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Proposal for a Masters in Education (ICT)
By Laura Czerniewicz and Dick Ng’ambi (Centre for Educational Technology) and Jo...
EDN677X LEARNING, COGNITION & TECHNOLOGY............................................................................22
2
Introduction
This proposal makes the case for a new programme based in the School of
Education, focusing on ICTs in Educat...
they need to acquire in the formal system; the affordances of the technologies
themselves and their fit with educational c...
debates of educational technologies, the focus of the programme is to develop
students’ theoretical stance in relation to ...
United States
• Masters in Educational Technology, Columbia &South Carolina; Masters in
Learning Design and Technology, St...
• software developers
Competition
The main competition locally is in Gauteng at the University of Pretoria which has
the m...
administrative matters is needed, an initial scan of the possibilities suggests the
following:
Department at UCT Course
Co...
critically engage with and provide both theoretical and intellectual arguments on the
following issues:
Issues 1: How can ...
core courses, there may be disjuncture with other courses, specifically in the
School of Education.
3. Students may also e...
Feenberg, A. 1999. Questioning Technology. London and New York: Routledge.
MacLeod, D 2006 ‘Greenfield: IT culture is chan...
Letter From Amc Lowenherz, Co-Ordinator: ICT Knowledge
Management Unit: Curriculum Development Directorate
Dear Professor ...
AMC LOWENHERZ
CO-ORDINATOR: ICT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT UNIT: CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT DIRECTORATE
SENIOR CURRICULUM PLANNER: I...
Good luck. At last! At least 10 years behind the times. Better late than never.
Pam
Pam Miller, Ph.D.
Phone 072 247 9047 (...
Information And Communication Technologies (ICTs) In Education:
Issues And Debates
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOG...
Seminar 1 Using ICTs
Theme: ICTs in and for the classroom
Issues: How can the use of ICTs in the classroom be understood? ...
Additional readings
Lankshear, C. & Snyder, I., with Green, B. (2000). Teachers and Techno-literacy.
Managing Literacy, Te...
Seminar 4: Learning Design
Theme: ICTs in and for the classroom
Issue: Debate: learning objects or learning design? Implic...
Additional readings
Noll, A. M. Technology and the Future of The University. Information,
Communication & Society. 3(4): 6...
Seminar 7: The foundations of educational technology
Theme: Underpinnings of educational technology
Issues: What are the p...
Additional readings
Clinchy, Evans. "The New Technologies and the Continuing Questions," in Clinchy
(ed.) Transforming Pub...
Edn677x Learning, Cognition & Technology
Framework: This course will investigate the inter-related issues of learning,
tec...
Bidell, T.R. and Fischer, K.W. Beyond the stage debate: Action, structure and
variability in Piagetian theory and research...
Seminar 5 & 6: Activity theory 1: Quo vadis ZPD?
• First, second and third generation activity theory
• Situated cognition...
For those of you who want to take the journey a step further, here are
some additional readings to illuminate the path:
Ad...
Kozulin, A. (1990). Vygotsky's psychology: A biography of ideas. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press
Leontiev, A (1978...
Volosinov, V. N. (1973). Marxism and the philosophy of language. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press
Vygotsky, L. S. (...
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Final proposal -_masters_in_education__technology__submitted_may_26

  1. 1. Proposal for a Masters in Education (ICT) By Laura Czerniewicz and Dick Ng’ambi (Centre for Educational Technology) and Jo Hardman (School of Education) PROPOSAL FOR A MASTERS IN EDUCATION (ICT) ................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................................3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK..................................................................................................................................3 RATIONALE...........................................................................................................................................................5 INTERNATIONAL SITUATION..................................................................................................................................5 LOCAL CONTEXT...................................................................................................................................................6 Policy framework.............................................................................................................................................6 Curriculum requirements.................................................................................................................................6 Commitment on the ground..............................................................................................................................6 TARGET AUDIENCE................................................................................................................................................6 COMPETITION........................................................................................................................................................7 PROPOSED FORMAT...............................................................................................................................................7 CURRICULUM........................................................................................................................................................8 CONCERNS............................................................................................................................................................9 LETTERS OF SUPPORT.........................................................................................................................................10 SELECTED REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................10 LETTER FROM AMC LOWENHERZ, CO-ORDINATOR: ICT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT UNIT: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIRECTORATE............................................................................................................................12 EMAIL FROM PAM MILLER; CT CONVENOR FOR PRETORIA MASTERS PROGRAMME........................................13 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTS) IN EDUCATION: ISSUES AND DEBATES ...................................................................................................................................................15 SEMINAR 1 USING ICTS......................................................................................................................................16 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................16 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................16 SEMINAR 2: NEW LITERACIES.............................................................................................................................16 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................16 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................17 SEMINAR 3: EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATION (CMC) ................................................17 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................17 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................17 SEMINAR 4: LEARNING DESIGN..........................................................................................................................18 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................18 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................18 SEMINAR 5: ICTS AND EDUCATIONAL TRANSFORMATION.................................................................................18 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................18 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................19 SEMINAR 6: THE DIGITAL DIVIDE.......................................................................................................................19 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................19 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................19 SEMINAR 7: THE FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY......................................................................20 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................20 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................20 SEMINAR 8: RESEARCHING ICTS IN EDUCATION...............................................................................................20 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................20 ADDITIONAL READINGS .....................................................................................................................................21 CLINCHY, EVANS. "THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND THE CONTINUING QUESTIONS," IN CLINCHY (ED.) TRANSFORMING PUBLIC EDUCATION (TEACHERS COLLEGE PRESS, 1997), PP. 132-142. .................................21 REEVES, C. T. QUESTIONING THE QUESTIONS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH HTTP://IT.COE.UGA.EDU/~TREEVES/EDIT6900/DEANLECTURE.PDF......................................................................21 SEMINAR 9: EVALUATING IMPACT OF ICTS IN EDUCATION..............................................................................21 Core readings.................................................................................................................................................21 Additional readings........................................................................................................................................21 1
  2. 2. EDN677X LEARNING, COGNITION & TECHNOLOGY............................................................................22 2
  3. 3. Introduction This proposal makes the case for a new programme based in the School of Education, focusing on ICTs in Education. The proposal locates the need for a new programme firmly in the key issues and theories of the field. The proposal outlines a number of additional reasons for such a new programme. The international situation is briefly described, illustrating the prevalence of such programmes across the world. The South African context is described with the emphasis being on the lack of such a programme in the Western Cape. Two electronic letters of support are provided. The target audience for the new course is described, and some concerns are raised. The proposed format for the course is explained. The course outlines for the two core courses for the new programme are then provided. Theoretical framework Key questions asked in the literature in ICTs in education are ‘What is the impact of ICTs on education?’ and ‘What effect do computers have on teaching and learning?’ While these are important questions which we will consider in the course, they suggest a determinist approach to understanding ICTs and education which will simultaneously be interrogated in the course. On the other hand there is a strong discourse in the literature which foregrounds technology as merely a tool, a neutral one, linked to powerful arguments that the agency lies entirely with the pedagogical processes and actors. This position too will be explored, especially as it may be closely aligned with the social constructivism so prevalent in the current literature. It will also be problematised. This course will be framed by a view which sees ICT and education as co-constructed and deeply inter-woven (Brey 2003) and which takes a consciously critical view of the debates (see Feenberg 1999). Brey’s position that technology is socially shaped and that society is simultaneously shaped by technology. Given that education is a social process, we assume that education and networked computers too are co-constructed. Unlike determinist approaches to technology which portray educational as a linear process resulting from an internal technological logic, Brey argues that, “Technologies become part of the fabric of society, part of its very social structure and culture, transforming it in the process. … [and] seriously affect[ing] social roles and relations; political arrangements; organizational structures; and cultural beliefs, symbols and experiences” (Brey, 2003: 52-53). Feenberg’s critical approach sees technology as determined in its meaning and content by the social world, and thus subject to conscious social control. Feenberg’s view of technology as a “parliament of things” (Feenberg, 1991: 3) provides a way for curriculum design issues to be fore grounded. His critical approach also ensures that developmental and power-related agendas become part of the discussion, a crucial element in a developing and divided context such as our own. These perspectives will allow for a more complex discussion of, for example, the relationships between the digital culture in which students are growing up, the digital practices they bring to the educational context, and the academic practices 3
  4. 4. they need to acquire in the formal system; the affordances of the technologies themselves and their fit with educational challenges being addressed by students and academics in a developing context; the tensions between technological design trends and learning theories. These and other tensions will be addressed in the core course on ICT and Education Issues and Debates through three themes through three themes: Underpinnings of Educational technology; ICTs in the classroom; and ICTs, Education and Change These macro level debates frame a crucial micro level issue, that of the interaction between the nature of the new technologies (especially and networked computers) and the processes of learning and cognition themselves. At a time where scientists are suggesting that digital culture changes the way learning takes place (Seely- Brown, J 2002) and the way the brain functions (Greenfield 2006), this is an issue which must receive detailed attention. Although there are a variety of different theoretical frameworks mobilised in educational technology settings to explore this interaction, these can be narrowed down to central theories that permeate the field. These are explored on the core course Learning Cognition and Technology, with the key theories addressed being cognitive constructivism, socio-cultural (activity theory) and situated and distributed (community of practice) approaches. Cognitive constructivism, arising out of the work of Piaget, usefully views learning as an active process in which learners transact with the environment in order to construct knowledge (Piaget, 1992). While Piaget’s cognitive constructivism provides insight into how an individual’s interactions with his/her environment facilitate the development of cognitive structures, the theory is relatively silent in relation to the role cultural context plays in development. This is especially troubling in relation to understanding the role played by socio-historical artefacts (such as computers) in the development of human cognition. With its focus on the mediating nature of tools (both material and ideal), Vygotsky’s socio-cultural learning theory overcomes the narrow focus on the decontextualised individual of Piaget’s theory. Building on the basic Vygotksian ideas of mediation of consciousness in context, the programme introduces students to a powerful analytical framework, which is currently gaining favour in educational technology settings: Activity Theory (AT). We rely in this programme on the analytic framework developed from Activity Theory in order to understand the process of transformation within a system (such as a classroom/institution) and how different systems interact with, and transform each other over time (Engestrom, 1987). The strength of Activity Theory in this programme is that it enables one to understand development as the complex result of tool mediated interactions, rather than as something opaque which happens in an individual’s mind. Finally, Situated and Distributed (Community of Practice) approaches theories are concerned with highlighting the situated nature of cognition and illustrating how it is distributed in tools as well as practices. In common with AT, distributed cognition theorists extend the unit of analysis from the individual operating in isolation to a culturally constituted functional group or a community of practice The intention of this programme is to generate a view of human computer interaction that incorporates current approaches to computer mediated development with a view to understanding and theorising potential shifts in practices arising from the introduction of novel technology into institutional settings. While this programme equips students’ with the requisite skills to engage with issues and 4
