Hawthron studies


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Hawthron studies

  1. 1. Human Relations Approach Chapter 2 Lippert-COM329
  2. 2. Reacting to the Classical Approach <ul><li>Although many in industry were quick to embrace the classic theoretical approach, its implementation commonly left employees unfulfilled. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hawthorne Studies only served to raise further questions concerning the employee’s role in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>These events then set the stage for the emergence of another organizational communication approach: the Human Relations (HR) approach. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  3. 3. Classical Approach Doesn’t: <ul><li>Account for individual needs of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Non-financial reward </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  4. 4. Making a Case for Human Needs: The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>The Hawthorne Studies entail a research program conducted by Elton Mayo and his colleagues at the Western Electric Plant in Cicero, Illinois from 1927 to 1933. </li></ul><ul><li>The plant’s manager asked Mayo and his team of researchers to help increase employee morale and overall productivity at the Hawthorne Plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Their findings asserted that employee morale and productivity improved when workers were allowed to interact and an overseer was present. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  5. 5. Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Influenced transitions from classical approach to human relations approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illumination Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayo interested in how changes in work environment would impact productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found unexpected results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more attention given to someone, the more likely their behavior will change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social factors influence productivity </li></ul></ul></ul>Lippert-COM329
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory <ul><li>Abraham Maslow, a social scientist, developed his hierarchy of needs theory over a 25 year period beginning in the early 1940s. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Maslow, humans seek to fulfill needs at several levels ( hierarchy of prepotency ). </li></ul><ul><li>Employees seek to first have their most primal needs met before seeking fulfillment of their secondary or higher level needs. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  7. 7. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ living wage” to purchase food and clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free from danger-wages to procure shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to belong I social relationships with co-workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of achievement and accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation and reward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job that allows growth and creativity </li></ul></ul>Lippert-COM329
  8. 8. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory <ul><li>Frederick Herzberg, a mental health specialist, developed his theory between the early 1950s and early 1970s. </li></ul><ul><li>Most simply Herzberg argues that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not polar opposites of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>He advances that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are distinct concepts impacted by either either internal factors (e.g., achievement, responsibility) or external factors (e.g., working conditions, salary), respectively. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  9. 9. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory <ul><li>Set of workplace characteristics that make person/worker satisfied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects of work that keep a person from being unsatisfied and unhappy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects of work that keep a person satisfied and happy </li></ul></ul></ul>Lippert-COM329
  10. 10. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Douglas McGregor, a professor at MIT, developed these theories to explain two divergent schools of managerial thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X has three propositions: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Management has the greatest organizational responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Management must control and motivate employees by modifying employee behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Employees are passive entities that must be controlled. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  11. 11. Theory X then advances the following postulates: <ul><li>The average human is lazy. </li></ul><ul><li>The average human lacks ambition. </li></ul><ul><li>The average human is self-centered. </li></ul><ul><li>The average human resists change. </li></ul><ul><li>The average human is not bright. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  12. 12. In contrast, Theory Y advances the following five assumptions <ul><li>Humans desire to exert physical and mental effort. </li></ul><ul><li>External control is not the only way to direct employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to a goal is based on rewards for achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Most everyone can be creative. </li></ul><ul><li>Most employee potential is only minimally tapped. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  13. 13. Human Relations Approach <ul><li>Need for attention </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Individual achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Intended as a move away from the “organization as machine” metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Management recognizes employees as humans with needs rather than cogs of a machine </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  14. 14. Communication Implications <ul><li>Content-task related but includes maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Direction-vertical but horizontal is encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Channel-emphasizes variety </li></ul><ul><li>Style-informal, less informal </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>Hawthorne effect- social factors influence productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s theory- 5 levels, lower needs must be met before higher needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s theory- hygiene factors & motivators. </li></ul><ul><li>McGregor’s theory of X & Y </li></ul><ul><li>Human Relations approach- employees are valued. </li></ul>Lippert-COM329
  16. 16. Case Study: Motivation at Healthtime Fitness Club <ul><li>If you were Jenny, what would you say to Matt? </li></ul><ul><li>What Factors have led to his difficulty in motivating his employees? </li></ul><ul><li>How would human relations theorists analyze Matt’s problem (needs, m/h factors, assumptions)? </li></ul><ul><li>What communication strategy would you recommend to Matt to deal with the situation? </li></ul>Lippert-COM329