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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
Module 1 
Discovering Psychology
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY 
• What d...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY 
– Describe 
–...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY 
• Describe 
–...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY (CONT.) 
• Pre...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS 
• H...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CON...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CON...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CON...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CON...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CON...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CON...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
HISTORICAL APPROACHES 
• How did p...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
HISTORICAL APPROACHES 
• Structura...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
p12 Wilhelm Wundt
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
HISTORICAL APPROACHES 
• Functiona...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
p12 William James
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
HISTORICAL APPROACHES 
• Gestalt A...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
p13 Max Werheimer
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
HISTORICAL APPROACHES 
• Behaviori...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
CULTURAL DIVERSITY: EARLY DISCRIMI...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
CULTURAL DIVERSITY: EARLY DISCRIMI...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
CULTURAL DIVERSITY: EARLY DISCRIMI...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 
• Psycholog...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 
• Psycholog...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 
• Many Care...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
p17 Piechart
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
RESEARCH AREAS 
• Areas of Special...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) 
• Areas of...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) 
• Areas of...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) 
• Areas of...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik 
Module 1: Discovering Psychology 
RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) 
• Areas of...
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  1. 1. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology Module 1 Discovering Psychology
  2. 2. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY • What do psychologists study? – Psychology – the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes – Behaviors – refers to observable actions or responses in both humans and animals – Mental processes – not directly observable, refer to a wide range of complex mental processes, such as thinking, imagining, studying, and dreaming
  3. 3. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY – Describe – Explain – Predict – Control
  4. 4. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY • Describe – first goal of psychology is to describe the different ways that organisms behave • Explain – second goal of psychology is to explain the cause of behavior
  5. 5. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY (CONT.) • Predict – third goal of psychology is to predict how organisms will behave in certain situations • Control – the fourth goal of psychology is to control an organism’s behavior
  6. 6. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS • How do psychologists answer questions? – Approaches to understanding behavior include: • Biological • Cognitive • Behavioral • Psychoanalytic • Humanistic • Cross cultural
  7. 7. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CONT.) • Biological approach – focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and coping techniques
  8. 8. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CONT.) • Cognitive approach – examines how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences, what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel
  9. 9. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CONT.) • Behavioral approach – studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors
  10. 10. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CONT.) • Psychoanalytic approach – stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life
  11. 11. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CONT.) • Humanistic approach – emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment
  12. 12. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology MORE APPROACHES, MORE ANSWERS (CONT.) • Cross-cultural approach – examines the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning of a culture’s members
  13. 13. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology HISTORICAL APPROACHES • How did psychology begin? – Structuralism: Elements of the Mind – Functionalism: Functions of the Mind – Gestalt Approach: Sensations versus Perceptions – Behaviorism: Observable Behaviors
  14. 14. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology HISTORICAL APPROACHES • Structuralism – was the study of the most basic elements, primarily sensations and perceptions, that make up our conscious mental experiences – Wilhelm Wundt
  15. 15. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology p12 Wilhelm Wundt
  16. 16. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology HISTORICAL APPROACHES • Functionalism – which was the study of the function rather than the structure of consciousness, was interested in how our minds adapt to our changing environment
  17. 17. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology p12 William James
  18. 18. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology HISTORICAL APPROACHES • Gestalt Approach – emphasized that perception is more than the sum of its parts and studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences
  19. 19. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology p13 Max Werheimer
  20. 20. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology HISTORICAL APPROACHES • Behaviorism – emphasized the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors
  21. 21. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology CULTURAL DIVERSITY: EARLY DISCRIMINATION • Women in psychology – Mary Calkins – established a laboratory in psychology at Wellesley College in 1891 where she was a faculty member – completed all requirements for a Ph.D at Harvard but was not granted the degree because of being a woman – not until 1908 that a woman, Margaret Washburn, was awarded a Ph.D in psychology
  22. 22. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology CULTURAL DIVERSITY: EARLY DISCRIMINATION (CONT.) • Minorities in Psychology – Ruth Howard was the first African American woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology – from the University of Minnesota in 1934. – was a successful clinical psychologist and school consultant
  23. 23. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology CULTURAL DIVERSITY: EARLY DISCRIMINATION (CONT.) • Minorities in Psychology – George Sanchez (an Hispanic) conducted pioneering work on the cultural bias of intelligence tests given to minority students – Sanchez showed that intelligence tests contained many questions that were biased against minorities – resulting in lower scores
  24. 24. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY • Psychologist versus Psychiatrist – psychologists have completed four to five years of postgraduate education and have obtained a Ph.D., PsyD., or Ed.D in psychology – clinical psychologists have a Ph.D., PsyD., or Ed.D., have specialized in a clinical subarea, and have spent an additional year in a supervised therapy setting to gain experience in diagnosing and treating a wide range of abnormal behaviors
  25. 25. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY • Psychologist versus Psychiatrist – counseling psychologists provide many of the same services as Clinical Psychologists, but usually work with different problems such as those involving marriage, family, or career counseling – psychiatrists are medical doctors (M.D.s) who have spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors and treating these behaviors, often with prescription drugs
  26. 26. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY • Many Career Settings – 49% of psychologists work as clinical or counseling psychologists in either private practice or therapy settings – 28% of psychologists work in academic settings of universities and colleges – 13% of psychologists work in a variety of other kinds of jobs and career settings – 6% of psychologists work in industrial settings – 4% of psychologists work in secondary schools and other settings
  27. 27. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology p17 Piechart
  28. 28. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology RESEARCH AREAS • Areas of Specialization – Social and Personality – Developmental – Experimental – Biological – Cognitive – Psychometrics
  29. 29. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) • Areas of Specialization – Social psychology • involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes,conformity, group behaviors, and aggression – Personality psychology • involves the study of personality development, personality change, assessment, and abnormal behaviors
  30. 30. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) • Areas of Specialization – Developmental psychology • examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a person’s entire life – Experimental psychology • includes areas of sensation, perception, learning, human performance, motivation, and emotion
  31. 31. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) • Areas of Specialization – Biological psychology • or psychobiology involves research on the physical and chemical changes that occur during stress, learning, and emotions, as well as how our genetic makeup, brain, and nervous system interact with our environments and influence our behaviors
  32. 32. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology RESEARCH AREAS (CONT.) • Areas of Specialization – Cognitive psychology • involves how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behaviors – Psychometrics • focuses on the measurement of people’s abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors

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