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Famous WritersFamous Writers
AgainstAgainst
an Infamous Kingan Infamous King
Miroslav Atanasov, Ph.D.Miroslav Atanasov, Ph...
Famous Writers AgainstFamous Writers Against
an Infamous Kingan Infamous King
Classic British and AmericanClassic British ...
IntroductionIntroduction
At times of great crises, disasters, and historical tragedies, oftenAt times of great crises, dis...
I. Historical BackgroundI. Historical Background
 The Perpetrator.The Perpetrator.
 The Great Deception.The Great Decept...
The PerpetratorThe Perpetrator
 The Second Monarch ofThe Second Monarch of
Belgium (1865-1909).Belgium (1865-1909).
 Amb...
The Great DeceptionThe Great Deception
 Brussels Geographical Conference ofBrussels Geographical Conference of
1876.1876....
Berlin Conference for AfricaBerlin Conference for Africa
The Scramble for Africa (1885-1914)The Scramble for Africa (1885-1914)
L'Etat Indépendant duL'Etat Indépendant du CCongoongo
Flag of the Congo Free StateFlag of the Congo Free State
EU flagEU f...
The African HolocaustThe African Holocaust
1. First few years were difficult and not profitable1. First few years were dif...
Rubber BoomRubber Boom
Rubber TerrorRubber Terror
Forced LaborForced Labor
Kidnappings and RapeKidnappings and Rape
Reign of Horror and DevastationReign of Horror and Devastation
Starvation Burnt VillagesStarvation Burnt Villages
MutilationsMutilations
NSALA meets Alice S. HarrisNSALA meets Alice S. Harris
Nsala of WalaNsala of Wala
Alice S. HarrisAlice S. Harris
Congo Reform AssociationCongo Reform Association
(1904-1913)(1904-1913)
Edmund D. MorelEdmund D. Morel Roger CasementRoger...
The King is ExposedThe King is Exposed

Expert OpinionExpert Opinion
Leopold: “Silly fuss they’re making about these so-c...
The Great DeceiverThe Great Deceiver
Humanitarian PretextHumanitarian Pretext
What Leopold II promisedWhat Leopold II prom...
The End of Leopold’s TerrorThe End of Leopold’s Terror
1.1. Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt, President of the United,...
II. Great Works of LiteratureII. Great Works of Literature
Six classics writings from various genreSix classics writings f...
George Washington WilliamsGeorge Washington Williams
(1849-1891)(1849-1891)
 American Civil War veteran –American Civil W...
An Open Letter toAn Open Letter to the Belgian Kingthe Belgian King
and a Report to the American Presidentand a Report to ...
An Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of theAn Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of the
B...
Joseph ConradJoseph Conrad
(1857-1924)(1857-1924)
 Born to Polish Parents in Ukraine.Born to Polish Parents in Ukraine.
...
Heart of DarknessHeart of Darkness (1899)(1899)
GenreGenre:: AA novellanovella is a written, fictional, proseis a written,...
Heart of DarknessHeart of Darkness
 Marlow offers this comment as a preface to his main taleMarlow offers this comment as...
Mark TwainMark Twain
(1835-1910)(1835-1910)
 Born in Florida, Missouri, USA.Born in Florida, Missouri, USA.
 Samuel Clem...
King Leopold’s Soliloquy: A DefenseKing Leopold’s Soliloquy: A Defense
of His Congo Ruleof His Congo Rule (1905)(1905)
Gen...
King Leopold’s SoliloquyKing Leopold’s Soliloquy
On the mediaOn the media::
In these twenty years I have spent millions to...
SirSir Arthur Conan DoyleArthur Conan Doyle
(1859-1930)(1859-1930)
 Born in Edinburgh,Born in Edinburgh,
Scotland to Iris...
The Crime of the CongoThe Crime of the Congo (1909)(1909)
DefinitionDefinition: Non-fiction: Non-fiction EXPOSÉEXPOSÉ (Fre...
The Crime of the CongoThe Crime of the Congo
We have all failed at times. But never has there been failure so hopeless,We ...
Nicholas Vachel LindsayNicholas Vachel Lindsay
(1879-1931)(1879-1931)
 Born in Springfield, Illinois, USA.Born in Springf...
The Congo: A Study ofThe Congo: A Study of
the Negro Racethe Negro Race (1913)(1913)
Listen to the yell of Leopold's ghost...
