities - "Say Something Positive!"  Purpose: To start a meeting, training or presentation on a positive note and to quickly break the ice. When: This ice breaker activity can be used with groups of six to one hundred or more. It is especially effective with groups or teams that don't know each other. Materials: Provide large index cards (or card stock), pen and pieces of masking tape to each participant.
  7. 7. The Ice Breaker Activity- Things to Do  How:  Provide a large index card (or piece of card stock), pen and piece of masking tape to     each participant. Have participants tape the index card to each others backs with masking tape and make sure it is secure. Have participants find someone and introduce themselves and mingle for a few minutes. When done ask them to write on each others back their first impression of that person in one or two words max. Instruct the group that only positive impressions can be written. After the pairs have written on each others backs have them move onto someone else. Once participants have written on each others backs (depending on the size of the group and how long you want the activity to go) ask them to remove the index cards and provide them a few silent minutes to review what others have written. Once participants have had time to read the responses on their index cards ask them what they are thinking? Ask how they might feel if they always thought others first impressions of them were so positive? Ask what they might be able to learn from this ice breaker activity? Responses might include the need for us to form good first impressions of others, the need to share the good we see in others and the way we feel when others say positive things about us.
  8. 8. Things to Note
  9. 9. Module 1: Responsibilities of a Facilitator Some of the key responsibilities of a facilitation The facilitator
  10. 10. Some Basic Premises of Facilitation: 1. The facilitator leads 2. The facilitator is knowledgeable enough 3. The facilitator is not an answer provider, but rather a tour guide 4. The facilitator promotes the concept of “safe space”. Opinions 5. It is vital that you have some “probing questions” ready
  11. 11. Facilitation requires an understanding of the following: Community Balance Observation Affirmation Flexibility Silence Imagination Challenge Patience Connections
  12. 12. Module 2: How Facilitation Differs from Training and Presenting Training Presenting Facilitation
  13. 13. How Facilitation Differs from Training and Presenting Training Presenting Facilitation Participants are present to learn. Audience is present to receive prepared remarks. Participants are members of teams whose mission is to recommend new ideas or improvements. Objectives are based upon learning. Objectives are based on what is to be communicated, i.e., sell, inform, motivate, describe. Objectives are based on process improvements. Lesson plans are prepared to enhance learning structure. Presenter’s outline structures a logical presentation. An agenda is used to structure the meeting for effectiveness.
  14. 14. How Facilitation Differs from Training and Presenting Training Presenting Facilitation Instructor is a catalyst for learning. Presenter primarily answers rather than asks questions. Questions are used to develop individual involvement in the group. Instructor asks questions to evaluate learning. Visual aids are used to present data (charts, graphs, tables). Flip chart is used to record team member's inputs and ideas. Visual and training aids (tapes, films, cases, role plays) are used to illustrate learning points. Data, charts, graphs are used to support messages or recommendations. Facilitator teaches members to use tools for team problem solving.
  15. 15. How Facilitation Differs from Training and Presenting Training Presenting Facilitation Involvement (experiential learning) is used to learn from others' experience and retain interest. Communication is largely one-way from presenter to audience. Facilitator manages the meeting structure, not content. Number of participants varies; usually under 50. Group can be any size. Team size is typically 515 members.
  16. 16. Module3: Suggestion for Facilitators
  17. 17. suggestions and tips for facilitators  Be aware of the physical environment and how it      can influence group behaviour. Orient group to the timeframe and task at the beginning of each session. Explain the product that is expected. Develop group ground rules, or norms for operating, and use them. If you don’t have a co-facilitator, select someone to write key points on the flipchart. If group is large, use name tents to remember everyone’s name.
  18. 18. suggestions and tips for facilitators Additional Considerations  Be certain in advance that your sponsor (client, representative) agrees        with the purpose and is comfortable with the process. Stay focused in the present but know where the group has been and where it needs to be. Choose a decision making method BEFORE you need it. Suggest some options that the group could use to get them thinking. Remember that people properly disagree. It's probably naive to think that there won't be moments of conflict in your group. Call a "pulse check" and check in with the group as to how people are feeling or what they are thinking about at that time. This is good to do when the group seems generally blocked or confused. If you have a lead facilitation role, close each session with recognition of the group for a "job well done." Role modlelling of desirable behaviour is important with the recorder, other staff, and the group. Your own self-development can make a difference.
  19. 19. Module 4: Effective Communication Skills for Facilitators
  20. 20. skill points for communicating  Active Listening  Modelling  Summarising  Focusing attention and Pacing  Recognising Progress  Waiting or silence  Scanning/Observing  Inclusion
  21. 21. Module 5: Body Language and Facilitation
  22. 22. The nonverbal cues  the role of nonverbal cues or body language is also critical to facilitative leadership.  constantly flowing from team member to facilitator and vice versa.  be careful not to send out nonverbal cues or body language  be keenly aware of the nonverbal cues given off by team members
  23. 23. Module 6: Group Process Techniques
  24. 24. work with groups  Brainstorming  Response rounds  Sub Groups  Force field Analysis  Questioning technique  Others
  25. 25. Brainstorming  Procedure: Clarify the question or topic to be      brainstormed. Set a time limit. Review the rules (post them?). Quantity, not quality, is the goal Defer all judgment until the process is over You are encouraged to further other people's ideas All ideas are recorded This is a good all-purpose technique for generating a variety of options or alternatives.
  26. 26. Response rounds  Procedure: Give the group members a      task/question to work on individually. Ask members to respond one at a time. People are allowed to pass. Record responses Repeat until people run out of responses Summarize each round of responses if it seems appropriate.
