COUNTER - REFORMATION
in Western Europe
Only the Catholic
CHARLES I´S TERRITORIES
3 new religions:
Religious movement that appeared by the 1500s
to change and reform the Catholic Church.
-At the beginning
they didn´t want to split up with the
Catholic Church, just to reform and to improve it.
they broke away completely leading to
religious wars and the appearance of new religions in
People who joined the reformation.
They protested about things they thought were wrong
in the Catholic Church:
a)-CLERGY LEADERS (high clergy):
-Only interested in wealth and money
-SALE OF INDULGENCES(documents
to buy the forgiveness)
educated and lazy
MARTIN LUTHER THE REBEL
-He wrote a list of 95 ways with which to improve the
Catholic Church and nailed them to the church door in
-He didn´t retract and the Pope expelled him
from the Catholic Church.
-His ideas soon spread and German princes
supported him in order to increase their power
and autonomy from Charles I
The list was supposed to be things he
wished to discuss with other Churchmen
– he did NOT write them with the idea of
starting a rebellion against the Pope.
SUPPORT FOR LUTHER GROWS
The invention of the printing press helped to spread Luther’s
ideas. Pamphlets (hand bills) were printed and distributed
cheaply and quickly throughout Germany and the rest of
Europe. Many people read or were told of his ideas and
agreed with many of the things he wrote about including:
• Objecting to paying taxes to Rome
• The fact that many priests knew little or no Latin and had little training
• That foreigners were made bishops, and they cared nothing for people in their care
• German lords objected to the Church interfering in German politics
One very powerful supported of Luther was the Duke of Saxony.
He insisted that the Pope should send someone to Germany
to answer Luther’s arguments. In 1518 Cardinal Cajetan
went to Augsburg (a city in Germany) to argue with Luther;
but this only resulted in Luther growing even more apart from
the Catholic Church. In June 1519 Luther made the claim that
“the authority of the Bible was greater than that of the Pope”.
CHARLES I´S ROLE
tried to convince Luther
to retract his ideas.
-He was forced to fight against
the Protestants in his role as
“Defender of the Faith” trying
to re-unite the two churches
H e n r y V I I I ’s
P r o b le m s
B y M r H u g g in s
w w w .S c h o o lH is to ry .c o .u k
The Pope Clemente VII
King Henry VIII of England argued with
the Pope he refused to allow Henry to
divorce his wife,Catherine of Aragon.
In 1531 Henry decided to take the place
of the Pope and made himself head of the
Church in England.
I n eed a son . I h av e
b e e n m a r r ie d fo r 2 0
y e a r s a n d m y w ife ,
C a th e r in e o f A r a g o n
is to o o ld to h a v e a n y
m o r e c h ild r e n . W h o
w ill in h e r it m y t h r o n e
w h e n I d ie ?
I s p y a n a ttr a c tiv e la d y
– in -w a itin g c a lle d A n n e
B o le y n . I f o n ly I c o u ld
m a r r y h e r in s te a d . W ill
th e P o p e g iv e m e a
d iv o r c e ?
T h e C h u r c h is v e r y r ic h .
I n ee d m o n e y fo r m y
lu x u r io u s c o u r t. I f o n ly I
c o u ld g e t m y h a n d s o n it.
T h e n ew P ro te sta n t
id e a s a r e s p r e a d in g
in G e r m a n y .
P r in c e s th e r e a r e
r e fo r m in g th e ir
th r o w in g o u t th e
C a th o lic C h u r c h .
T h e C h u r c h ta k e s
m oney out m y
c o u n tr y in ta x e s to
h e lp b u ild S t
P e te r ’s in R o m e .
W h a t d o I g e t in
r etu r n ?
S o m e p e o p le in E n g la n d lik e th e n e w
P r o te s ta n t id e a s . T h e y b e lie v e th a t th e
B ib le s h o u ld b e in E n g lis h n o t L a tin .
K a th e r in e o f A r a g o n V A n n e B o le y n
Catherine of Aragon:
Was first married to Henry’s brother Arthur who died. They
were married for 20 years. When Henry was in France the Scottish
King attacked England. Catherine raised an army and defeated him.
She bore Henry several children only Mary survived. Henry needed
the Popes permission to divorce Catherine. He refused so Henry
became head of the church instead of the Pope. Henry divorced
Catherine because she was too old to give him a son. His excuse
was she was spending more time praying and less time dancing.
Henry fell in love with Anne because she was young and pretty with
flowing hair and black eyes. The marriage lasted for three years.
1533 – 1536. She gave Henry one child a daughter called Elizabeth.
She is accused of having lovers and put on trial. The trial is not
fair as people do what the king tells them. She is executed.
ANNE BOLEYN IN THE TOWER
-Against the sale of Indulgences (for Luther the purgatory doesn´t exist)
-The importance of the Bible Priests are not needed as intermediaries
(Bibles were translated into different
-Rejection of the authority of the clergy leaders
-They disapproved of decorated churches and complex and long
-They only accept two sacraments:
-To get the salvation all is needed is
-Luther´s ideas spread mainly in
-They reject all the Sacraments.
-The idea of PREDESTINATION
God has decided our destiny and
salvation for us.
-To prove your faith you have to work.
-In Switzerland,Scotland,the Netherlands
and some parts of France.
-Many wars between catholics and
protestants and Western Europe
splitted into catholic and protestant territories.
In 1555- PEACE OF AUGSBURG religion it is” it is,
(each territory would have its prince
Catholic Church answer to the
1543 – 1563 COUNCIL OF TRENT
The Pope called a meeting of Catholic churchmen
at Trent in Italy.
COUNCIL OF TRENT´S GOAL:
To improve and reform the Catholic Church
-establishing its rules and beliefs
-ordering the complete obedience to
SOME TOOLS were also used to REINFORCE the Catholic
To hunt out anyone who was not a good
SOCIETY OF JESUS
-THE BAROQUE ART
Founded by St Ignatius Loyola
Responding to Protestantism, Catholics
introduced an even more elaborate style.
officers of the Inquisition used
torture to make people confess their beliefs.
Protestants who refused to become
Catholics were burnt to death at
special ceremonies called “acts of fe”,
which were watched by huge crowds.
THE SOCIETY OF JESUS
This is St Ignatius Loyola who founded
the Society of Jesus.The members ,
who were known as Jesuits, tried to
win Protestants back to the Catholic
Many Protestants disapproved of
decorated churches and
destroyed those they took
over.But the Catholics introduced
an even more elaborated style