Adam HochschildAdam Hochschild
(1942)(1942)
 American writer, journalist,American writer, journalist,
lecturer and commen...
King Leopold’s GhostKing Leopold’s Ghost (1998)(1998)
GenreGenre :: Popular historyPopular history is a broadis a broad ge...
Parc du CinquantenaireParc du CinquantenaireBrussels,Brussels,
BelgiumBelgium
Royal Museum for Central AfricaRoyal Museum for Central Africa
Tervuren, BelgiumTervuren, Belgium
King Leopold’s Ghost:King Leopold’s Ghost:
The Great ForgettingThe Great Forgetting (Chapter 19)(Chapter 19)
In none of th...
Other Famous Writers AgainstOther Famous Writers Against
the Infamous Kingthe Infamous King
Booker T.Booker T.
WashingtonW...
ConclusionConclusion
Extraordinary times require extraordinary persons who are willing to goExtraordinary times require ex...
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Famous Writers against an Infamous King

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British and American authors exposing the horrors of the Congo Free State

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Famous Writers against an Infamous King

  1. 1. Famous WritersFamous Writers AgainstAgainst an Infamous Kingan Infamous King Miroslav Atanasov, Ph.D.Miroslav Atanasov, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Famous Writers AgainstFamous Writers Against an Infamous Kingan Infamous King Classic British and AmericanClassic British and American literature exposing the horrorsliterature exposing the horrors of the Congo Free Stateof the Congo Free State
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction At times of great crises, disasters, and historical tragedies, oftenAt times of great crises, disasters, and historical tragedies, often individuals would rise who speak the truth and raise their voices forindividuals would rise who speak the truth and raise their voices for righteousness. As a result beautiful writings and memorable speeches can berighteousness. As a result beautiful writings and memorable speeches can be birthed and we are enriched as future generations to those dark times!birthed and we are enriched as future generations to those dark times! In this lecture we will learn the learn the followingIn this lecture we will learn the learn the following:: I.I. The obscure and sad history of theThe obscure and sad history of the Congo Free State (1885-1908).Congo Free State (1885-1908). II.II. Some powerful pieces of activist literatureSome powerful pieces of activist literature brought about in regards to that period.brought about in regards to that period.
  4. 4. I. Historical BackgroundI. Historical Background  The Perpetrator.The Perpetrator.  The Great Deception.The Great Deception.  The African Holocaust.The African Holocaust.  The Campaign for Reforms.The Campaign for Reforms.  The Reluctant Transfer of a Country.The Reluctant Transfer of a Country.
  5. 5. The PerpetratorThe Perpetrator  The Second Monarch ofThe Second Monarch of Belgium (1865-1909).Belgium (1865-1909).  Ambitious to have a colony.Ambitious to have a colony.  Greedy for glory and wealth.Greedy for glory and wealth.  Good at public relations.Good at public relations.  One of the worst criminalsOne of the worst criminals in human historyin human history King Leopold IIKing Leopold II (1835-1909)(1835-1909)
  6. 6. The Great DeceptionThe Great Deception  Brussels Geographical Conference ofBrussels Geographical Conference of 1876.1876.  International African Association;International African Association; International Congo Association.International Congo Association.  Henry Morton Stanley.Henry Morton Stanley.  Berlin Conference for Africa 1884-85.Berlin Conference for Africa 1884-85.  Congo Free State – 1885.Congo Free State – 1885. H. M. StanleyH. M. Stanley
  7. 7. Berlin Conference for AfricaBerlin Conference for Africa
  8. 8. The Scramble for Africa (1885-1914)The Scramble for Africa (1885-1914)
  9. 9. L'Etat Indépendant duL'Etat Indépendant du CCongoongo Flag of the Congo Free StateFlag of the Congo Free State EU flagEU flag
  10. 10. The African HolocaustThe African Holocaust 1. First few years were difficult and not profitable1. First few years were difficult and not profitable for Leopold. The main export wasfor Leopold. The main export was ivoryivory.. 2. The invention of the pneumatic tire in Ireland2. The invention of the pneumatic tire in Ireland byby John DunlopJohn Dunlop in 1890 changed everything.in 1890 changed everything. 3. The3. The rubber boomrubber boom in the West and thein the West and the rubberrubber terrorterror in the Congo.in the Congo. 4. Forced labor enforced by the4. Forced labor enforced by the Force PubliqueForce Publique.. 5. Kidnapping, Murders, Rape, and Mutilations.5. Kidnapping, Murders, Rape, and Mutilations.
