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Demystifying Fault Isolators

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This presentation by David Sylvester of the Mircom Group of Companies discusses fault isolators and how they related to system survivability, data communications, applications of isolators as they relate to fire alarm and life safety systems.

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Demystifying Fault Isolators

  1. 1. December 4, 2012
  2. 2. Agenda 1- System Survivability2- Lessons Learned from Failed System Survivability 3 - Understanding Data Communication Links 4 – Fault Isolator Applications 5 - Networked Data Communications Links 6 – NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature
  3. 3. 1- System Survivability & CAN/ULC-S524• There is an expectation that life safety systems should continue to provide some level of performance in a fire or a disaster• Survivability of the fire alarm system during a fire is a relatively new paradigm• Data Communications Links (DCLs) in new fire alarm systems are at the heart of the issue of the reliability and survivability
  4. 4. 2- Lessons Learned from Failed System Survivability• 2 Fore2st Laneway 2 Forest Laneway North York
  5. 5. 2- Lessons Learned from Failed System Survivability Fatal fire in a Toronto high-rise Six people died, the issue of the early failure of life safety systems during the fire was examined• Failure of the exit lighting• Failure of the emergency lighting• Failure of the fire alarm annunciation• Failure of the fire alarm signaling• Failure of the voice communication system
  6. 6. 3 - Understanding Data Communication LinksDATA COMMUMICATIONS LINK• The data channel between control units and/or transponders and annunciatorsThe fire alarm network____________________________________• Active field devicesAddressable fire alarm devices
  7. 7. 3 - Understanding Data Communication Links
  8. 8. 3 - Understanding Data Communication Links 2006Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable fire alarm devices
  9. 9. 3 - Understanding Data Communication LinksCapacity of addressable devicesDCLA300 Device Limit per loop2 loops shown Zone 1 ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable Devices
  10. 10. 3 - What is a Data Communication LinkCapacity of addressable devicesDCLB200 Device Limit per loop2 loops shown Zone 1 ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable Devices
  11. 11. 3 - Understanding Data Communication LinksCapacity of addressable devicesDCLC300 Device Limit per loopIsolators used2 loops shown Multiple Zones ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable Devices
  12. 12. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsThe Alpha isolator, part no. MIX-100X, is designed to sense and isolate short-circuitson loops. It is a stand-alone device which is fitted into its own base.
  13. 13. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsClause 4.2.7 of CAN/ULC-S524 When a data link serves more than one floor area, a fault within one floor area cannot affect normal operation of devices in another floor area.
  14. 14. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsAddressable devices 300 Device Limit FOURTH FLOOR THIRD FLOOR Fault isolation SECOND FLOOR module pairs ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION FIRST FLOOR ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL FAULT ISOLATION MODULE OR TRANSPONDER DATA COMMUNICATION LINK
  15. 15. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsClause 5.14.6 of CAN/ULC-S524Do not install the fault isolation modules back to back
  16. 16. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications5.14.6 of CAN/ULC-S524 400mm Offset the fault isolation modules
  17. 17. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications 5.14.8 of CAN/ULC-S524 ZONE 2 ZONE 1 STAIRFault isolation modules serving a single device in an exit
  18. 18. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style C • Defines the distance between the primary and alternate wiring circuit paths
  19. 19. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style C • Defines the distance between the primary and alternate wiring circuit pathsSeparation of Wiring
  20. 20. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsClass A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style C Defines the distance between the primary and alternate wiring circuit paths Separation of Wiring
  21. 21. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style CSeparation of Wiring
  22. 22. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style CSeparation of Wiring
  23. 23. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsSeparation of Wiring
  24. 24. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links Only DCLC permitted 1000 Addressable device limit for entire systemFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Control Unit One fault does not disable the system Data communicationsFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Annunciator Control Unit DCLA or DLCB Data communication Permitted here
