Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Socialization,   Social control,  deviance  &   stigma  Dr. Yusuf Abdu Misau MBBS (ABU), MPH (MAL), PhD Cand. (MAL) Depart...
Acknowledgement <ul><li>I wish to acknowledge A/P Nabilla Al-Sadat for permission to use her slides in this presentation <...
Contents  <ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition, primary and secondary socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Contents  <ul><li>Social control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies of social c...
socialization 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
What is socialization? <ul><li>The process of being raised within a culture and acquiring the characteristics of that grou...
SOCIALISATION <ul><li>Socialization can also occur by: </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes o...
Why do we need socialization? <ul><li>We need socialization for two major reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To enable us adap...
Think of this: 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 feral child
Stages of “self” development <ul><li>Charles Cooley wrote of the “Looking Glass Self” </li></ul><ul><li>The process by whi...
Stages of “self” development <ul><li>“ Self” concept is determined then by personality which has three components: </li></...
Who is your most important mirror? <ul><li>According to Mead, some people are more important to us than others </li></ul><...
02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Do YOU dress/ get ready for yourself or for how others se...
Agents of socialization  <ul><li>Charles Cooley (1864-1929) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary (Informal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear...
Primary socialization   <ul><li>The process whereby norms and values are acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Informal  – picks up f...
Secondary socialization   <ul><li>Secondary (Formal) </li></ul><ul><li>Operates throughout a person’s life </li></ul><ul><...
re-socialization? 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
Re-Socialization is: <ul><li>Learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Re-Socialization...
Brainstorm… <ul><li>Both socialization and re-socialization influence health outcome of an individual or societies, Discus...
02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 DEVIANCE
What is Deviance? <ul><li>Deviance is any behavior or physical appearance that is socially challenged and/or condemned bec...
Deviance <ul><li>Deviance is defined within a group’s framework. </li></ul><ul><li>ie the definition is not universally ap...
Deviance <ul><li>Deviance is often divided into two types of deviant activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal deviance -  ...
TYPES OF DEVIATION <ul><li>Individual deviance - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural deviation : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dev...
TYPES OF DEVIATION <ul><li>Group deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Members of an organized groups in which a particular deviant b...
TYPES OF DEVIATION <ul><li>Deviant institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An institution that practices a particular deviant be...
Classification of deviance <ul><li>Primary deviance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the process of defining behavior as ab...
Classification of deviance <ul><li>Secondary Deviance </li></ul><ul><li>The change in behavior which results from being la...
Classification of deviance <ul><li>The consequence of  this initial labeling for the individual’s behavior and social iden...
<ul><li>What causes a person </li></ul><ul><li>to be deviant? </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf ...
Three possible explanations <ul><li>Biological —medicalization  of deviance, a physical illness </li></ul><ul><li>Psycholo...
Symbolic Interaction Perspective: <ul><li>1. Differential Association Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some groups teach membe...
Functional Theory <ul><li>Deviance is natural and functional for society because:  </li></ul><ul><li>Deviance clarifies mo...
Conflict Theory Perspective <ul><li>(deviance = power struggle) </li></ul><ul><li>Those at top create laws to maintain soc...
Social consequences of deviance <ul><li>Functions of deviance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unifying the group </li></ul></ul><ul...
Medicine and deviance <ul><li>The benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Since early 20 th  century, medical models of deviance are i...
Forms medicalization of deviance <ul><li>Medical technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychopharmacology: tranquilizers for m...
Medicine and deviance <ul><li>Consequences  </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of medical profession to by pass sanctions for crimina...
02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Social control
<ul><li>The application of systematic behavioral restraints intended to motivate people to obey social expectations throug...
<ul><li>Sanctions are the basis for a culture’s system of social control  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal sanctions- diffus...
<ul><li>The Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religion was the ultimate judge in matters of social values and behavior in ear...
<ul><li>Medicine  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs a social function as well as its more obvious therapeutic one </li></ul><...
Doctor as an agent of social control <ul><li>Doctor’s decisions usually goes beyond the individual patient, e.g. </li></ul...
Doctor as an agent of social control <ul><li>Medicalization of illnesses leads to their  withdrawal from the realm of publ...