  11. 11. Rubber BoomRubber Boom
  12. 12. Rubber TerrorRubber Terror
  13. 13. Forced LaborForced Labor
  14. 14. Kidnappings and RapeKidnappings and Rape
  15. 15. Reign of Horror and DevastationReign of Horror and Devastation Starvation Burnt VillagesStarvation Burnt Villages
  16. 16. MutilationsMutilations
  17. 17. NSALA meets Alice S. HarrisNSALA meets Alice S. Harris Nsala of WalaNsala of Wala Alice S. HarrisAlice S. Harris
  18. 18. Congo Reform AssociationCongo Reform Association (1904-1913)(1904-1913) Edmund D. MorelEdmund D. Morel Roger CasementRoger Casement
  19. 19. The King is ExposedThe King is Exposed  Expert OpinionExpert Opinion Leopold: “Silly fuss they’re making about these so-called atrocities in my Congo property.”Leopold: “Silly fuss they’re making about these so-called atrocities in my Congo property.” Abdul: “Only talk, my dear boy. They won’t do anything. They never touched me.”Abdul: “Only talk, my dear boy. They won’t do anything. They never touched me.”
  20. 20. The Great DeceiverThe Great Deceiver Humanitarian PretextHumanitarian Pretext What Leopold II promisedWhat Leopold II promised to do in the Congo:to do in the Congo: 1. Civilization.1. Civilization. 2. Science.2. Science. 3. Christianity.3. Christianity. 4. Eradication of the4. Eradication of the Arabic slave trade.Arabic slave trade. 5. Education.5. Education. 6. Medical advances.6. Medical advances. Destructive ImpactDestructive Impact What Leopold II actuallyWhat Leopold II actually did to the Congo.did to the Congo. 1. Enslavement of the local1. Enslavement of the local population.population. 2. Plunder of tons of ivory,2. Plunder of tons of ivory, rubber, and other raw materials.rubber, and other raw materials. 3. Spread of diseases.3. Spread of diseases. 4. Starvation and devastation.4. Starvation and devastation. 5. Rape, murder, and mutilation.5. Rape, murder, and mutilation. 6. Destruction of over 10 million6. Destruction of over 10 million innocent African lives.innocent African lives.
  21. 21. The End of Leopold’s TerrorThe End of Leopold’s Terror 1.1. Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt, President of the United, President of the United States, gives speeches against the Congo regimeStates, gives speeches against the Congo regime and refuses to grant permission of the King to visitand refuses to grant permission of the King to visit the USA in 1906.the USA in 1906. 2. Voices in2. Voices in Great BritainGreat Britain call for a naval blockadecall for a naval blockade of the Congo River in order to stop the butchery.of the Congo River in order to stop the butchery. 3. In 19083. In 1908 BelgiumBelgium annexes Congo as a colony toannexes Congo as a colony to the state and changed its name to Belgian Congo.the state and changed its name to Belgian Congo. 4.4. Leopold IILeopold II, exposed as a, exposed as a mass criminalmass criminal, dies a, dies a year later, but abuses continue in the Congo.year later, but abuses continue in the Congo. 5.5. BelgiumBelgium continues to rob, plunder, and exploitcontinues to rob, plunder, and exploit Congo for another 52 years.Congo for another 52 years. 6.6. Patrice LumumbaPatrice Lumumba, a socialist and the leader of, a socialist and the leader of Congolese independence, is assassinated byCongolese independence, is assassinated by Belgium in 1961.Belgium in 1961. Teddy Roosevelt Patrice Lumumba
  22. 22. II. Great Works of LiteratureII. Great Works of Literature Six classics writings from various genreSix classics writings from various genre::  Open Letter – G. W. WilliamsOpen Letter – G. W. Williams  Novella – Joseph ConradNovella – Joseph Conrad  Soliloquy – Mark TwainSoliloquy – Mark Twain  Non-fiction expose – A. Conan DoyleNon-fiction expose – A. Conan Doyle  Poetry – N. Vachel LindsayPoetry – N. Vachel Lindsay  Popular history – Adam HochschildPopular history – Adam Hochschild
  23. 23. George Washington WilliamsGeorge Washington Williams (1849-1891)(1849-1891)  American Civil War veteran –American Civil War veteran – Military Colonel.Military Colonel.  Baptist Minister.Baptist Minister.  Lawyer.Lawyer.  Politician.Politician.  Historian.Historian.  Journalist and Editor.Journalist and Editor.  Author ofAuthor of The History of the NegroThe History of the Negro Race in America 1619–1880Race in America 1619–1880, the, the firstfirst history book on Africanhistory book on African Americans.Americans.
