The Basic Model: Our behavior is influenced by two functions perception: how we gather information from the external world judgment (decision making): how we process this information And by two attitudes orientation of energy: is our energy source from others or ourselves? orientation to the outside world: is our preference for order or spontaneity? “ Remember that we are dealing with preferences . Each of us has some Extraversion and some Introversion (as well as some of the other six characteristics). What Typewatching is all about is determining which alternatives you prefer to use.” Otto Kroeger & Janet M. Thuesen, Type Talk , 1988
Sensing tends to be interested in concrete reality, focusing on the present, and seeing what is, rather than what might be. At an extreme, Sensing can have its feet so well and truly on the ground that it misses out on possibilities for the future. The preference for iNtuition gives a greater emphasis on insight and the future, focusing on what might be, rather than what is. At an extreme, iNtuition can focus so much on possibilities that it loses touch with current realities.
Have each group work on the problem on the next page (10 minutes) and prepare to report out. Where are you? Feeling Thinking
If it is in a structured way, making decisions and knowing where you stand, then it is called Judgement. If it is in a flexible way, discovering life as you go along - this is called Perception. (The reason for these terms being used is a little complicated - if you would like to know more then read our page on the dynamic model of Myers Briggs, after you have completed this page) .Someone whose preference is Judgement prefers, in their lifestyle, to make decisions. This means that they prefer to make decisions about what to do, where to go, what to say, and so on. As a result of these decisions, their lifestyle appears organised. That is, someone whose preference is Judgement, prefers to make decisions in the world of actions and spoken words, and therefore appears organised. Someone whose preference is Perception prefers, in their lifestyle, to learn or experience new things. This means that they prefer to find out more, rather than making decisions, and are more comfortable when they keep their options open. As a result of this openness, they can appear flexible. That is, someone whose preference is Perception, prefers to perceive new things in the world of actions and spoken words, and therefore appears flexible. For “J’s”, life is a product , for “P’s”, life is a process . Example: todo-lists A J always has a todo list; at the end of the all (or any case, most) of his actions are ticked off. (An extreme J will even add actions that were not on the list originally, just to be able to tick them off.) A P also has a todo list, but at the end of the day, it contains more items than at the beginning of the day. Example: how a J and a P prepare for a trip J plans where to stay, where to eat, works out logistics P just gets up and GOES - discovers a B&B, restaurants etc along the way Example: how a J and a P “clean the bathroom” Example: J husband: “Would you like some peaches for an evening snack?” (ask for decision/judgment) P wife: “We haven’t had peaches in a long time.” (gives observation/perception) J, annoyed: “Tell me something I don’t already know!” Without a doubt, within the next ten minutes or so, the P wife will wonder: “Where are my peaches?”
Set the Ss left and the Ns right The Is are always up in the sky Put the Fs in the middle, so that they can hold hands As Ps will know, they are always surrounded by Js 15 mins Each individual identifies their own type and puts a sticky dots on Type Table Large group discussion (engineer comparison) The distribution of people over the table is more or less evenly. However, about 90% of army leaders are ISTJ. ISTJ and ISTP are overrepresented by Black Belts (common to engineering environments).
Week 2 presentation
+Week 2 Personality and IdentityPersonal StyleSeptember 13, 2011
+ Objectives Understand the social factors in identity development and recognition. Understand how social psychology impacts team interactions. Discuss personality branding Gain insight into your personal style as well as the styles of others
+ What is a personality? 1. The combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individuals distinctive character. 2. Qualities that make someone interesting or popular. What is the difference between those two definitions?
+ What is social psychology? 1. A discipline that seeks "to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other human beings". ~ Gordon Allport (1985) 2. The branch of psychology that deals with social interactions. Main lines of inquiry: How do people come to be who they are? How do people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
+ Why? By exploring forces within the person (such as traits, attitudes, and goals) as well as forces within the situation (such as social norms and incentives), personality and social psychologists learn what human factors go into prejudice, romantic attraction, persuasion, friendship, helping, aggression, conformity, and group interaction. Personality psychology has traditionally focused on aspects of the individual, and social psychology on aspects of the situation. In fact, the two are tightly interwoven in psychological explanations of human behavior. More info: http://www.spsp.org/?page=Whatis
+ Why at work? End of assembly-line workplaces Teams are made up of people with a sense of self, but that self is produced in the context of the group. Social psychology makes relational power dynamics more transparent. Understandingpower as it relates to personality helps you be a better team member and an even better manager. More info: http://www.spsp.org/?page=Whatis
+ If sound works... The Jerry reel: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akvPTfDo-LU
+ We are also: • Who our parents think we are • Who our friends want us to be • Who our job requires us to be • Who we wish to be for our spouse
+ This is represented by the following schema: Cognition Claims self-knowledge Identity production “what do I know “I like/do/prefer/am...” about me?” MY SELF Recognition Identity confirmation “He/She is..”