Agents of social control 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Stigma
<ul><li>In order for us to understand what is stigma, we first need to understand what is labeling </li></ul><ul><li>This ...
Labeling <ul><li>Refers to the process whereby individual characteristics are identified by others and given a negative la...
Labeling  <ul><li>Some reasons for labeling eg Psychiatric Dx:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychiatric diagnosis is less precis...
<ul><li>In Greek refers to visible marks inflicted on the body to signify the status of social outcast (Goffman, 1963) </l...
Types of stigma <ul><li>Discreditable stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping stigmatizing conditions hidden except to close ...
<ul><li>Felt stigma -a sense of fear due to one’s condition, (a young man with STD during first clinic visit) </li></ul><u...
Examples of stigmatized conditions <ul><ul><li>Mental illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Brainstorm…. <ul><li>What are the effects of stigma? </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH...
<ul><li>Passing (normal) e.g. epileptic  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can still experience ‘felt stigma’, feel inferior, as hidin...
Managing stigma <ul><li>Changing labels </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Old lab...
Managing stigma <ul><li>What are best ways you think stigma can be reduced in the society? </li></ul>02/09/10 Socializatio...
CONCLUSION <ul><li>Socialisation – shapes the social experience of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Social control - in wh...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Cecil G Helman. Culture, Health and Illness. Wright 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>David Armstrong. Outline of ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Socialization, Social Control, Deviance & Stigma By Yusuf Abdu Misau

27,824 views

Published on

Socialization, Social Control, Deviance & Stigma By Yusuf Abdu Misau

  1. 1. Socialization, Social control, deviance & stigma Dr. Yusuf Abdu Misau MBBS (ABU), MPH (MAL), PhD Cand. (MAL) Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya
  2. 2. Acknowledgement <ul><li>I wish to acknowledge A/P Nabilla Al-Sadat for permission to use her slides in this presentation </li></ul>Tuesday, February 9, 2010 Models of Health Behavior_Yusuf Misau
  3. 3. Contents <ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition, primary and secondary socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of social structure, social class and social stratification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deviance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deviance group, deviant institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illness and labelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illness and stigma </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  4. 4. Contents <ul><li>Social control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies of social control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition, examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact and management </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  5. 5. socialization 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  6. 6. What is socialization? <ul><li>The process of being raised within a culture and acquiring the characteristics of that group </li></ul><ul><li>Spector RE, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>These characteristics include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Values and Actions </li></ul></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  7. 7. SOCIALISATION <ul><li>Socialization can also occur by: </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes of one’s cultural patterns to those of the host society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In US usually takes 3 generations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assimilation (Cultural, marital, primary & secondary ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which an individual develops a new cultural identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopts the ways of the dominant culture </li></ul></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  8. 8. Why do we need socialization? <ul><li>We need socialization for two major reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To enable us adapt into our society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And turn us into conforming members of society </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  9. 9. Think of this: 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 feral child
  10. 10. Stages of “self” development <ul><li>Charles Cooley wrote of the “Looking Glass Self” </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which a self develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) We imagine how we appear to others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) We interpret others’ reactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) We develop a self-concept. </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  11. 11. Stages of “self” development <ul><li>“ Self” concept is determined then by personality which has three components: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) The id — inborn drives. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The ego — the balancing force. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The superego — the conscience or culture within us. </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  12. 12. Who is your most important mirror? <ul><li>According to Mead, some people are more important to us than others </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Others : People whose judgments are most important to our self-concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on your age your significant others can change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children: parents, grandparents, siblings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teenagers: peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults: spouses, parents, friends, and employers </li></ul></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  13. 13. 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Do YOU dress/ get ready for yourself or for how others see you? Who are YOUR most important significant others? “ No one can make you feel inferior without your consent” –Eleanor Roosevelt
  14. 14. Agents of socialization <ul><li>Charles Cooley (1864-1929) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary (Informal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early socialization within the family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be extended to include neighbor or friend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less formal, occurs naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary (Formal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of more impersonal organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large formal organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets of rules and procedures </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 eg. Schools, Workplaces, Pressure groups, Political parties, Governments