  24. 24. An Open Letter toAn Open Letter to the Belgian Kingthe Belgian King and a Report to the American Presidentand a Report to the American President GenreGenre:: An open letterAn open letter intended to be read by a wide audience, orintended to be read by a wide audience, or written for anwritten for an individual,individual, butbut for the purpose offor the purpose of widewide distributdistribution. It is normally intended toion. It is normally intended to express a public stance on issues, often critical, and to cause public debate.express a public stance on issues, often critical, and to cause public debate. This was the first public document expressing discontent about the harshThis was the first public document expressing discontent about the harsh conditions of Leopold’s regime. G.W. Williams had witnessed thoseconditions of Leopold’s regime. G.W. Williams had witnessed those personally on a visit to the Congo in 1890. As a result he publishedpersonally on a visit to the Congo in 1890. As a result he published An OpenAn Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of the Belgians and SovereignLetter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of the Belgians and Sovereign of the Independentof the Independent State of CongoState of Congo and alsoand also A Report Upon the Congo-StateA Report Upon the Congo-State and Country to the President of the Republic of the United Statesand Country to the President of the Republic of the United States.. Unfortunately, the author did not live long enough to continue the historicUnfortunately, the author did not live long enough to continue the historic fight for justice he had begun, but on his way back from Africa, died in Englandfight for justice he had begun, but on his way back from Africa, died in England from tuberculosis and pleurisy in 1891.from tuberculosis and pleurisy in 1891.
  25. 25. An Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of theAn Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of the Belgians and Sovereign of the Independent State of CongoBelgians and Sovereign of the Independent State of Congo All the crimes perpetrated in the Congo have beenAll the crimes perpetrated in the Congo have been done in your name, and you must answer at the bar ofdone in your name, and you must answer at the bar of Public Sentiment for the misgovernment of a people, whosePublic Sentiment for the misgovernment of a people, whose lives and fortunes were entrusted you by the augustlives and fortunes were entrusted you by the august Conference of Berlin, 1884-1885.Conference of Berlin, 1884-1885. I now appeal to the Powers,I now appeal to the Powers, which committed thiswhich committed this infant Stateinfant State to your Majesty’s charge, and to the greatto your Majesty’s charge, and to the great States which gave it international being; and whoseStates which gave it international being; and whose majestic law you have scorned and trampled upon, to callmajestic law you have scorned and trampled upon, to call and create anand create an international Commission to investigate theinternational Commission to investigate the charges herein preferred in thecharges herein preferred in the name of Humanity,name of Humanity, Commerce, Constitutional Government and ChristianCommerce, Constitutional Government and Christian Civilisation.Civilisation.
  26. 26. Joseph ConradJoseph Conrad (1857-1924)(1857-1924)  Born to Polish Parents in Ukraine.Born to Polish Parents in Ukraine.  His father was a writer, translator, andHis father was a writer, translator, and activist for Poland’s independenceactivist for Poland’s independence from Russia.from Russia.  Moved to England in his twenties toMoved to England in his twenties to work as a seaman on British ships.work as a seaman on British ships.  His travels inspired his writing career.His travels inspired his writing career.  Advocate on social and politicalAdvocate on social and political issues.issues.
  27. 27. Heart of DarknessHeart of Darkness (1899)(1899) GenreGenre:: AA novellanovella is a written, fictional, proseis a written, fictional, prose narrativenarrative normally longer than anormally longer than a short storyshort story but shorter than abut shorter than a novelnovel.. 1. Having served as a captain of a steam ship in the1. Having served as a captain of a steam ship in the Congo, J. Conrad, witnessed the horrors of theCongo, J. Conrad, witnessed the horrors of the regime of the Belgian King and his sadistic agents.regime of the Belgian King and his sadistic agents. 2. In his most famous work2. In his most famous work Heart of DarknessHeart of Darkness Conrad skillfully exploresConrad skillfully explores the beliefsthe beliefs held on theheld on the constitution ofconstitution of barbarianbarbarianism versus civilization.ism versus civilization. HeHe lifts up racism as the main justification forlifts up racism as the main justification for colonialismcolonialism andand the new Europeanthe new European imperialismimperialism in Africain Africa..
