……an activity enables individuals to acquire
valuable competencies and as a result to bring
individual, societal and economic changes in
the other’s lives (European Commission, 2011).
career planning, provides an entrepreneurial
way of examining and executing matters
and can be used to characterize teaching and
(Cooper et al., 2004; Fiet, 2000a, b; Pittaway and Cope, 2007; Rae and Carswell, 2001; Steyaert and Katz, 2004).
………is a question of learning
entrepreneurship (Gibb, 2005).
1. Nelson, 1986; Republic of Kenya, 1992. 2. Nelson and Johnson 1997 10
among the youth, is a critical
problem in developing countries.
Self-employment in small
enterprises has been identified as
a partial solution1
Entrepreneurship education can
play a major role in changing
attitudes of young people and
providing them with skills that will
enable them to start and manage
small enterprises at some point in
3. Gibb, 1988 11
number of entrepreneurs
in a region, a more even
distribution of income
between rural and urban
areas can be achieved by
improving the productive
capacity of people living
in rural areas3.
4. Nelson and Johnson 1997 12
Accelerated industrialization, particularly
through small-scale enterprises, requires an
increased supply of individuals with
Source: Nelson and Johnson 1997
Capital is a scarce resource
for economic development
that needs to be used wisely
therefore increased efforts
are required to prepare
PHD Seminar QLA - AIT/SOM 2912
Many different teaching and working
methods have been connected to
(Fayolle, 2008; Fiet, 2000a, b; Jones and Iredale, 2010; Neck and Greene, 2011; Seikkula-Leino, 2008; Solomon, 2007).
It seems that teachers are
Relatively few tools to conduct
their entrepreneurship education.
Relatively less relevant
education for their undergrad and
continuing education, therefore
challenging (Seikkula-Leino et al.,
A set of guidelines, ethics or
ideas that represent the most
efficient or prudent course of
A method, process, activity,
incentive, or reward which
conventional wisdom regards
as more effective at delivering
(Gibb, 2005, 2011) 18
Entrepreneurship teaching is built on
active role of learners in learning process
and non-traditional methods.
Creation of information collaboratively,
and failure is accepted as a part of the
Methods for such purposes include,
Learning by doing
Workplace guidance and enterprise visits.
*Entrepreneurship Education (EE) 19
Jones and Iredale (2010), two
changes in *
EE to meet objectives;
1) Curricula must be changed and
2) Teaching and learning
methods must be developed.
Shulman and Shulman (2004)
proposed that an
accomplished teacher should
1) A member of a professional
2) Ready , willing, and able to
teach and learn from his or
her teaching experiences
Shulman, L.S. & Shulman, J.H. (2004) How and what teachers learn: a shifting perspective.
Journal of Curriculum Studies, (36) 2, 257-271.
A vision generates readiness and willingness which persuade
An accomplished teacher should be:
Ready to pursue a vision of classroom or school that forms a
“learning community” where teachers understand and have
motivation to further develop the forms of pedagogical and
organizational practices needed in transforming their visions,
motives and understandings into a functioning, pragmatic reality.
Source: Shulman and Shulman (2004)
Teachers’ Development and Reflection Process Model
Recognized that who is an Entrepreneur
Knew that what is Entrepreneurship
Best Practice Models