Reformation vs counter reformation


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Reformation vs counter reformation

  2. 2. 2 Religious situation in Western Europe Before Only the Catholic Church CHARLES I´S TERRITORIES 1500 After Within the Christianity: Catholics 3 new religions: -LUTHERANS -CALVINISTS -ANGLICANS +
  3. 3. 3 REFORMATION: DEFINITION: Religious movement that appeared by the 1500s to change and reform the Catholic Church. -At the beginning they didn´t want to split up with the Catholic Church, just to reform and to improve it. -but later... they broke away completely leading to religious wars and the appearance of new religions in Western Europe
  4. 4. 4 PROTESTANTS : People who joined the reformation. They protested about things they thought were wrong in the Catholic Church: a)-CLERGY LEADERS (high clergy): -Only interested in wealth and money -SALE OF INDULGENCES(documents to buy the forgiveness) b)-RURAL CLERGY: badly educated and lazy
  5. 5. 5 MARTIN LUTHER THE REBEL -German monk. -He wrote a list of 95 ways with which to improve the Catholic Church and nailed them to the church door in Wittemberg cathedral. -He didn´t retract and the Pope expelled him from the Catholic Church. -His ideas soon spread and German princes supported him in order to increase their power and autonomy from Charles I The list was supposed to be things he wished to discuss with other Churchmen – he did NOT write them with the idea of starting a rebellion against the Pope.
  6. 6. 6 SUPPORT FOR LUTHER GROWS The invention of the printing press helped to spread Luther’s ideas. Pamphlets (hand bills) were printed and distributed cheaply and quickly throughout Germany and the rest of Europe. Many people read or were told of his ideas and agreed with many of the things he wrote about including: • Objecting to paying taxes to Rome • The fact that many priests knew little or no Latin and had little training • That foreigners were made bishops, and they cared nothing for people in their care • German lords objected to the Church interfering in German politics One very powerful supported of Luther was the Duke of Saxony. He insisted that the Pope should send someone to Germany to answer Luther’s arguments. In 1518 Cardinal Cajetan went to Augsburg (a city in Germany) to argue with Luther; but this only resulted in Luther growing even more apart from the Catholic Church. In June 1519 Luther made the claim that “the authority of the Bible was greater than that of the Pope”.
  7. 7. 7 CHARLES I´S ROLE -He tried to convince Luther to retract his ideas. -He was forced to fight against the Protestants in his role as “Defender of the Faith” trying to re-unite the two churches (but imposible)
  8. 8. 8 H e n r y V I I I ’s P r o b le m s B y M r H u g g in s w w w .S c h o o lH is to ry .c o .u k The Pope Clemente VII King Henry VIII of England argued with the Pope he refused to allow Henry to divorce his wife,Catherine of Aragon. In 1531 Henry decided to take the place of the Pope and made himself head of the Church in England.
  9. 9. 9 I n eed a son . I h av e b e e n m a r r ie d fo r 2 0 y e a r s a n d m y w ife , C a th e r in e o f A r a g o n is to o o ld to h a v e a n y m o r e c h ild r e n . W h o w ill in h e r it m y t h r o n e w h e n I d ie ? I s p y a n a ttr a c tiv e la d y – in -w a itin g c a lle d A n n e B o le y n . I f o n ly I c o u ld m a r r y h e r in s te a d . W ill th e P o p e g iv e m e a d iv o r c e ? T h e C h u r c h is v e r y r ic h . I n ee d m o n e y fo r m y lu x u r io u s c o u r t. I f o n ly I c o u ld g e t m y h a n d s o n it. T h e n ew P ro te sta n t id e a s a r e s p r e a d in g in G e r m a n y . P r in c e s th e r e a r e r e fo r m in g th e ir churches and th r o w in g o u t th e C a th o lic C h u r c h . T h e C h u r c h ta k e s m oney out m y c o u n tr y in ta x e s to h e lp b u ild S t P e te r ’s in R o m e . W h a t d o I g e t in r etu r n ? S o m e p e o p le in E n g la n d lik e th e n e w P r o te s ta n t id e a s . T h e y b e lie v e th a t th e B ib le s h o u ld b e in E n g lis h n o t L a tin .
  10. 10. 8 K a th e r in e o f A r a g o n V A n n e B o le y n
  11. 11. 9 Catherine of Aragon: Was first married to Henry’s brother Arthur who died. They were married for 20 years. When Henry was in France the Scottish King attacked England. Catherine raised an army and defeated him. She bore Henry several children only Mary survived. Henry needed the Popes permission to divorce Catherine. He refused so Henry became head of the church instead of the Pope. Henry divorced Catherine because she was too old to give him a son. His excuse was she was spending more time praying and less time dancing. Anne Boleyn: Henry fell in love with Anne because she was young and pretty with flowing hair and black eyes. The marriage lasted for three years. 1533 – 1536. She gave Henry one child a daughter called Elizabeth. She is accused of having lovers and put on trial. The trial is not fair as people do what the king tells them. She is executed. ANNE BOLEYN IN THE TOWER
  12. 12. 10 LUTHER´S IDEAS CALVIN´S IDEAS -Against the sale of Indulgences (for Luther the purgatory doesn´t exist) BOTH -The importance of the Bible Priests are not needed as intermediaries believers (Bibles were translated into different between God languages) -Rejection of the authority of the clergy leaders (Pope, bishops...) -They disapproved of decorated churches and complex and long religious services -They only accept two sacraments: -Baptism -Communion -To get the salvation all is needed is FAITH -Luther´s ideas spread mainly in Germany -They reject all the Sacraments. -The idea of PREDESTINATION God has decided our destiny and salvation for us. -To prove your faith you have to work. -In Switzerland,Scotland,the Netherlands and some parts of France.
  13. 13. 11 CONSEQUENCES -Many wars between catholics and protestants and Western Europe splitted into catholic and protestant territories. “Whose territory In 1555- PEACE OF AUGSBURG religion it is” it is, is (each territory would have its prince religion) -COUNTER-REFORMATION Catholic Church answer to the Reformation movement. 1543 – 1563 COUNCIL OF TRENT The Pope called a meeting of Catholic churchmen at Trent in Italy.
  14. 14. 12 COUNCIL OF TRENT´S GOAL: To improve and reform the Catholic Church BY: -establishing its rules and beliefs -ordering the complete obedience to them. SOME TOOLS were also used to REINFORCE the Catholic religion: To hunt out anyone who was not a good -THE INQUISITION Catholic -THE - SOCIETY OF JESUS -THE BAROQUE ART Founded by St Ignatius Loyola Responding to Protestantism, Catholics introduced an even more elaborate style.
  15. 15. 13 THE INQUISITION The officers of the Inquisition used torture to make people confess their beliefs. Protestants who refused to become Catholics were burnt to death at special ceremonies called “acts of fe”, which were watched by huge crowds.
  16. 16. 13 THE SOCIETY OF JESUS This is St Ignatius Loyola who founded the Society of Jesus.The members , who were known as Jesuits, tried to win Protestants back to the Catholic Church
  17. 17. 13 BAROQUE ART Many Protestants disapproved of decorated churches and destroyed those they took over.But the Catholics introduced an even more elaborated style called BAROQUE.
  18. 18. THE END