  5. 5. debates of educational technologies, the focus of the programme is to develop students’ theoretical stance in relation to understanding educational technology. Educational technology is a growing area of enquiry. Through print and online databases UCT library has 57 journals relating specifically to ICTs and education, and there are others online which are not yet in the formal databases. (Examples of the latter include the Open University’s innovative JIME, and Lankshear’s new E- learning). There is a broad knowledge domain on which to draw. Rationale Why is there a need for a Masters in Education (ICT) stream or specialisation at UCT? There are a number of reasons: • There are important intellectual debates emerging in the education, ICT and educational technology fields which need to be aired and incorporated into existing formal discussions as well as into current reflective practices. • There is a need for research into emergent practices of ICTs in education, but few channels existing to undertake it. • There is a shortage of skilled and appropriately qualified professionals to work in this field (as evidenced by the difficulty departments like CET have in filling posts). • There is need to attract black and female graduates into the educational technology profession. • There is a need for a formal qualification which will reward and recognise the effort which is being required to acquire appropriate skills and understandings in this new terrain. • ICT integration in the curriculum in schools is now required through specific learning outcomes and assessment criteria. Teachers are not prepared. • Universities promise graduates with competencies which prepare them for the “information society”. Local academics have no access to qualifications which support them in such preparation. • While Gauteng, KZN and the Eastern Cape have programmes in place to support the need for such qualifications, there is nothing offered in the Western Cape. • This offering could tap a new and different pool of students from those who are currently drawn to Education Masters’ programmes. International situation Masters in Educational Technology programmes are now commonplace amongst Masters offerings at English-speaking universities throughout the world. Known by various names - including Masters in E-learning, Masters in ICTs in Education, Masters in Computer-based learning - they all accept that technology in education is a fast growing area of both practice and research. Programmes are too numerous to list. A few international examples include: United Kingdom • Masters in E-learning, Oxford University; MSc IT in Education, Trinity College; MA Educational Technology, University of Bath; MEd E-learning, Sheffield; MA ICT in Education, London Institute of Education. 5
  6. 6. United States • Masters in Educational Technology, Columbia &South Carolina; Masters in Learning Design and Technology, Stanford Australia • Masters of ICT in Education, Monash; Masters in Educational Technology University of Queensland, Masters in IT in Education, University of Sydney; Many programmes are fully based in education departments, with a great many of them drawing on other faculties, such computer science, digital media studies and so on. Some courses are set up as inter-disciplinary joint programmes (for example Stanford University’s Learning Design & Technology, Trinity College’s MSc; Brown University) Local context Policy framework In South Africa, policy level support for ICTs in education is manifest in numerous documents including the National Plan for Higher Education (2001), the White Paper on e-education (2003 ), the Strategy for Information and Communication Technology in Education (2001) and the National Research and Development Strategy (2002) to mention but four. Curriculum requirements ICT integration into the curriculum has essentially become compulsory in schools as the National Curriculum Statement for Grades 10-12 explicitly includes ICTs in the learning outcomes and assessment standards in several school subjects. This is now being implemented, starting with Grade 10 in 2006. Commitment on the ground National, provincial and institutional expenditure on computers in education is growing (see Czerniewicz and Hodgkinson 2005; Czerniewicz, Ravjee and Mlitwa 2006 for details). There are active provincial projects supporting practice with the Western Cape particularly active through the WCED’s Khanya Project and the Western Cape Schools Network. Target audience There are a range of possibilities in both schools and tertiary institutions including: • teachers • heads of department responsible for computers–in-the–curriculum implementation • online designers • government officials and administrators at different levels (regional and provincial) responsible for ICTs in education • aspirant academics • people working in e-learning NGOs • tertiary educators engaged in pre-service teacher training • inset teacher educators. • electronic publishers 6
  7. 7. • software developers Competition The main competition locally is in Gauteng at the University of Pretoria which has the most well established programme. It is run through “block lectures” with complementary online components. It states that its target includes the business community. The universities of Johannesburg (ex-RAU) and Rhodes offer Masters in Computer- based Education and IT in Education respectively by dissertation only. The University of Johannesburg offers a postgraduate BEd Honours in Computer- based Education, with the aim of “providing educators with applied competence”. Rhodes offers an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE). The University of KwaZuluNatal offers a programme in digital media which awards the qualifications MA, Advanced Diploma, Honours and Post grad Certificate. The core modules are Research, Digital Media Development and ICTs and Education. The closest qualification in the Western Cape is Stellenbosch University’s MPhil in Hypermedia for Language Learning offered through the Department of Modern Foreign Languages. Being Language-based, it has an entirely different focus from our proposal. Proposed format The new Masters stream will be co-convened by the School of Education and the Centre for Educational Technology (CET). The programme will have two components: Core modules and Elective modules i) Core modules The first core course would be Learning, Cognition and Technology, already offered in the School of Education and taught by Joanne Hardman. The second core course would be Key issues and Debates in Educational Technology. This would be a new course taught by members of the Centre for Educational Technology. Responsibility will lie with Dr Dick Ng’ambi and Associate Professor Laura Czerniewicz, although other members of CET will also be drawn into the teaching and learning design. ii) Elective modules Elective courses can be drawn from the numerous other courses offered by the School of Education. Details of electives are covered in the next section. In addition, there are courses in other departments which would be suitable for a Masters in Educational Technology. While a close investigation of curriculum and 7
  8. 8. administrative matters is needed, an initial scan of the possibilities suggests the following: Department at UCT Course Computer Science Human Computer Interaction Online Material Cyberlaw and ethics Centre for Film and Media Studies Media Creative Production Department of Information and Library Studies Information and knowledge management Databases and database production Curriculum INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs) IN EDUCATION (Offered full/part-time 2007/2008) Co-ordinators: Dr. Dick Ng’ambi (CHED) and Jo Hardman (School of Education) Who should seek admission to this curriculum? Teachers and heads of department responsible for computers–in-the–curriculum implementation, Government officials and administrators at different levels (regional and provincial) responsible for ICTs e-learning educators in all sectors, inset teacher educators, electronic publishers, online designers, software developers Technical competence This programme assumes that students are computer literate. Educational technologies will be used as part of the courses. General aims: This Masters stream sets out to enable educators, policy makers and designers to engage with the key issues and debates of ICTs in education. It specifically aims to interrogate the crucial intersections of technology, learning and cognition. Graduates from the course will be able to reflect critically on their practice and the take up of technology which is increasingly pervasive in education and broader society. Compulsory core courses: EDN XXXY ICTs in Education: Key Issues and Debates EDN677X Learning, Cognition and Technology Elective courses: Select two of the following: EDN6001Z Pedagogy, Knowledge and Society EDN6004Z Changing frameworks of curriculum: policy, implementation and evaluation. EDN6005Z Knowledge, Learning and the organisation of work EDN6002Z Researching Teaching EDN6009Z Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education Elective motivation: The five (5) electives are proposed on the basis of their alignment with the objectives of the masters in education (ICT). At the end of the course, students will be able to 8