  15. 15. Primary socialization <ul><li>The process whereby norms and values are acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Informal – picks up from his parents or peers smoking habits, ways of dealing with illness & even ways of being ill </li></ul><ul><li>* Norms – ways of behaving that are considered normal in a particular society (usual & expected) </li></ul><ul><li>* Values – their moral principles & beliefs (eg traditional family values) </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  16. 16. Secondary socialization <ul><li>Secondary (Formal) </li></ul><ul><li>Operates throughout a person’s life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Where a child is taught the norms and values of those running the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education is a ‘continuous effort to impose on the child ways of seeing, feeling and acting at which he would not have arrived spontaneously’ (Durkheim, 1901) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where an individual picks up and adapts to a new ambience/situation (recruits into occupations like medicine, the law, sociology, civil service etc.) </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  17. 17. re-socialization? 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  18. 18. Re-Socialization is: <ul><li>Learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Re-Socialization (new job, divorce, new groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Institutions do re-socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Army barracks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prison </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation centers for drug addicts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental rehabilitation centers </li></ul></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  19. 19. Brainstorm… <ul><li>Both socialization and re-socialization influence health outcome of an individual or societies, Discuss </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  20. 20. 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 DEVIANCE
  21. 21. What is Deviance? <ul><li>Deviance is any behavior or physical appearance that is socially challenged and/or condemned because it departs from the norms and expectations of a group. </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  22. 22. Deviance <ul><li>Deviance is defined within a group’s framework. </li></ul><ul><li>ie the definition is not universally applied </li></ul><ul><li>What is deviant in one group may not be in another </li></ul><ul><li>E.g Smoking marijuana is deviant in Britain and alcohol is not , vice versa in some Middle Eastern cultures </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of “relativity of deviance” </li></ul><ul><li>Some behaviors are however regarded to be deviant across all cultures. </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  23. 23. Deviance <ul><li>Deviance is often divided into two types of deviant activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal deviance - crime is the violation of formally enacted laws .Examples of formal deviance would include: robbery, theft, rape, murder, and assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal deviance - violations of informal social norms, norms that have not been codified into law. Examples of informal deviance might include: picking one's nose , belching loudly (in some cultures), or standing too close to another unnecessarily (again, in some cultures). </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  24. 24. TYPES OF DEVIATION <ul><li>Individual deviance - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural deviation : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deviates in behavior from the norms of culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological deviation /Personality disorder: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deviates from the norms in personality e.g. psychotic, neurotic, paranoid etc </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  25. 25. TYPES OF DEVIATION <ul><li>Group deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Members of an organized groups in which a particular deviant behavior is practiced. Society considers the group deviant but within them, members are not deviant ( Gay club). </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce the deviation, Emotional protection, Cultivate new deviants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private language, Rigid stereotyped behaviour </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  26. 26. TYPES OF DEVIATION <ul><li>Deviant institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An institution that practices a particular deviant behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional deviance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when members of particular institution are engaged in particular deviant behavior </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  27. 27. Classification of deviance <ul><li>Primary deviance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the process of defining behavior as abnormal or unusual in that conventions or expected behavior are not followed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deviation remains primary as long as they are rationalized or dealt with as functions of a socially acceptable role </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  28. 28. Classification of deviance <ul><li>Secondary Deviance </li></ul><ul><li>The change in behavior which results from being labeled as deviant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling produces social pressures to conform to certain expectations and therefore the label becomes a self-fulfiling prophecy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are institutionalized tend to become dependent and labeled behavior such as mental illness may be reinforced </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  29. 29. Classification of deviance <ul><li>The consequence of this initial labeling for the individual’s behavior and social identity </li></ul><ul><li>Enters the formal system </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.. A child with disfiguring cleft may be regarded as mentally inferior by other children and teachers causing her to be socially introverted and to achieve below its true ability in school (Richman, 1983; Richman and Elinson, 1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Cleft retards chances of marriage and family formation (Peters and Chinsky, 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Uganda, blind girls have reduced marriage opportunities </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  30. 30. <ul><li>What causes a person </li></ul><ul><li>to be deviant? </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  31. 31. Three possible explanations <ul><li>Biological —medicalization of deviance, a physical illness </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological —personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological —socialization into deviance (symbolic interaction, functional, and conflict perspectives) </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  32. 