+ This model can be uncomfortable because: • Contingent Life events, circumstance, environmental factors • Powerful External factors impact who we believe we are • Changeable Because life is full of change, so are people
+ However it is also exciting because: • Flexible Discard types in favor of context and evidence. • Pluralistic Room for many kinds of people, and social groupings. • Evolving Understanding of personality changes with norms.
+ Although not as popular in management theory, the business world has embraced social psychology through the concept of the personal brand.
+ Personal Brand Personal branding is the process of developing a “mark” that is created around your personal name or your career. You use this “mark” to express and communicate your skills, personality and values. The end goal is that the personal brand that you develop will build your reputation and help you to grow your network in a way that interests others. They will then seek you out for your knowledge and expertise.
+ Issues with the “personal” brand Wikipedia: It has been noted that while previous self-help management techniques were about self-improvement, the personal branding concept suggests instead that success comes from self-packaging.
+ Issues with the “personal” brand Who or what decides if your “personal brand” is successful? Does a successful personal brand represent the best a person can be, or just the most successful version of themselves? Is there an authentic “personality” that is not expressed by having a brand?
+ The problem of AUTHENTICITY “Is there really any value to turning yourself into a character or a product instead of just being... well, who you are?” ~ Olivier Blanchard http://thebrandbuilder.wordpress.com/2012/01/03/r-i-p-personal- branding/ But if who I am depends on so many external factors is it realistic to expect me to be “who I am” without thinking about how that is percieved by others? ~ Miriam, your teacher, who made up these slides
+ The “authenticity” paradox in plain English: The popular kids will always tell you to “be yourself”.
+ Using social psychology at work In communication: • Seek out other points of view • Acknowledge power differences • Model the type of behaviour you want from others • Learn to read (and empathize!) with non-verbal cues • Learn to say what goes unsaid with diplomacy
+ Using a social psychology at work To understand yourself: • Think about who you are in different contexts (ie: During a meeting, on deadline, listening to a presentation.) • Look for behaviour patterns across and within specific contexts • Identify positive and negative beliefs, the outcomes they support and the contexts (or relationships) in which they occur • Practice understanding yourself in context, and develop a non-judgemental frame of reference.
+ Exercise If you were a brand, what would your 3 keywords be? • How do those keywords reflect your values? • Are there keywords that do not express who you are outside of a business context? • What are your anti-keywords? Why? • What do the antis say about you that the positive words dont.
+ Personal Styles: Some Assumptions All of us have strengths ways to influence others areas for improvement something to learn about ourselves something to teach, share with the team People are complex No one instrument or survey can completely convey who we are Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [MBTI] is an opportunity to gain insight into some aspects of ourselves and others
+ The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI reports some of our key: • Preferences • Tendencies • Characteristics • But not all of themCAUTIONS:1. MBTI is not meant to pigeonhole or stereotype individuals.2. MBTI sorts preferences, not behaviour or ability. Within each typeis a wide range of behaviours, values and tastes.3. Individuals may use different behaviours to adapt to specificsituations.4. Each preference is on a continuum, so there is great variationwithin the same type.5. There are no “right” or “wrong” preferences.
+ MBTI: Four Preferences Source of energyE Extraversion Introversion I Way of gathering informationS Sensing iNtuition N Decision makingT Thinking Feeling F Relating to the external worldJ Judgment Perception P
+ Extraversion and Introversion (Source of energy) Extraversion IntroversionE I An extravert’s essential An introvert’s essential stimulation, way of stimulation, way of getting energy, is from getting energy, is from the environment, the within - the inner world outer world of people of thoughts, ideas, and and things. reflections.
+ E or I (Key words) Extraversion IntroversionE I Jumps In, Initiating Reflective Sociability Intensive Interaction Concentration Multiplicity Limited relationships Thinks out loud Rehearse before talking External Internal Breadth Depth Expressive Constraint
+ E or I (Preferred Work Environment) Extraversion IntroversionE I Varied and action-oriented Quiet and concentrated Prefers to be around and with Prefers to be alone others Interests have depth Interests have breadth Calm and private Lively Allow time for silent reflection on Remain aware of the solutions, conceptualize the problem, environment, and look deeply into issues allow time to verbalize agreements, then take action.
