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Robots - Our Future Partners

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  • … bereits heute möglich: 1,5 Min.
  • 2050 möglich: beruhend auf heutiger Grundlagenforschung [2 Min.]
  • Dissertation_Leis

    1. 1. Robots – Our Future Partners?! A Sociologist’s View from a German and Japanese Perspective Miriam J.S. Leis Doctoral Thesis
    2. 2. <ul><li>Interdisciplinary approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI-Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy/Phenomenology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privately funded research project within broader context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Project2050” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(social and technology studies / ELSA / future studies / philosophy / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>politics / humanism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of socio-technological developments (especially NBIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and how they may influence the state of humankind in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration of dissertation project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 2003 – April 2005 </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature research / desktop research / film reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of robotics (research) projects (technical, social, economic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations / field studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance of conferences and exhibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews / expert discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory review (sociology / AI / philosophy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on non-industrial robots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attending lectures in informatics, psychology, philosophy, biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacting people from research, industry and public institutons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Countries covered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Why Japan vs. Germany? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both “engineering” countries (e.g. automobiles, machine tools, industrial robots) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural similarities and dissimilarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge about robotics projects in both countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal relation to both countries (e.g. possibility of unlimited stay) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is Japan the “Robot Kingdom” and not Germany? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic reasons in Japan (“future automobile industry”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expectations of Japanese consumers makes introduction easier (entertainment factor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German “pragmatism” has hindering factor for early introduction of new technologies with limited capabilities  Japanese ability to integrate fun & entertainment factor and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>openness to playful approaches to novelties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese self-promotion factor (“Cherry Blossom Effect”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany even seems to have better technology and product functionality </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Part I: </li></ul><ul><li>History of automata and robots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial entities in European and Japanese literature and fiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(mythology, religion, SciFi/anim é ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of automata and robots in Japan and Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialization in Europe and Japan </li></ul></ul>Christianity as reason for rather negative perception about artificial entities (robots, “hybrid entities”, biotechnology) Japanese shinto considers dolls and robots as entities with souls  but no necessary explanation for rather positive perception Religious aspects should not be overestimated in regard to robotics  economic and other socio-cultural factors seem more relevant
    6. 7. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: </li></ul><ul><li>(MA)CHI(N)E </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about the difference between man and machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanistic view about mankind? (La Mettrie, Minsky, Moravec) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actor Network Theory and artifacts in social analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The limitations of “Turing Tests” (part I) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of mind / problem with consciousness / ‘Mind Uploading’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyborgs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy of transhumanism </li></ul></ul>The difference between human and machine may be rather gradual than fundamental New scientific discoveries and technologies raise new questions about the definition of “human”
    7. 8. Human (hypothet.) humanoid Industrial PC doll metal Fyborg Android Robot robot Cyborg AL/AGI „ strong AI“ „ weak AI“ no AI human artifact classical concept proposed future concept
    8. 9. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Part III (Main Part): </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison Japan Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot projects / future plannings / promotion of robot technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic aspects </li></ul></ul>German robot technology seems even more advanced and pragmatic than Japanese one Japanese (and East Asia) prefers humanoid / animoid forms Japan displays a more playful approach towards robots and entertainment stands more in focus The Japanese government greatly promotes robot technology and a positive perception by the general public (out of economic reasons)
    9. 10. Japan Germany
    10. 11. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Part IV: </li></ul><ul><li>Social sciences and robotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics and theory of (inter)action (Handlungstheorie) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> can robots (inter)act? Can robots be part of social theory? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> can robots participate in culture? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human perception and cultural factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication and “E-motions” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Robot phenomenology” and cognitive/neuro sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem with Turing Tests II </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “human centric” attitude of social sciences makes it by default </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to integrate non-humans in social analysis </li></ul><ul><li>In the future the consideration of non-humans in society will become increasingly relevant (communication, law) </li></ul>
    11. 12. doubling of body strength perception beyond natural possibilities instant information access RFID-Chip, AR, BAN neuronal control of machines optimised immune system modified neuro-functions modified biochemistry constant biomonitoring <ul><li>Human Version 1.3 (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Year of birth: 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Age : 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Stat. Life Exp.: 93 years </li></ul><ul><li>Survival rate in case of </li></ul><ul><li>severe injury: 96.0% </li></ul><ul><li>(if instant medical response)* </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous Information Access </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized Immune System </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Doubled body strength </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Biomonitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Biohybrid Functions </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Chip </li></ul>* based on military statistics
    12. 13. reversable body modification enhanced cognitive capabilities and perception engineered psychology bioartificial cell repair <ul><li>Human Version 2.0 (2050) </li></ul><ul><li>Year of birth: 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Age : 74 </li></ul><ul><li>Stat. Life Exp.: 150 years </li></ul><ul><li>Survival rate in case of </li></ul><ul><li>severe injury: 99.8% </li></ul><ul><li>(if instant medical response) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Brain Parts/BCI </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered Biochemistry (nanobiotech/some genetics) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Cell Repair/reversal of aging effects </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced cognition and sensory perception through neuroengineering/cybernetics </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Body-integrated computing </li></ul>artificial brain parts/ BCI engineered biofunctions body-integrated IT & computing system age-effect reversal most of the technology will be invisible
    13. 14. If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, then for all practical purposes it’s a duck Thank You for Your Attention!