  9. 9. critically engage with and provide both theoretical and intellectual arguments on the following issues: Issues 1: How can the use of ICTs in the classroom be understood? What is the relationship between the use of ICTs and teaching and learning? Issues 2: How do students develop computer related practices? Debate: competencies or literacies? What are the implications? Issues 3: How does CMC facilitate collaborative learning practices? Does computer mediated communication result in shifts in power relationships and identity? Issues 4: Debate: learning objects or learning design? Implications for teaching, learning and design. Issues 5: What is the role of ICTs in educational transformation? How can the relationship between ICTs and education be understood? Issues 6: Do ICTs exacerbate or ameliorate existing societal divides especially in educational settings? How can the digital divide be understood in relation to teaching and learning practices? Issues 7: What are the premises underpinning ICTs in Education? How is the use of ICTs changing the way education is understood? Issues 8: How does one evaluate the value and impact of ICTs in Education? What can we learn from evaluations to date? Thus, the electives provide solid foundational premise for meeting the envisaged objectives. EDN6001Z and EDN6004Z both provide awareness of the pedagogy, knowledge, curriculum and policy issues which are critical for educators, instructional designers, policy makers, educational managers etc. EDN6005Z has a focus on globalisation and teaching/learning in higher education. These are important issues if ICTs are to be appropriated in local contexts, an increasing challenge in developing countries. EDN6009Z creates an awareness of the issues of assessment and evaluation. These issues are pertinent in ICT mediated teaching/learning and the course should therefore appeal to educators at different levels. It is envisaged that the elective, EDN6002Z Researching Teaching, will appeal are those who seek to understand how to research either their own practice or the practice of others. We envisage that the knowledge gained from these electives will enrich the debates and allow students to have a solid base on general issues relating to education and the associated challenges when ICTs are introduced. Any approved course offered in the School of Education, by other Departments in the Faculty of Humanities, in any other faculty of the University, or at another university. Courses in the Centre for Information Literacy, centre for Film and Media Studies and Department of Computer Science at the University of Cape Town may be particularly appropriate. Please consult the Supplementary Graduate School in Humanities Elective Handbook for descriptions of elective courses. Concerns Any new programme will have to address challenges. Specific concerns in this case are: 1. Will it be possible for sufficient students to be accepted for a Masters degree, or is a feed-in Honours required? 2. Students undertaking such a programme will be likely to expect the use of educational technology as part of the learning design. While this will be true of 9
  10. 10. core courses, there may be disjuncture with other courses, specifically in the School of Education. 3. Students may also expect to be taught specific practical multimedia skills. 4. As presently conceptualised this programme is not targeted at e-learning in the corporate sector. Should it be? Letters of Support 1. A Lowenherz, Co-ordinator, ICT Knowledge Management Unit: Curriculum Development Directorate, Westen Cape Department of Education 2. P Miller; Cape Town Convenor for Pretoria Masters Programme 3. P Vinjevold, Deputy Director General, Further Education and Training, National Department of Education Selected References Brey, P. (2003). ‘Theorizing Technology and Modernity,’ Modernity and Technology. Eds. Thomas Misa, Philip Brey and Andrew Feenberg. MIT Press, 33-71. Misa, T., Brey, P. and Feenberg, A. (eds.) (2003). Modernity and Technology. MIT Press. Brey, P. 2004. Feenberg on Modernity and Technology. [Electronic] Available: http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/feenberg/brey.htm Czerniewicz, L. and Hodgkinson-Williams, C. 2005. Editorial: Education in South Africa-what have ICTs got to do with it?. Perspectives In Education, 23(4): vii- xiv. Czerniewicz, L; Ravjee, N and Mlitwa, N (2006, in press) Information And Communication Technologies (ICTs) and South African Higher Education: Mapping The Landscape, Report commissioned by Council for Higher Education Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (2002). Foresight Synthesis Report: Dawn of the African Century. [Online] Available: http://www.dst.gov.za/reports/foresight_reports/ FORESIGHT %20SYNTHESIS%20REPORT.doc Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (2002). South Africa’s National Research and Development (R&D) Strategy, August 2002,Government Printers, Government of the Republic of South Africa, Pretoria. Department of Education & Department of Communication (2001) A strategy for information and communication technology in education. Available at http://www.gov.za/documents/combsube.htm Department of Education (DoE) (2003) Draft White Paper on e-Education: Transforming learning and teaching through Information and Communication Technologies. Pretoria: Department of Education. Department of Education (DoE). (2001) The National Plan for Higher Education Online [Available]: http://www.polity.org.za/html/govdocs/misc/higheredu Department of Education (DoE). (2003) Draft White Paper On e-Education Transforming Learning and Teaching through ICT, available at http:www.info.gov.za/whitepapers/2003/e-education.pdf Department of Science and Technology (1999) Foresight ICT Report. Available at http://www.dst.gov.za/reports/forsight_reports.htm Feenberg, A. (1991) Critical Theory of Technology. New York, USA and Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 10
  11. 11. Feenberg, A. 1999. Questioning Technology. London and New York: Routledge. MacLeod, D 2006 ‘Greenfield: IT culture is changing children's brains’, Education Guardian, Thursday April 20, 2006http://education.guardian.co.uk/schools/story/0,,1757811,00.html Seely Brown , J (2002) Growing Up Digital, How the Web Changes Work, Education, and the Ways People Learn, USDLA Journal Volume 6, Number 2 February 2002 11
  12. 12. Letter From Amc Lowenherz, Co-Ordinator: ICT Knowledge Management Unit: Curriculum Development Directorate Dear Professor Czerniewicz PROPOSED M.Ed EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AT UCT The National Curriculum Statement for Grades 10-12 is currently being implemented in schools throughout South Africa, beginning with Grade 10 in 2006. In a number of the subjects, digital technologies are explicitly mentioned in the learning outcomes and assessment standards. This means that learners must interact with them in order to achieve the outcomes required in their preparation for the National Senior Certificate from 2008 onwards. In the past, ICT enrichment of curriculum has been optional. In preparation for this new emphasis, the Khanya Technology in Education Project of the WCED has ensured that all public secondary schools in the province are equipped with at least one computer laboratory. Within the Curriculum Development Directorate and Khanya, curriculum websites, teacher training, the development of ICT integration guidelines, software evaluation, demonstration and development have been ongoing for some time, particularly regarding disadvantaged schools. Nevertheless, although this province has a greater depth of experience and a better infrastructure to support curriculum through ICTs than any of the