+ Questions for Es & Is What assumptions do you make about the other type? What questions would you like to ask members of the other type? What do you appreciate about the other type? Jonathan Rauch, “Caring for Your Introvert: The habits and needs of a little-understood group,” The Atlantic Monthly. March 2003.
+ Sensing and Intuition (Taking in information) Sensing IntuitionS N The sensing function The intuitive function takes in information by takes in information way of the five senses - by way of insight and sight, sound, feel, taste, impressions. and smell.
+ S or N (Preferred Work Environment) Sensing IntuitiveS N Prefers using learned skills Prefers adding new skills Pays attention to details Full of new challenges Patient with details and makes Patient with complexity few factual errors See the big picture(s), forge into Know the facts, understand the new areas, and develop new plan, and work out possibilities. implementation details
+ Thinking and Feeling (Making decisions) Thinking FeelingT F The thinking function The feeling function decides on the basis of decides on the basis of logic and objective personal, subjective considerations. values.
+ T or F(Preferred Work Environment) Thinking FeelingT F Brief and businesslike Naturally friendly Impersonal Personal Treats others fairly Detached Treats others as they need to be treated Discuss issues logically, consider the pros and cons of various Involved alternatives, and spot the inconsistencies in a plan Understand what is important to people, acknowledge the human side of decision-making, and help others accept decisions
+ Judgment and Perception (How we relate to the external world) Judging PerceivingJ P A perceiving orientation is A judging orientation is flexible, adaptable, and decisive, planned, and spontaneous. orderly. Provide new ideas, insight, Generate systems, and react with flexibility if systems need adjusting provide organization, and act with decisiveness
+ J or P (Preferred Work Environment) Judging PerceivingJ P Focus on completing Focus on starting task task Postpone decisions Make decisions quickly Wantto find out all Wantonly the essentials of the job about the job Firm Flexible deadlines deadlines
MBTI Characteristics ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ• Give time to reflect • Give time to reflect • Give time to reflect • Give time to reflect• Know your facts • Know your facts • Develop new alternatives • Develop new alternatives• Apply logic • Understand people values • Understand people values • Apply logic• Ensure closure • Ensure closure • Ensure closure • Ensure closure• “Measured results” • “Practical benefit” • “Relationships” • “Competency” ISTP ISFP INFP INTP• Give time to reflect • Give time to reflect • Give time to reflect • Give time to reflect• Know your facts • Know your facts • Develop new alternatives • Develop new alternatives• Apply logic • Understand people values • Understand people values • Apply logic• Be flexible • Be flexible • Be flexible • Be flexible• “Measured results” • “Practical benefit” • “Relationships” • “Competency” ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP• Verbalize agreements • Verbalize agreements • Verbalize agreements • Verbalize agreements• Know your facts • Know your facts • Develop new alternatives • Develop new alternatives• Apply logic • Understand people values • Understand people values • Apply logic• Be flexible • Be flexible • Be flexible • Be flexible• “Measured results” • “Practical benefit” • “Relationships” • “Competency” ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ• Verbalize agreements • Verbalize agreements • Verbalize agreements • Verbalize agreements• Know your facts • Know your facts • Develop new alternatives • Develop new alternatives• Apply logic • Understand people values • Understand people values • Apply logic• Ensure closure • Ensure closure • Ensure closure • Ensure closure• “Measured results” • “Practical benefit” • “Relationships” • “Competency”
+ Type Development Understand your preferences and those of others See how others perceive you Identify ways to develop your less preferred behaviors Find ways to position yourself in an environment that makes best use of your preferences
+ MBTI & Team DevelopmentINDIVIDUALKnowing your own MBTI may help you to understand: Your actions. How you function in a team. Why you react to certain things in certain ways. How to improve your own performance. How to recognize your own strengths and weaknesses. When organizational goals require you to act in ways different to your natural preferences, you may have a basis for understanding this difference and any resulting tension.
+ MBTI & Team DevelopmentINDIVIDUAL WITHIN THE TEAMUnderstanding your own preferences and those of team members may: Help to show how members can contribute to achieving the team’s goals. Support more effective working relationships. Offer the opportunity to analyze collective preferences of team members. Identifythe team’s potential strengths and weaknesses. Clarify team working procedures.
+ MBTI & Team Development A shared understanding of preferences within the team may help team members to: Appreciating differences Reach agreement more quickly Solve problems effectively Reach more useful and insightful conclusions Share facilitation responsibilities