32. Symbolic Interaction Perspective: <ul><li>1. Differential Association Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some groups teach members to deviate from social norms while others teach conformity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Control Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our inner controls involve morals, Our outer controls consist of all that influence us not to deviate (e.g., parents). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When these controls are weak, deviance results. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Labeling Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>labels become a part of our self-concept, they set us on paths that propel us into or divert us from deviance. </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  33. 33. Functional Theory <ul><li>Deviance is natural and functional for society because: </li></ul><ul><li>Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms </li></ul><ul><li>Deviance promotes social unity </li></ul><ul><li>Deviance promotes social change </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  34. 34. Conflict Theory Perspective <ul><li>(deviance = power struggle) </li></ul><ul><li>Those at top create laws to maintain social inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Laws are often instruments of oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>The powerful are more able to bypass the court system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many of the “well off” are answerable to law? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¾ or all prison inmates have been there before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation programmes unsuccessful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital punishment is unevenly applied </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  35. 35. Social consequences of deviance <ul><li>Functions of deviance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unifying the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsing conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplying a warning signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a safety valve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctions of deviance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making life unpredictable and tense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverting precious resources into social control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermining the enthusiasm or support provided by members of an organization or society </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  36. 36. Medicine and deviance <ul><li>The benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Since early 20 th century, medical models of deviance are increasingly being accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Medicalization of deviance is today one of the commonest forms medical social control </li></ul><ul><li>It involves defining deviant behavior as an illness or a symptom of illness and subsequent medical intervention </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  37. 37. Forms medicalization of deviance <ul><li>Medical technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychopharmacology: tranquilizers for mental illness, psychosurgery, surgery for gender dysphoria, intestinal by pass for obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information provider, gatekeeper: insanity defense, fitness to stand trial, medical discharge from military, medical legitimization of missing exam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychotherapy </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  38. 38. Medicine and deviance <ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of medical profession to by pass sanctions for criminal offence </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease public clamor moral definition of behaviors eg homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages expert monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>Suppresses understanding behaviors that may be repudiation of political arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Explains all evils as pathology: Holocaust, Charles Manson, Watergate, Libya’s Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein, George Bush, Osama, all could be explained away as individual’s pathology instead of man’s inhumanity to man </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  39. 39. 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Social control
  40. 40. <ul><li>The application of systematic behavioral restraints intended to motivate people to obey social expectations through socialization, social expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Social expectation have become part of the personality structure </li></ul><ul><li>People therefore feel guilty when they deviate. </li></ul>Social control 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  41. 41. <ul><li>Sanctions are the basis for a culture’s system of social control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal sanctions- diffuse standards of expected behavior eg forms of greetings/length of hair/dress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal sanctions- deviance is considered sufficiently serious to require external constraints eg. law </li></ul></ul>Social control 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  42. 42. <ul><li>The Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religion was the ultimate judge in matters of social values and behavior in earlier times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>institutions e.g. mosque, church (confession), temple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the decline of religion in modern times the explicit rules governing social conduct have increasingly been taken over by the Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Follow the laws – judged & punished) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul>Agents of social control 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  43. 43. <ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs a social function as well as its more obvious therapeutic one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors occupies a position of eminence in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to their eminence, Doctors can claim jurisdiction over the label of illness and anything to which the label can be attached, regardless of whether or not they can deal with it effectively- Medicalization of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine therefore acts as an institution of social control and the doctor as an agent of social control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patients are judged ill or well by the doctor </li></ul></ul>Doctor as an agent of social control 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  44. 