other provinces, it is very clear that far more knowledgeable people are needed in the education system to enable ICTs to take on the central role necessary in schools to maximise the effectiveness of scarce good teachers. Expertise is required at all levels of the system, from teachers to education department officials, and to tertiary educators engaged in pre-service teacher training. In the past, people wishing to undertake postgraduate studies in this field have been compelled to register at tertiary institutions in other parts of the country. The introduction of a MEd course at UCT would deliver much-needed expertise for provincial and national education, but it would also inform and enrich educational debate around currently unresolved issues regarding iCT as a tool for achieving curriculum goals. Although the faculty of education at UCT is already engaged in research with the Khanya project, further capacity for research is urgently needed in order to inform developmental processes within the project and the education department relating to ICT curriculum support. Informed Masters students could play a meaningful role in this while satisfying the academic demands of their studies. I have consulted with colleagues in the Khanya Project as well as in the Curriculum Development Directorate, and we unreservedly support the proposal that an MEd in Educational Technology should be offered at UCT. 12
  13. 13. AMC LOWENHERZ CO-ORDINATOR: ICT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT UNIT: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIRECTORATE SENIOR CURRICULUM PLANNER: ICT INTEGRATION WITH CURRICULUM DATE: 2006-02-10 Email from Pam Miller; CT Convenor for Pretoria Masters Programme A M.Ed. in Educational Technology at UCT is long overdue. Computers have been introduced in schools by the WCED and other institutions and are now the norm. White boards, sensors, PDAs, etc. are becoming common. Teachers and educators need to have an understanding of these technologies that can enhance learning and the associated theoretical underpinning. Educators need to know how to manage educational technologies to enhance learning. In South Africa, to the best of my knowledge only Pretoria, Rhodes and Johannesburg offer similar masters programs. There is nothing in the Western Cape. At least one of the four local universities should be offering such a course. Time and again one hears of the importance of using technology to enhance education. UCT should be contributing to the development of Africa using technology to enhance learning. Teachers, lecturers, electronic publishers, software developers and education administrators would benefit from such a course. There are people in Cape Town and surrounding areas who would like to do such a course as an M.Ed. in Educational Technology. I often have enquiries on such a subject. I have been teaching the M.Ed. (Computer Integrated Education) for the University of Pretoria in Cape Town during 2005 and now 2006. We hire a venue at the MTN Science Centre and usually meet weekly. I have 7 students who completed their computer modules and are now completing their thesises. I have another 3 M. and 1 PhD who have joined the thesis group. The UP course has a number of modules and then a thesis. I commuted from Cape Town to Pretoria in 1995-1997 when I did my M.Ed. under a slightly different system where we met once a month for 4 days at a time. Problems envisaged are that a M. degree requires an Honours degree as an entry qualification. Many of those who want to do the course do not have that qualification. Another problem experienced is that many students do not have enough computer skills or experience to fully benefit from the program – they are so busy learning basic skills such as PowerPoint or Access that they miss much of the theory being taught. A solution would be to structure an Honours and a M.Ed. – the Honours focussing on applications and software, and the M. focusing on theory with software. The M.Ed. course would use co-operative learning so that those with computer skills from B. Ed. Hons. in Educational Technology would feed into the groups with academic learning in another field. 13
  14. 14. Good luck. At last! At least 10 years behind the times. Better late than never. Pam Pam Miller, Ph.D. Phone 072 247 9047 (after school hours) 27.72.247.9047 (international) pam@miller.wcape.school.za (home) and pmiller@phs.org.za (work) http://www.wcape.school.za/subject/CS/PHS/index.htm 14
  15. 15. Information And Communication Technologies (ICTs) In Education: Issues And Debates INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs) IN EDUCATION: ISSUES AND DEBATES MASTERS MODULE: EDNXXX ICTs in EDUCATION: ISSUES AND DEBATES Framework: This course critically investigates the role of ICTs in teaching and learning, specifically focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of changing possibilities and practices. Through selected topical debates in educational technologies, the course explores a range of issues framed by and feeding into ICT innovation, educational transformation, context, pedagogy and socio-cultural histories of learners pertinent for education in developing countries. The course distinguishes between teaching and learning ICTs and using ICTs for teaching and learning. While appreciating the importance of the former, and the tight linkage between the two, the course predominately focuses on the latter. Thus, the objective of the course is to develop graduates who can make sound pedagogical and educationally efficacious choices on integration strategies on ICTs in a classroom in context, cognisant of the issues and debates both at macro and micro levels. Course Requirements: Three pieces of work are expected: 1. Seminar engagement (20%) You will be marked on seminar presentation (15%) and active participation in seminar discussions both face to face and online (5%) 2. Assignments (60%) There will be two essay papers (30% each) assigned. 3. Curriculum project (20%) The project will require designing a curriculum intervention or integrating technology into practice, or reflecting on the use of an existing educational technology intervention into practice. The project will be done possibly in groups. Themes: The course is structured around the following inter-related themes: Educational technology: Underpinnings ICTs in the classroom ICTs, Education and Change At the end of the course you should be able to: • Conceptualise educational challenges and formulate key assumptions about educational technology. • Critically engage with the role of ICTs in education in general and educational technologies in particular. • Research and write a rigorous academic essay and present at a research seminar. 15
  16. 16. Seminar 1 Using ICTs Theme: ICTs in and for the classroom Issues: How can the use of ICTs in the classroom be understood? What is the relationship between the use of ICTs and teaching and learning? Core readings Twining, P. (2002) Conceptualising Computer Use in Education: introducing the Computer Practice Framework (CPF), British Educational Research Journal, Volume 28, Number 1 / February 01, 2002 Watson, D. M. 2001. Pedagogy before Technology: Re-Thinking the Relationship between ICT and Teaching. Education and Information Technologies. 6(4): 251- 266. McCormick, R. & Scrimshaw, P. 2001. Information and Communications Technology: Knowledge and Pedagogy. Education, Communication and Information. 1(1): 37-57. Additional readings Stivers, R. 1999. The Computer and Education: Choosing the Least Powerful Means of Instruction. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society. 19(2): 99-104 Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational technology. London: Routledge Johnson, H. C. 1999. Full Screens and Empty Students: Questioning Technology as an Educational Medium. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society. 19(4): 286- 295 Lundall, P and Howell, C (2000) Computers in Schools, A National Survey of Information Communication Technology in South African Schools, Education Policy Unit, University of the Western Cape Seminar 2: New literacies Theme: ICTs in and for the classroom Issues: How do students develop computer related practices? Debate: competencies or literacies? What are the implications? Core readings Lankshear, C. and Bigum, C. (1999) Literacies and New Technologies in School Settings in Pedagogy, Culture and Society , Volume 7, Number 3 / October 1999, Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/media/3aa8lu4dyr7rnve8trw6/ contributions/v/4/u/7/v4u7274r83533265.pdf Bruce, B.C. (1997) Literacy technologies: what stance should we take? Journal of Literacy Research. Vol. 29. Tully, C. J. 2003. Growing Up in Technological Worlds: How Modern Technologies Shape the Everyday Lives of Young People. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 23(6): 444-456. 16