  28. 28. Heart of DarknessHeart of Darkness  Marlow offers this comment as a preface to his main taleMarlow offers this comment as a preface to his main tale. .  The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away fromThe conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses thanthose who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too muchourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much. (p. 7). (p. 7)  MarlowMarlow says the following in regard to Mr.says the following in regard to Mr. Kurtz's backgroundKurtz's background. .  All Europe contributed to the making of Kurtz, and by and by I learnedAll Europe contributed to the making of Kurtz, and by and by I learned that most appropriately the International Society for the Suppression ofthat most appropriately the International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs had entrusted him with the making of a report for itsSavage Customs had entrusted him with the making of a report for its future guidancefuture guidance.. (p.49)(p.49)
  29. 29. Mark TwainMark Twain (1835-1910)(1835-1910)  Born in Florida, Missouri, USA.Born in Florida, Missouri, USA.  Samuel Clemens (real name).Samuel Clemens (real name).  Reporter, humorist, traveler,Reporter, humorist, traveler, lecturer, and public speaker.lecturer, and public speaker.  Called “the father of AmericanCalled “the father of American literature.”literature.”  Author of several classic worksAuthor of several classic works such assuch as The Adventures of TomThe Adventures of Tom SawyerSawyer,, Life on the MississippiLife on the Mississippi,, andand The Adventures of Huckleberry FinnThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn..  Civil Rights activistCivil Rights activist..
  30. 30. King Leopold’s Soliloquy: A DefenseKing Leopold’s Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Ruleof His Congo Rule (1905)(1905) GenreGenre:: AA soliloquysoliloquy (from Latin(from Latin solosolo "to"to oneself" +oneself" + loquorloquor "I talk") is a device often used in drama when"I talk") is a device often used in drama when a charactera character speaksspeaks to himself orto himself or herself, relatingherself, relating thoughts and feelings, thereby alsothoughts and feelings, thereby also sharing them with the audience. Other characters, however, aresharing them with the audience. Other characters, however, are not aware ofnot aware of what is being saidwhat is being said, which makes it d, which makes it distinct fromistinct from aa monologuemonologue.. In thisIn this work of political satirework of political satire Leopold II discusses hisLeopold II discusses his actionsactions inin the Congo andthe Congo and speakspeakss in his own defense.in his own defense. In this classis piece ofIn this classis piece of literature the king madly raves about the good he has done forliterature the king madly raves about the good he has done for the Congo, and denies the international criticism about histhe Congo, and denies the international criticism about his immense personal profits and terrible crimes there.immense personal profits and terrible crimes there.
  31. 31. King Leopold’s SoliloquyKing Leopold’s Soliloquy On the mediaOn the media:: In these twenty years I have spent millions to keep the press of the twoIn these twenty years I have spent millions to keep the press of the two hemispheres quiet, and still these leaks keep on occurring. I have spent otherhemispheres quiet, and still these leaks keep on occurring. I have spent other millions on religion and art, and what do I get for it? Nothing. Not a compliment.millions on religion and art, and what do I get for it? Nothing. Not a compliment. These generosities are studiedly ignored, in print.These generosities are studiedly ignored, in print. On the cameraOn the camera:: The only witness I have encountered in my long experience that I couldn’t bribe.The only witness I have encountered in my long experience that I couldn’t bribe. On AmericansOn Americans:: Oh, well, let them blackguard me if they like; it is a deep satisfaction to me toOh, well, let them blackguard me if they like; it is a deep satisfaction to me to remember that I was a shade too smart forremember that I was a shade too smart for that nation that thinks itself so smart.that nation that thinks itself so smart. Yes, I certainly did bunco a YankeeYes, I certainly did bunco a Yankee —— as those people phrase it. Pirate flag? Letas those people phrase it. Pirate flag? Let them call it soothem call it soo —— perhaps it is. All the same, they were the first to salute it.perhaps it is. All the same, they were the first to salute it.
