its parliament


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its parliament

  1. 1. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that project file on the “ELECTION & ITS NEED” of OOo have been prepared by Nimay Tiwari of class IX-A of St.Anjani's Public School in accordance until specification prescribed by C.B.S.E . Project Co-ordinator Examiner Signature Principle signature and seal
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Developing a project is not alwaya an easy job chances of errors spring up.Despite of best efforts to avoid them assistance from intellectual is always,here I would like to take opportunity to thank all those people who helped me to develop this project I am very thankful to my F.I.T teacher mrs.aparna srivastava who helped me immensively and my plant of knowledge. Iexpress my deep gratitude towards my parents who provided me innumerable suggestions and bright reflecting ideas.
  3. 3. Every Government generally consists of Three organs. Such organs are Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. The Legislative wing of the union government is known as PARLIAMENT. Article 79 of the Indian Constitution States that there shall be a PARLIAMENT which consists of Indian President. Plus the house of people (LOKSABHA) and the council of states (RAJYASABHA) Indian PARLIAMENT is Bicameral in nature.
  4. 4. The Lower house and the First Chamber of the Union – PARLIAMENT is LOKSABHA. The members of LOKSABHA are directly elected by the people. The present membership of the LOKSABHA is 547. Out of this 520 members were elected from the Union territories and the rest 2 members were nominated from the Anglo-Indian communities. Each State and Union territory is allotted certain seats for this purpose. The Constitution amendment of 1989 has reduced the voting age of the votes from 21 to 18 years. The normal life of the LOKSABHA is Five years from the feature of its first meeting But in case of National emergency, Its term may be extended to Six years. But not beyond Six months after the emergency has seated to operate.
  5. 5. The LOKSABHA may be dissolved earlier by the president of India, If the situation permits. The Constitution prescribes certain qualifications for the members of LOKSABHA , Such qualifications are :-> He must be a citizens of India. He must be above 25 years age. He must not be an undischarged insolvent. He must not old any office of profit under any Government. He must not be of unsound mind. He should not have been convicted by a court of law for any offence. He must passes such other qualifications as prescribed by the PARLIAMENT under the peoples representation act of 1950-51.
  6. 6. The Presiding officer of the LOKSABHA is Speaker . The Deputy Presiding Officer of the LOKSABHA is known as Deputy Speaker. The Quorum of the house is 1/10th of the total members of the house. A member can loose his membership , if he/she remain absent 60days continuously, The Speaker has the “Casting Vote” incase of a tie. The Upper house of the Union PARLIAMENT is known as the Council of States or “RAJYASABHA” . The RAJYASABHA consists of 250 members, out of that 12 members are nominated by the President from among persons who have distinguished themselves in the field of Arts, Science, Literature, Social Science and 238 members are elected from the States. The RAJYASABHA is a permanent house but its member are elected for term of Six years in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote by the Legislative Assembly of the States. One third of its members are retire in every 2nd year. The Vice-President is the Chairman of the house.
  7. 7. The RAJYASABHA elects a Deputy Chairman from among its members, like LOKSABHA its Quorum is 1/10th of its total members, to become the members of the house a particular person must possesses the following qualifications. Such qualifications are :He must be a citizen of India. He must have attained the age of 30 years. He must not be an undischarged insolvent. He should not hold any office of profit under any Government. He must not be a member of the LOKASABHA or any State Legislature. He should not have been convicted by a court of law for any offence. He must possesses such other Qualification as prescribed under the peoples representation act of 195051.
  8. 8. Parliament as the supreme legislative organ of the state, Generally performs the following important functions such as Law making power -> The parliament of India it has the power to Make law over union list , state list and concurrent list under collation circumstances parliament generally makes law oven state list such circumstances are – • Under Article 249 of the Indian constitution if 2/3rd majority of Rajyasabha pass a resolution an national interest then the union parliament can legistate any matter included the statelist. (2)During declaration of national emergency and presidence rule in a state, the parliament also makes law over state list. (3)If two or more states jointly passes resolutions in state legislature and request the center to make law for them. (4)For implementation of international law over state list.
  9. 9. In case of disagreement between two houses of union parliament the constitution supports the provision of joint session of parliament in this session the opinion of Loksabha prevails over Rajyasabha.
  10. 10. Control over the executive -> In a parliament system the executive is always responsible to the legislature under article 75 of the Indian constitution the council of ministers collectivly remain responsible to the parliament, particularly to the LOKASABHA for its act of commission and omission the members of parliament generaly control the works of council of ministers by different methods. It has power to pass the vote of no confidence motion against the council of ministers. If the council of ministers are defeated in the LOKSABHA then the whole council of ministers have to resign the parliament also has power to control the executive by the process of cut motion. Adjournment motion and vote of censure. The members of the house can put questions to various ministers regarding their department. Control over finance -> In parliamentary system legislature are exercises control over finance. It generaly passes the annual Budget and supply has power to impose taxes upon the general people. Its committees like estimate committees and public accounts committees also control the finance of the nation. Electoral Function -> In India parliament also exercises certain electoral functions. The members of both houses of union parliament generaly elect the president and the vice-president of India. The members of LOKASABHA has the power to elect the speaker and the deputy speaker. The members of RAJYASABHA also elect the deputy chairman.
  11. 11. Judicial functions - > The parliament of India also possesses certain Judicial functions. It can initiate impeachment motion against important authorities of the state. Among them president , chief Justice and Judges of both supreme courts and high courts , chief election commissions And chairman of union public service commission are included. The parliament also start breach of privilege motion against any person or any editor of newspapers if such person or editor vow let the fundamental rules of the house. Constituent functions - > Both houses of union parliament participate in the commandment of the constitution some amendment bill require simple majority whole some require a special majority. Beside some require ratification by half of the states. This has been explained in article 368 of the Indian constitution. Ventilation of public - > The parliament is the mirror of the state. The public opinion of the nation are reflected in the house always by the members. It solves different problem of the people. It can check the activities of the government official. So as a whole parliament represents the public opinion. In the present period due to rigid party discipline and cabinet dictatorship, the role of parliament decreased, but still then it act as a real wheel of nations economic progress.