ICT-based Creativity and
2. What is Innovation?
Institute of Sciences and Technologies of Cognition
Institute of Cognitive
Sciences and Technologies
• Defining what is innovation
• What, How, and Who ...
– Innovation targets
– Innovation Lifecycle (process)
– Innovation actors
• Innovation Modes
• Open Innovation characteristics
• Morphology of Innovation: Object or Process?
Innovation is ...
• Concern, awareness, responsibility, concrete
results, vale creation, improving life of many ...
... and also ...
• Failing and restarting
• Risk and heartfulness
Innovation Def (cont’d)
“Innovation involves creating both new
concepts and new competencies and
knowledge, and working inside and
outside the organization” [to achieve
better socio-economic value production]
(The Service Innovation Handbook, Lucy Kimbell, BIS-
The W-W-H of Innovation ...
– What are the targets of an innovation action?
– Who are the key players involved? What are their
roles and duties?
– How should we proceed? How can we organise &
manage the Innovation activities?
... and what is the Final OUTCOME?
... and the Digital Representation
– Enterprise as a whole, even if we start with focussed
innovation (e.g., product or process)
– Digital representation: DB/KB resources
– Innovation teams, managers and stakeholders, partners,
consultant, and customers, with different roles and duties.
– Digital representation: actors, with their rights and functions
– An innovation project is difficult to specify with a workflow
– Digital representation: Objectives, best practices, guidelines,
intermediate/final reports, KPIs, ... (and activities?)
and the FINAL OUTCOME is New Knowledge 4 Value 7
What can we innovate?
• Considering all the Enterprise Facets
• Product, Process, Service, Organization,
Business, Marketing (OECD, Oslo Manual)
• Or ...
WHO: Actors of Open Innovation
Quadruple Helix Innovation
HOW: Innovation Modes
• push-mode, typically technology-driven, when
a new technological solution arrives;
• pull-mode, demand-driven or user-driven or
• Endogene, when the innovation stems from
within inside of the enterprise (or theecosys);
• Exoogene, when coming from outside, other
org, other cultures, disciplines
• co-creation, when more cultures, components
contribute. In case from within the Ecosystem.
Innovation Modes (cont’d)
• Incremental vs Disruptive. Depending on the level
of discontinuity and the extent of impact (on the
market, on the enterprise, ..)
• Episodical vs Continuous. Depending on the
frequency, and the attitude
• Diffused, Social. Depending on the degree of
• Closed vs Open. Depending on the degree of
sharing and cooperation
Why Open Innovation?
• Beyond industrial secrets protection: new
Intellectual Property Right (IPR) paradigm
• Ideas become today quickly obsolete
• The advantage is no more on the Good Ideas
• Advantage is on quickly transformation of
ideas into value (economic, social, env), with:
– Right value proposition for clients
– Right business model
– Change capability and speed of actuation
Copyright & Copyleft
• Does Copyright make sense anymore?
• Upcoming business models are based on
Continuous Innovation and Speed
• Patent exploitation patterns are deeply
TESLA Cars is opening
all its patents
Open Innovation 1.0
Open Innovation 2.0
• How can we manage this new scenario?
• What will be the role of ICT?
(Thanks to OISPG & Intel)
Open Innovation 2.0: Key Points
Morphology of Innovation
But, in the end, what is innovation?
Innovation as a Process?
Innovation as an Object?
Innovation as a process
• A loosely structured process
– Not so linear as described & High Risk
– Not always successful: Can be aborted at any stage
– Needs resources (good funds, right people)
Innovation as a process
• Fitzgerald et al. (2010)
Many proposals, with loosely defined steps. e.g.:
... but detailing the steps is not obvious. Then:
Innovation as an Object
• Innovation seen as an intangible object: a Knowledge
• A complex, articulated knowledge structure released
at the end of an Innovation Project
• We will refer to it as InnoBoK: Innovation Body of
• Innovation Lifecycle as the progressive construction
of an InnoBoK (ako Industial Product Lifecycle)
• Such activities requires a solid knowledge base, to
Innovation as a Knowledge Artifact
• An open, collaborative platform for building
• Different teams cooperate in developing the
different (but interdependent) InnoBoK Parts /
• New distributed, collaborative solutions for
• Effective in a Full Digital Enterprise
23Next: 3/6. OpenInnov-Organization