  32. 32. SirSir Arthur Conan DoyleArthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930)(1859-1930)  Born in Edinburgh,Born in Edinburgh, Scotland to Irish parents.Scotland to Irish parents.  Physician by education, butPhysician by education, but his medical career washis medical career was unsuccessful.unsuccessful.  Most noted for his fictionalMost noted for his fictional stories about the famousstories about the famous detectivedetective Sherlock HolmesSherlock Holmes..  Knighted in 1902 by KingKnighted in 1902 by King Edward VII.Edward VII.
  33. 33. The Crime of the CongoThe Crime of the Congo (1909)(1909) DefinitionDefinition: Non-fiction: Non-fiction EXPOSÉEXPOSÉ (French "revealed"):(French "revealed"): A journalistic or literary revelation or exposureA journalistic or literary revelation or exposure —— especially of something discreditable or scandalous.especially of something discreditable or scandalous. "Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's new book, 'The Crime"Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's new book, 'The Crime of the Congo,' is the most powerful indictmentof the Congo,' is the most powerful indictment yet launched against the Belgian rulers of thisyet launched against the Belgian rulers of this bloodstained colony. After reviewing the earlybloodstained colony. After reviewing the early history of the Congo Free State Sir Arthur quoteshistory of the Congo Free State Sir Arthur quotes the testimony of many unimpeachable witnessesthe testimony of many unimpeachable witnesses regarding the brutalities of the 'rubber system' and theregarding the brutalities of the 'rubber system' and the coldblooded mutilation and massacre of natives duringcoldblooded mutilation and massacre of natives during the past fifteen years."the past fifteen years."-- Daily Express.Daily Express.
  34. 34. The Crime of the CongoThe Crime of the Congo We have all failed at times. But never has there been failure so hopeless,We have all failed at times. But never has there been failure so hopeless, so shocking, bearing such consequences to the world, such degradation toso shocking, bearing such consequences to the world, such degradation to the good name of Christianity and civilization as the failure of the Belgiansthe good name of Christianity and civilization as the failure of the Belgians in the Congo.in the Congo. The curse of blood and the scorn of every honest man restThe curse of blood and the scorn of every honest man rest upon them already. Would that they were within the reach of humanupon them already. Would that they were within the reach of human justice also! Theyjustice also! They have been guilty of the sack of a country, the spoliationhave been guilty of the sack of a country, the spoliation of a nation, the greatest crime in all history, the greater for having beenof a nation, the greatest crime in all history, the greater for having been carried out undercarried out under an odious pretence of philanthropy. Surely somehow,an odious pretence of philanthropy. Surely somehow, somewhere, they will have their reward!somewhere, they will have their reward!
  35. 35. Nicholas Vachel LindsayNicholas Vachel Lindsay (1879-1931)(1879-1931)  Born in Springfield, Illinois, USA.Born in Springfield, Illinois, USA.  FamousFamous AmericanAmerican poet andpoet and performance artist.performance artist.  Father of the modern genre ofFather of the modern genre of ““singing poetrysinging poetry,”,” in which versesin which verses are meant to be sung or chanted.are meant to be sung or chanted.  Advocate for African Americans.Advocate for African Americans.  CongoCongo was his most famous poem.was his most famous poem.
  36. 36. The Congo: A Study ofThe Congo: A Study of the Negro Racethe Negro Race (1913)(1913) Listen to the yell of Leopold's ghostListen to the yell of Leopold's ghost Burning in Hell for his hand-maimed host.Burning in Hell for his hand-maimed host. Hear how the demons chuckle and yellHear how the demons chuckle and yell Cutting his hands off, down in Hell.Cutting his hands off, down in Hell. Listen to the creepy proclamation,Listen to the creepy proclamation, Blown through the lairs of the forest-nation,Blown through the lairs of the forest-nation, Blown past the white-ants' hill of clay,Blown past the white-ants' hill of clay, Blown past the marsh where the butterflies playBlown past the marsh where the butterflies play!!
  37. 37. Adam HochschildAdam Hochschild (1942)(1942)  American writer, journalist,American writer, journalist, lecturer and commentator.lecturer and commentator.  Graduate of Harvard UniversityGraduate of Harvard University with a BA in History andwith a BA in History and Literature.Literature.  Civil Rights activist.Civil Rights activist.  New York Times best-sellingNew York Times best-selling author.author.  Recipient of numerous awardsRecipient of numerous awards for writing.for writing.  Presently lecturer at University ofPresently lecturer at University of California, Berkeley.California, Berkeley.