  17. 17. Additional readings Lankshear, C. & Snyder, I., with Green, B. (2000). Teachers and Techno-literacy. Managing Literacy, Technology and Learning in Schools. St Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin. Seminar 3: Educational Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) Theme: ICTs in and for the classroom Issues: How does CMC facilitate collaborative learning practices? Does computer mediated communication result in shifts in power relationships and identity? Core readings Berge, Z. & Collins, M. (1995, March 1). Computer-Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom in Higher Education. Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine. 2.3. Retrieved 24 March 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://metalab.unc.edu/cmc/mag/1995/mar/berge.html. Romiszowski, A. J., & Mason, R. (1996). Computer-mediated communication. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.) Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology, New York: Macmillian LIBRARY Reference USA, 438-456. Ellis, A. 2001. Student-Centred Collaborative Learning via Face-To-Face and Asynchronous Online Communication: What’s The Difference? [WWW document]. URL http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne01/pdf/papers/ellisa.pdf. 5 May 2006. Additional readings Mantovani G (1994) Is computer-mediated communication intrinsically apt to enhance democracy in organizations? Human Relations 47, 1, 45–62. Morse, K. (2003). Does one size fit all? Exploring asynchronous learning in a multicultural environment. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7 (1), 37-55. Rheingold H (1994) The virtual community Minerva, London. Salmon G (2004) E-moderating: the key to teaching and learning online Routledge Falmer, London. Wenger E (1998) Communities of practice: learning, meaning and identity Cambridge University Press, New York. Ess, C. (ed), 1996. Philosophical Perspectives on Computer Mediated Communication. New York: State University of New York Press. Pfister, Hans-Rüdiger, Müller, Werner & Holmer, Torsten (2004) Learning and Re- Learning from Net-Based Cooperative Learning Discourses. In: Cantoni, Lorenzo & McLoughlin, Catherine (Ed.): Proceedings of the Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA 2004). Norfolk, 2720-2724. Lea M and Spears R (1991) Computer-mediated communication, de-individuation and group decision making International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 43, 283-301 17
  18. 18. Seminar 4: Learning Design Theme: ICTs in and for the classroom Issue: Debate: learning objects or learning design? Implications for teaching, learning and design. Core readings Wiley, D. 2003. The coming collision between automated instruction and social constructivism. In C. M. Gynn & S. R. Acker (ed.), Learning objects: contexts and connections/, pp 17-28. The Ohio State University: Columbus. http://telr- research.osu.edu/learning_objects/documents/Wiley.pdf Squires, D (1999), Educational Software and Learning: Subversive Use and Volatile Design, Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 1999 Oliver, R., Wirski, R., Wait, L. & Blanksby, V. (2005). Learning designs and learning objects: where pedagogy meets technology. . In (C. Looi, D. Joassen & M. Ikeda, (Eds). Towards Sustainable and Scalable Educational Innovations Informed by the Learning Sciences. (pp. 330-337). Amsterdam: IOS Press. Additional readings Bork, A. 2001. Tutorial Learning for the New Century. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 10(1) http://www.ics.uci.edu/~bork/tutorial_learning.pdf Fischer, G. "Beyond "Couch Potatoes": From Consumers to Designers and Active Contributors." First Monday, 2002. Fischer, G., and et al. "Meta-Design: A Manifesto for End-User Development." Communications of the ACM 47, no. 9 (2004): 33-37. Nicol, Anne. "Interfaces for Learning: What Do Good Teachers Know that We Don't?" in Brenda Laurel (ed.) The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design (Addison Wesley, 1990), pp.113-122 Seminar 5: ICTs and educational transformation Theme: ICTs and change Issues: What is the role of ICTs in educational transformation? How can the relationship between ICTs and education be understood? Core readings McClintock, R. 1992. Transforming Education through Information Technology. ILTWeb Publications. [Electronic] Available: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/mcclintock.html [2004/08/03] Conlon, T. 2000. Visions of Change: Information Technology, Education and PostModernism. British Journal of Educational Technology. 31(2): 109-116. Burbules, N & Callister, C. Universities in Transition 2000 The Promise and the Challenge of New Technologies, The Teachers College Record Volume 102 P 271, April 2000 Mcdonald, H. & Ingvarson, L. 1997. Technology: A Catalyst for Educational Change. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 29(5): 513-528. 18
  19. 19. Additional readings Noll, A. M. Technology and the Future of The University. Information, Communication & Society. 3(4): 645-647. Laurillard, D . (1996). The Changing University. ITFORUM paper. http://itech1.coe.uga.edu/itforum/paper13/paper13.html Clegg, Sue, Alison Hudson and John Steel (2003) The Emperor's New Clothes: globalization and e-learning in higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education. 24(1): 39-53. Uys, P. & Molelu, G. 2004. Technological Innovation and Management Strategies for Higher Education in Africa: Harmonizing Reality and Idealism. Educational Media International 41(1): 67-80. Dutton, William H. and Brian D. Loader (2002) “New Media And Institutions Of Higher Education And Learning,” in Dutton and Loader. (eds.) Digital Academe: The New Media and Institutions of Higher Education and Learning, London and New York: Routledge: pp. 1-38. Seminar 6: The digital divide Theme: ICTs and change Issues: Do ICTs exacerbate or ameliorate existing societal divides especially in educational settings? How can the digital divide be understood in relation to teaching and learning practices? Core readings Harper, V. (2003). "The digital Divide (DD): A reconceptualisation for Educators", Educational Technology Review, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 96-103. Attewell, P 2001, The First and Second Digital Divides. Sociology of Education, Jul2001, Vol. 74 Issue 3, p252-259, 8p; (AN 5020127) Natriello, G 2001. Bridging the Second Digital Divide: What Can Sociologists of Education Contribute? Sociology of Education, Vol. 74, No. 3 (Jul., 2001) , pp. 260- 265 Additional readings Selwyn, N, Gorard, S & Williams, S. 2001. Digital Divide or Digital Opportunity? The Role of Technology in Overcoming Social Exclusion in U. S. Education. Educational Policy. 15(2): 258-277. Alden, Christopher. "Let Them Eat Cyberspace: Africa, the G8 and the Digital Divide." Millennium: Journal of International Studies 32, no. 3 (2003): 457-476. Barraket, J., and Scott,G. (2001). Virtual equality? Equity and the use of information technology in higher education. Australian Academic and Research Libraries 32:3 Broekman, I, Enslin, P. & Pendlebury, S. 2002. Distributive Justice and Information Communication Technologies in Higher Education in South Africa. South African Journal of Higher Education. 16(1): 29-35. Digital divide: A collection of papers from the Toshiba/Becta digital divide seminar: 19 February 2002. British Educational Communications and Technology Agency, Coventry. Englebright, L and Sheldrake, S (Eds) 2003, Overcoming social exclusion through online learning, Literature Review, Open University and Niace 19