  27. 27. Subgroups  Procedure: When facilitating a large group (e.g., 20 +      people), to enable more of the members to talk, it helps to break the group into subgroups of 2-5 people. Give them a clear question or task (e.g., “How can a program avoid volunteer burnout?”). Set a time limit and ask subgroups to self-assign a spokesperson and recorder. Plan time for each group to report to the whole group using a spokesperson. Post the subgroups' work or records when the whole group reconvenes. The whole group can do such things as pick out commonalities, pick out uncommon items, or circle its favourite one (two, etc.).
  28. 28. Force field analysis (or "helps and hindrances")  Procedure: Group members begin by brainstorming or     making lists of factors or forces that help or hinder their stated goal. This technique allows for the group to see what factors could support them and those that need to be hurdled in reaching their goal. Supporting forces are meant to be reinforced. Restraining forces are meant to be reduced, dealt with, or eliminated. Groups may choose to focus their energy on supporting forces, restraining forces, or both, as a way to move toward their goal.
  29. 29. Force field analysis-cont.  Force field analysis is a technique originally developed by       Kurt Lewin. It involves identifying the forces or factors that either help or hinder accomplishment of goals. Goal or Problem Statement: __________________________________________ Restraining Forces Supporting Forces 1._________________ 1._________________ 2._________________ 2._________________ 3._________________ 3._________________ n._________________ n._________________
  30. 30. Module 7: Handling Difficult Team Members
  31. 31. WHEN to Handle a Difficult Team Member
  32. 32. HOW to Handle a Troublesome Team Member  Should never verbally scold or embarrass the individual in front of the group or even privately.  Your first opportunity to correct troublesome behaviour should be during the meeting  A second option is to talk with the person candidly about the behaviour in private.  A third option is to use the team's informal leaders−those members most respected for their knowledge and experience.
  33. 33. Four Common Types of Troublesome Team Members  1. The Mummy :This person will not freely participate in discussions. The motivation might be indifference, an inferiority complex, confusion about the issues or process, or a feeling of superiority.  2. The Windbag: This individual comments too frequently and tends to dominate discussions. He or she also tends to be the first to speak on each issue.  3. The Rambler: This individual will often get off track in his remarks, misses the point, or uses far-fetched examples to make a point.  4. The Homesteader: A person who takes an initial position and is highly reluctant to budge or consider other viable alternatives.
  34. 34. Reluctant Team Members  An often-asked question is what to do about employees who do not want to be on a team.  We advise that you not force involvement, but rather allow the dynamics of the team process and the excitement of other team members to arouse their interest and motivate them to fully participate in the team concept.
  35. 35. Module 8: Personal Attributes of the Cultural Diversity Facilitator
  36. 36. Personal Attributes of the Cultural Diversity Facilitator             Tolerance of ambiguity: Cognitive and behavioural flexibility: Personal self-awareness: Cultural self-awareness: Patience: Enthusiasm and commitment: Interpersonal sensitivity and relations: Tolerance of differences. Openness to new experiences and peoples: Empathy: Sense of humility: Sense of humour:
  37. 37. Module 9: Active Listening Skills
  38. 38. Active Listening Skills  Maintain good eye contact  Face the person or group head on  Keep an open posture−don't cross arms  Stay relaxed in your overall manner  Be aware of body language and nonverbal behaviour  Listen for feeling as well as content  Don't confuse content and delivery  Listen for the main thought or idea, rather than trying to memorize every word
  39. 39. Active Listening Skills  Cultivate empathy−try to put yourself in his or        her place Refrain from evaluating what is being said Don't jump in the conversation too soon Pause a few seconds before giving feedback or answering a question Give the person time to correct an obvious mistake Show encouragement. Show support. Don't let the person ramble
  40. 40. Active Listening Skills  Don't turn an implication you've picked up in the       conversation into a conclusion Paraphrase or summarize what the person has said, and get agreement that you've understood completely Ask questions beginning with the words "what" and "how" (open-ended questions). Avoid questions that can be answered with a yes or no Don't "jump ahead" to complete the person's sentence Be aware of your own emotional response to what you are hearing Focus your energy and attention on what is being said to you
  41. 41. Module 10: Facilitator Moments in Listening
  42. 42. Facilitator Moments: Put on your facilitator's hat, then try to finish as many of these sentences as you can. When one group member seems to do most of the talking, I might… When an individual is silent for a long period of time, I could… When someone in the team "puts down" another member, I might… When a group seems to want to reach a decision, but appears unable to, I might… When someone comes late, I might… When group members are excessively polite and unwilling to confront each other’s ideas, I might…
  43. 43. Public Speaking vs Fear of Death •If you are going to a funeral you are better off in the casket than doing the eulogy •Studies show public speaking is a bigger fear than death in the casket than doing the eulogy •Becoming a competent, rather than just confident, speaker requires a lot of practice •The best start is simply to make a better presentation -Jerry Seinfeld
  44. 44. Module11: Summary Tips
  45. 45. 18 Tips to Sharpen Presentation Skills 1. 10-20-30 Rule – 2. Be Entertaining 3. Slow Down 4. Eye Contact 5. 15 Word Summary 6. 20-20 Rule 7. Don’t Read. 8. Speeches are About Stories 9. Project Your Voice
  46. 46. 18 Tips to Sharpen Presentation Skills 10. Don’t Plan Gestures 11.“That’s a Good Question” 12. Breathe In Not Out 13. Come Early, Really Early 14. Get Practice 15. Don’t Apologize 16. Do Apologize if You’re Wrong 17. Put Yourself in the Audience 18. Have Fun -Jerry Seinfeld