  38. 38. King Leopold’s GhostKing Leopold’s Ghost (1998)(1998) GenreGenre :: Popular historyPopular history is a broadis a broad genregenre ofof historiographyhistoriography tthathat takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership,takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership, aandnd usually emphasizesusually emphasizes narrativenarrative,, personalitypersonality and vividand vivid ddetailetail overover academicacademic scholarly analysis.scholarly analysis. The book was rejected by nine publishers, but thenThe book was rejected by nine publishers, but then unexpectedly became an international best-seller andunexpectedly became an international best-seller and winner ofwinner of prestigiousprestigious awards.awards. Hochschild vividly describes the tyranny of Leopold II inHochschild vividly describes the tyranny of Leopold II in the Congo, and lifts up the problem of the present-daythe Congo, and lifts up the problem of the present-day historical denial by Belgium of that African Holocaust thathistorical denial by Belgium of that African Holocaust that took place under the Free State’s barbaric rule.took place under the Free State’s barbaric rule.
  39. 39. Parc du CinquantenaireParc du CinquantenaireBrussels,Brussels, BelgiumBelgium
  40. 40. Royal Museum for Central AfricaRoyal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren, BelgiumTervuren, Belgium
  41. 41. King Leopold’s Ghost:King Leopold’s Ghost: The Great ForgettingThe Great Forgetting (Chapter 19)(Chapter 19) In none of the museum’s galleries is there the slightestIn none of the museum’s galleries is there the slightest hint that millions of Congolese met unnatural deaths.hint that millions of Congolese met unnatural deaths. There is no hint of these deaths anywhere in Brussels. TheThere is no hint of these deaths anywhere in Brussels. The Rue Brederode where part of the Congo administration andRue Brederode where part of the Congo administration and the most important Congo companies once hadthe most important Congo companies once had headquarters, still run past the back of the Royal Palace.headquarters, still run past the back of the Royal Palace. But today the spot where Joseph Conrad had his jobBut today the spot where Joseph Conrad had his job interview is occupied by a government tax-collection office.interview is occupied by a government tax-collection office. On another side of the palace, a larger-than-life statue ofOn another side of the palace, a larger-than-life statue of Leopold on horseback stares metalically out at a freewayLeopold on horseback stares metalically out at a freeway underpass. And yet the blood spilled in the Congo, theunderpass. And yet the blood spilled in the Congo, the stolen land, the severed hands, the shattered families, andstolen land, the severed hands, the shattered families, and orphaned children, underlie much that meets the eye.orphaned children, underlie much that meets the eye.
  42. 42. Other Famous Writers AgainstOther Famous Writers Against the Infamous Kingthe Infamous King Booker T.Booker T. WashingtonWashington Leopold II of the BelgiansLeopold II of the Belgians WWilliamilliam SSheppardheppard Anatole FranceAnatole France Jules MarchalJules Marchal
  43. 43. ConclusionConclusion Extraordinary times require extraordinary persons who are willing to goExtraordinary times require extraordinary persons who are willing to go against the current and raise their voice for truth. While Leopold II has beenagainst the current and raise their voice for truth. While Leopold II has been virtually forgotten from historical memory, mostly everyone knows thevirtually forgotten from historical memory, mostly everyone knows the names of M. Twain, A. C. Doyle, B. T. Washington, and Anatole France!names of M. Twain, A. C. Doyle, B. T. Washington, and Anatole France! Besides learning history and being introduced to some classic pieces ofBesides learning history and being introduced to some classic pieces of English and American literature today, what can we say are the moral lessonsEnglish and American literature today, what can we say are the moral lessons we gather from these great authors of the past?we gather from these great authors of the past?  True loveTrue love.. Show care and compassion for those who suffer injustice!Show care and compassion for those who suffer injustice!  BraveryBravery. Don’t be afraid to be different and take a stand for truth!. Don’t be afraid to be different and take a stand for truth!  HumilityHumility. Respect all human beings regardless of their race or background!. Respect all human beings regardless of their race or background!  PersistencePersistence.. Don’t give up when you are sure of the rightness of your cause!Don’t give up when you are sure of the rightness of your cause!  ValuesValues. The end does not justify the means: virtue is more important than profit!. The end does not justify the means: virtue is more important than profit! ““It is better to light one small candle than to curse the darkness!”It is better to light one small candle than to curse the darkness!” ConfuciusConfucius

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