  20. 20. Seminar 7: The foundations of educational technology Theme: Underpinnings of educational technology Issues: What are the premises underpinning ICTs in Education? How is the use of ICTs changing the way education is understood? Core readings Ely, D. 1999. Toward a Philosophy of Instructional Technology: Thirty Years On. British Journal of Educational Technology. 30(4): 305-310. Engle, R. K. 2001. The Mythos of Educational Technology. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 21(2): 87-94. C. Lankshear, M. Peters & M. Knobel (2000) Information, Knowledge and Learning: Some Issues Facing Epistemology and Education in a Digital Age Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 34 Page 17 - February 2000 Additional readings Burbules, N and Callister, T (2000) Watch It Westview Press Anderson, T and Elloumi, F( Editors) 2004, Theory and Practice of Online Learning Athabasca University, 2004, (online book), 421 pp. ISBN 0-919737-59-5 Feenberg, A. 1999. Questioning Technology. London and New York: Routledge. Beebe, M; Magloire, K; Banji, K; Oyeyinka, O and Rao, M (2003a) Africa dot edu. IT Opportunities and higher education in Africa. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. Jones, C (2004) Theory and the Practices of Learning Technology, presented at the Networked Learning Conference 2004 University of Sheffield and Lancaster University 2004 http://www.shef.ac.uk/nlc2004/home.htm Turkle, S., and S. Papert. "Epistemological Pluralism." Signs 16, no. 1 (1990) Seminar 8: Researching ICTs in Education Theme: Underpinnings of educational technology Issues: What are the key questions in educational technology research? The debate about comparing ICT and non-ICT use in education as a research investigation Core readings Pollard, C. and Pollard, R. 2005. Research Priorities in Educational Technology: A Delphi Study. 37(2). 145-160 Kozma, R. (1991). Learning with media. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 179- 211. Twigg, C 2001, Innovations in online learning- moving beyond no significant difference 20
  21. 21. Additional readings Clinchy, Evans. "The New Technologies and the Continuing Questions," in Clinchy (ed.) Transforming Public Education (Teachers College Press, 1997), pp. 132-142. Reeves, C. T. Questioning the questions of instructional technology research http://it.coe.uga.edu/~treeves/edit6900/deanlecture.pdf Russell, T 2001 The No Significant Difference Phenomenon IDECC Website: http://www.nosignificantdifference.org/ Joy, H & Garcia, F 2000. Measuring Learning Effectiveness: A New Look at No Significant Difference Findings JALN Vol 4 ( 1) Seminar 9: Evaluating impact of ICTs in Education Theme: Underpinnings of educational technology Issues: How does one evaluate the value and impact of ICTs in Education? What can we learn from evaluations to date? Core readings Reeves, C. T. Enhancing the Worth of Instructional Technology Research through “Design Experiments” and other development research strategies http://it.coe.uga.edu/~treeves/AERA2000Reeves.pdf Zemsky, R. and Massy, W. Thwarted Innovation: What Happened to elearning and Why. A Final Report for The Weatherstation Project of The Learning Alliance at the University of Pennsylvania in cooperation with the Thomson Corporation, June 2004. p. 51. Available: http://www.irhe.upenn.edu/Docs/Jun2004/ThwartedInnovation.pdf Reeves, C. T. The Impact of Media and Technology in Schools http://www.athensacademy.org/instruct/media_tech/reeves0.html Additional readings Agostinho, S., Oliver, R., Harper, B., Hedberg, J. & Wills, S. (2002). A tool to evaluate the potential for an ICT-based learning design to foster high quality learning. In A. Williams, C. Gunn, A. Young & T. Clear (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of ASCILITE. Auckland, NZ: UNITEC University of Auckland, (pp 29-38). McMahon, M. & Oliver, R. (2004). Design experiments as a research methodology for innovation in ICT. In L. Cantoni & C. McLoughlin (Eds). Proceedings of Ed- Media 2004, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications . (pp. 2026-2033). Norfolk, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. Kennedy, G. 2003. An Institutional Approach to the Evaluation of Educational Technology. Educational Media International. 40(3): 187-199. Quinones, Sherri, and Kirshstein, Rita. An Educator's Guide to Evaluating The Use of Technology in Schools and Classrooms (American Institutes for Research, 1998). http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdTechGuide/. 21
  22. 22. Edn677x Learning, Cognition & Technology Framework: This course will investigate the inter-related issues of learning, technology and cognitive change. The course focuses on theories of learning and cognitive change as well as developing an understanding of the effects of technology on cognition. Course members will be involved in constructing/designing curricula that incorporate technology, informed by the theories of learning that we cover during the course. The intention of the course is to generate a view of learning and learners that incorporates current approaches to computer mediated teaching and learning with a view to understanding and theorising potential shifts in pedagogical practices arising from the introduction of novel technology into classrooms. The course is structured around the following core themes: 1. Cognition: How can we theorise about learning? What theoretical issues underlie learning today? 2. Learning and development: Learning how to think and learn 3. Understanding learning as the use of tools 4. Theorising the impact of novel technology (in this instance computer based learning) on activity systems 5. Tracking shifts in pedagogical practices by using the notion of the 'object' as a methodological concept. At the end of the course you should be able to: • Learn to identify and follow a line of argument • Examine practical applications of learning theories • Use theory to construct understandings of cognitive change • Theorise about practical applications of educational technology. Course Requirements: 3 pieces of work are expected: 4. Seminar engagement: You will be marked on 1) your seminar presentation and 2) your active participation in seminar discussions (20% of final mark: 5% for participation and 15% for seminar presentation). 5. Academic Paper. These papers comprise the academic essay portion of the course (50% of final mark). 6. Curriculum quest: Integrating technology into your own practice (group work project) 30% Seminar 1: What does it mean for knowledge to be constructed? • Contributions from Cognitive Developmentalists: Piaget- Endogenous Constructivism o Organisation and Schemes o Adaptation Piaget, J. (1992) Development and Learning, in Gauvain, M. And Cole, M. (eds.) Readings on the Development of Children, New York, W.H. Freeman & Co. Piaget, J (2001) The Stages of Intellectual Development of the child, in Gauvain, M. and Cole, M. (eds.) Readings on the Development of Children, New York, W.H. Freeman & Co. 22
  23. 23. Bidell, T.R. and Fischer, K.W. Beyond the stage debate: Action, structure and variability in Piagetian theory and research, Seminar 2: Contributions from Cognitive Developmentalists cont.: • Vygotsky- Sociocultural theory o External to internal o Tools and signs o ZPD Chaiklin, S (2003) The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky's analysis of learning and instruction, In Kozulin,A., Gindis, B., Ageyev, V.V., Miller S.M., Vygotsky's educational theory in cultural context. Cambridge, Cambridge university press. Kozulin, A (2003). Psychological tools and mediated learning. In Kozulin,A., Gindis, B., Ageyev, V.V., Miller S.M., Vygotsky's educational theory in cultural context. Cambridge, Cambridge University press. Vygotsky, L. (1992). Interaction between Development and Learning. in Gauvain, M. and Cole, M. (eds.) Readings on the Development of Children, New York, W.H. Freeman & Co. Seminar 3: A sociocultural approach to mediated action The following core issues will be covered: • Mediated action • Agency and culture Karpov, Y. (2003). Vygotsky's doctrine of scientific concepts. In Kozulin,A., Gindis, B., Ageyev, V.V., Miller S.M., Vygotsky's educational theory in cultural context. Cambridge, Cambridge university press. Miller, R. 1984. (1989b). Conceptual Issues in theorising about cognition. South African Journal of Higher Education 3 (1): 154-159. Miller, R. (1984). Reflections of mind and culture. Inaugural lecture. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press. Wertsch, J. (1998). Properties of mediated action in Wertsch, J. Mind As Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seminar 4: MLE- From Theory to Practice? Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., Hoffman, Ma. Hoffman, Me.& Miller, R. (1979). Cognitive modifiability in Retarded Adolescents: Effects of Instrumental Enrichment. The American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83(6): 539-550 Kozulin, A (2002) Sociocultural Theory and the Mediated Learning Experience, School Psychology International Vol. 23 (1): 5-30 23