44. Doctor as an agent of social control <ul><li>Doctor’s decisions usually goes beyond the individual patient, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic surgeons have helped define or at least perpetuate cultural standards of beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychiatrist who prescribes drugs for a person's emotional suffering alters our cultural conceptions of what conditions we need not tolerate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organ transplants have redefined our notions of death and dying. </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  45. 45. Doctor as an agent of social control <ul><li>Medicalization of illnesses leads to their withdrawal from the realm of public discussion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. when drunkenness, juvenile delinquency . . . and extreme political beliefs are seen as symptoms of an underlying illness or biological defect the merits of such behaviors or beliefs no longer become subject of public debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When health professionals attempt to eradicate a disease or a noxious social behavior, we all supposedly benefit. – case of small pox and polio </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  46. 46. Agents of social control 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  47. 47. 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Stigma
  48. 48. <ul><li>In order for us to understand what is stigma, we first need to understand what is labeling </li></ul><ul><li>This is because, labeling leads to stigma </li></ul><ul><li>Most stigmatized conditions are first labeled in the society before being stigmatized </li></ul>Stigma 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  49. 49. Labeling <ul><li>Refers to the process whereby individual characteristics are identified by others and given a negative label( Lemert, 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>It reflect social significance attached to an act linked to individual or group </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling often leads to dramatic change in behavior of individual involved </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  50. 50. Labeling <ul><li>Some reasons for labeling eg Psychiatric Dx: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychiatric diagnosis is less precise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychiatric conditions carry much greater social significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifestations are principally in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A label that leads to a negative social reaction ultimately cause stigma </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma is a mark of social disgrace </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  51. 51. <ul><li>In Greek refers to visible marks inflicted on the body to signify the status of social outcast (Goffman, 1963) </li></ul><ul><li>Any physical or behavioral attribute which is negatively valued and leads a person to be regarded as unacceptable or inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a product of the condition or based on negative judgments of others </li></ul><ul><li>General health eg. Blindness, epilepsy, mental disorder and sexually transmitted disease </li></ul><ul><li>Response is determined by the visibility and obtrusiveness of their stigma </li></ul>stigma 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  52. 52. Types of stigma <ul><li>Discreditable stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping stigmatizing conditions hidden except to close ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(HIV Positive, mastectomy, orchidectomy, ambigous genitalia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discrediting stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a stigmatizing condition cannot be hidden, (eg amputation, loss of one eye, acne, wheel chair use) </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  53. 53. <ul><li>Felt stigma -a sense of fear due to one’s condition, (a young man with STD during first clinic visit) </li></ul><ul><li>Enacted stigma (e.g. removing schizophrenic from bus) </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy stigma: s tigma felt by carer, (parent of child with autism, cerebral palsy, spouse of Alzheimer's patient) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural stereotyping e.g. (drug abuse hiding from employer for fear of being dismissed) </li></ul>Types of stigma 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  54. 54. Examples of stigmatized conditions <ul><ul><li>Mental illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leprosy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemiplegia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deafness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alcoholics </li></ul></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  55. 55. Brainstorm…. <ul><li>What are the effects of stigma? </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  56. 56. <ul><li>Passing (normal) e.g. epileptic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can still experience ‘felt stigma’, feel inferior, as hiding a discreditable part of their character from the world outside (Scrambler and Hopkins, 1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Covering (avoiding situations, reducing visibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal from social life </li></ul>Managing stigma 02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  57. 57. Managing stigma <ul><li>Changing labels </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010 Old label new label Madness Mongolism Leprosy HIV Mental illness Downs syndrome Hansen’s disease Retroviral disease
  58. 58. Managing stigma <ul><li>What are best ways you think stigma can be reduced in the society? </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  59. 59. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Socialisation – shapes the social experience of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Social control - in which family, peer groups and institutions motivate people to obey norms </li></ul><ul><li>Deviation - behaviour that violates the norms of a society </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma - Individual characteristics are identified by others and given a negative label. </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010
  60. 60. REFERENCES <ul><li>Cecil G Helman. Culture, Health and Illness. Wright 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>David Armstrong. Outline of Sociology as Applied to Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann. 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Graham Scambler (ed). Sociology as Applied to Medicine. Saunders 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Rachel E. Spector. Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness. Pearson Prentice Hall 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Gartly Jaco (ed). Patients, Physicians, and Illness. A Sourcebook in Behavioural Science and Health. The Free Press 1979. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pineforge.com/newman4study/resources/socialcontrol.htm </li></ul>02/09/10 Socialization, Deviances & Stigma, Yusuf Misau MPH_2010

×