  25. 25. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links More than 1000 Addressable device limit for entire system Must meet Large Scale Network and only DCL-C permittedFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Control Unit Data communicationsFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Annunciator Control Unit DCLA or DLCB Data communication Permitted here
  26. 26. 5 - Networked Data Communications LinksNBCC 2010 Division B 3.2.7.9 Emergency Power ForBuilding Services & 3.2.7.10.(2) & (4) Protection ofElectrical Conductors MECHANICAL PENTHOUSEPower and/or data Wiring between fire alarm control unit, ortransponder, and primary annunciator(s) one hour fire ratedcable or construction methods for data only. If the fire alarm emergency communication control units ortransponders are provided with sufficient batteries then firerated cables for the 120 volt power supply is not required. 2 hour rated MI or CI cable or construction method Data Communication Link Fire Alarm Emergency Communication System Network Backbone Ground Floor PARKING GARAGE P1-P4
  27. 27. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links2010 NBCC Division B 3.2.7.8Emergency Power For Fire Alarm MECHANICAL PENTHOUSEAll emergency power feed wiringfrom the generator to the individualfire alarm emergencycommunication control units mustbe installed to survive two hours.If the fire alarm emergencycommunication control units ortransponders are provided withsufficient batteries then cables donot require fire rating.Low rise buildings do not requirefire rated cables2 hour rated MI or CIcable or constructionmethod Emergency Transfer Power Distribution Generator switch Panel Ground Floor PARKING GARAGE P1-P4
  28. 28. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links• Refer to Table 3 of CAN/ULC-S524• More than 1000 Addressable device limit for entire system• Must meet Large Scale Network• Only DCL-C permitted
  29. 29. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links• Each transponder has STAND ALONE capability• Degraded mode capability• Each transponder must have: • Signal silence • Reset • Trouble silence • Stand alone indicator• In high buildings per Quebec Construction Code• At least one ADDITIONAL transponder with • Full annunciation per QCC • Means to transmit voice communication with “ ALL CALL” capability• Transponders must be in an electrical room with a 1 hour fire separation
  30. 30. 6 – NFPA Updated Performance NomenclatureThe new NFPA 72 NFPA 72: National Fire Alarm andSignaling Code Handbook (2010) has eliminated thecircuit styles.Instead, NFPA now designates circuits and pathways asClass A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E or ClassX, depending on their performance.
  31. 31. 6 – NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature12.3.1* Class A. A pathway shall be designated as Class A when itperforms as follows:(1) It includes a redundant path.(2) Operational capability continues past a single open.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path areannunciated.The Class A Style 7 performance is now defined as Class X. FOURTH FLOOR THIRD FLOOR SECOND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL
  32. 32. 6 –NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature12.3.3* Class C. A pathway shall be designated as Class C when it performs as follows:(1) It includes one or more pathways where operational capability is verified via end to- end communication, but the integrity of individual paths is not monitored.(2) A loss of end-to-end communication is annunciated.A.12.3.3 The Class C reference is new and is intended to describe technologies thatsupervise the communication pathway by polling or continuous communication“handshaking” such as the following:(1) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wired LAN, WAN, or Internet(2) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless LAN,WAN, andInternet(3) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless (proprietarycommunications)(4) Fire control unit digital alarm communication transmitter or supervisory station digitalalarm communication receiver connections to the public switched telephone network
  33. 33. 6 – NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature NFPA 72 Signal Line Circuit Performance NFPA 72- 2007 Style 4 Style 6 Class A Style 7 NFPA 72 - 2010 Class B Class A Class X Type of Fault Single Open Trouble Alarm, Trouble Alarm, Trouble Single Ground , Alarm, Trouble Alarm, Trouble Trouble (ground) (ground) Alarm, Trouble (ground) Short Trouble Trouble Alarm, Trouble Short and open Trouble Trouble Trouble Short and ground Trouble Trouble Alarm, Trouble Open and ground Trouble Alarm, Trouble Alarm, TroubleCommunications loss Trouble Trouble Trouble• Alarm - The control panel must be able to process an alarm input signal in thepresence of this type of fault.• Trouble - The control panel will indicate a trouble condition for this type of fault.• Class E does not require supervision
  34. 34. Module Day 1

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