  24. 24. Seminar 5 & 6: Activity theory 1: Quo vadis ZPD? • First, second and third generation activity theory • Situated cognition, distributed cognition and sociocultural theory Kozulin, A (1986) The concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology, American Psychologist 41: 264-74 (1995) The Learning Process: Vygotsky's theory in the mirror of its interpretations. School Psychology international 16: 117-129 Daniels, H (2001) Current approaches to sociocultural and activity theory in Vygotsky and Pedagogy London: Routledge Hardman, J. (2005). Activity theory as a potential framework for technology research in an unequal terrain. South African Journal of Higher Education. 19(2). Nardi, B (Ed.) (1996). Studying context: a comparison of activity theory, situated action models and distributed cognition in Nardi (ed) Context and consciousness: Activity theory and human-computer interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Engestrom, Y & Miettinen, R (1999) Introduction: activity theory: a well kept secret in Engestrom, Y, Miettinen, R and Punamaki R-L (eds). Perspectives on activity theory, Cambridge, Cambridge University press. Seminar 7: Activity theory 2: towards a theoretical framework for computer mediated learning? Saljo, R. Learning as the use of tools: a sociocultural perspective on the human technology link. Kuutti, K (1996). Activity theory as a potential framework for human computer interaction research Nardi (ed) Context and consciousness: Activity theory and human-computer interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Russell, D. (2002) Looking beyond the interface: Activity theory and distributed learning. M Lea and K Nicoll (eds) Distributed Learning, London: RoutledgeFalmer Halvernson, C. (2002) Activity Theory and Distributed Cognition: Or what does CSCW need to DO with theories? Computer supported co-operative work 11: 243- 267 Hardman, J (2002). Evaluating the impact of computers in schools: A literature review prepared for the Khanya project 1-35 Hardman. J. (2004). How do teachers use computers to teach mathematics? Khanya project report: 1-26 24
  25. 25. For those of you who want to take the journey a step further, here are some additional readings to illuminate the path: Additional readings: Chaiklin, S. & Lave, J. (Eds.) (1993). Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context. New York: Cambridge University Press Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: a once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Cole, M. and Engestrom, Y. (1993). A cultural-historical approach to distributed cognition. In G. Saloman (ed) Distributed cognition: psychological and educational considerations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cole, M. (1985) The zone of proximal development: Where culture and cognition create each other. In J. V. Wertsch (Ed.), Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Daniels, H (2001) Vygotskain Theory and education in Vygotsky and Pedagogy London: Routledge Davydov, V.V. and Markova, A.A. (1983) A concept of educational activity for school children. Soviet Psychology, 2(2), 50-76. Dewey, J. (1963). Education and experience. New York: Macmillan Díaz, R. M., Neal, C. J., and Amaya-Williams, M. (1990). The social origins of self- regulation. In L. C. Moll (ED.), Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and applications of sociohistorical psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Engestrom, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding An activity -theoretic approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit Oy Engstrom, Y. Meiettinen, R & Punamaki, R.J. (1999) Perspectives on Activity Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Ginsburg & Opper (1979) Biography and Basic Ideas in Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development, New Jersey, Prentice- Hall Ilyenkov, E. V. (19 77). The concept of the ideal. In Philosophy in the USSR: Problems of dialectical materialism (pp. 71-99) (R. Daglish Trans.). Moscow: Progress Publishers Jauss, H. J. (1989). Question and answer: Forms of dialogical understanding. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Kaptelinin, V. (1996) Computer mediated activity: functional organs in social and developmental contexts. In Nardi, B. (ed) Context and consciousness: Activity theory and human-computer interaction. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press 25
  26. 26. Kozulin, A. (1990). Vygotsky's psychology: A biography of ideas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Leontiev, A (1978) Activity, Consciousness, and Personality, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Mercer, N. & Cole, C. (Eds.) (1994). Explorations in socio-cultural studies, Vol. III. Teaching, learning, and interaction. Madrid: Foundacion Inf ancia y Aprendizaje Mercer, N. and Fisher, E. (1997) 'The Importance of Talk', in Wegerif, R. and Scrimshaw, P. (eds.) Computers and Talk in the Primary Classroom, Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. pp 13 - 22 Mercer, N. and Wegerif, R (1998) Is 'exploratory talk' productive talk? In Littleton, K. and Light, P, Learning with computers: analysing productive interactions. London: Routledge Middleton, D. And Edwards, D. (Eds.) (1990). Collective remembering. London: Sage Publications Moll, I. (1994). Reclaiming the natural line in Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development. Human Development, 37, 33-342. Overholster, J. C. (1994). Elements of the Socratic method: III. Universal definitions. Psychotherapy, 31, 286-293. Palincsar, A. S. (1986). The role of dialogue in providing scaffolded instruction. Educational Psychologist, 26, 73-98. Palincsar, A. S (1998) Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning, Annual review of Psychology, 49: 345-75 Radzikhovskii, L. A. (1987). Activity: Structure, genesis, and unit of analysis. Soviet Psychology, 25(4), 82-98. Radzikhovskii, L. A. (1991). Dialogue as a unit of analysis of consciousness. Soviet Psychology, 29(2), 8-21. Tulviste, P. (1991). The cultural-historical development of verbal thinking. Commack, NY: Nova Science Publisher Valisner, J. (1988). Developmental psychology in the Soviet Union. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press Valsiner, J. (1998) The Guided Mind: A sociogenetic approach to personality. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press Van Der Veer, R. & Valsiner, J. (1991). Understanding Vygotsky: A quest for synthesis. Camb ridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers Van Der Veer, R. & Valsiner, J. (1994). The Vygotsky reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers 26
  27. 27. Volosinov, V. N. (1973). Marxism and the philosophy of language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Vygotsky, L. S. (1981). The genesis of higher mental functions. J. V. Wert sch (Ed. and Trans.), The concept of activity in soviet psychology. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe. Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech. In R. W. Reiber and A. S. Carton (Eds.), (Trans., N. Minick), The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. Vol. 1: Problems of General Psychology. New York, NY: Plenum. Vygotsky, L. & Luria, A. (1994). Tool and symbol in child development. In Van der Veer, R. and Valsiner, J. (eds.) The Vygotsky Reader. Oxford: Blackwell Vygotsky, L. & Luria, A. (1994). Tool and symbol in child development. In R. van der Veer, & J. Valsiner (Eds.), The Vygotsky reader. Oxford: Blackwell. Wegerif, R., and Scrimshaw, P. (eds.). (1997). Computers and Talk in the Primary Classroom, Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. Wertsch, J. V. (1980). The significance of dialogue in Vygotsky's account of social, egocentric, and inner speech. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 5, 150-162. Wertsch, J. V. (1991). Voices of the Mind: A sociocultural approach to mediated action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wertsch, J. (1985). Vygotsky's Genetic Method in Wertsch, J. Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind Cambridge: Harvard University Press Wertsch, J. (1985) Social origins of higher mental functions in Wertsch, J. Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind Cambridge: Harvard University Press Zinchenko, V. (1996). Developing activity theory: the zone of proximal development and beyond. In Nardi, B. (ed) Context and consciousness: Activity theory and human-computer interaction. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press 27

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