CSA B44 & NFPA 101

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This presentation by David Sylvester of the Mircom Group of Companies discusses CSA-B44 and NFPA 101 - the Canadian and American elevator recall codes. Learn how they relate to life safety and fire protection.

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CSA B44 & NFPA 101

  1. 1. B44 Elevator Standards & AHJ’s Interpretations Regarding Fire Alarm installations
  2. 2. B-44 Top Ten1-History of Elevator use during fire scenarios and evacuation techniques 2- Demystifying CSA-B44, NFPA 101 & National Building Code 3-Detector locations and recall requirements 4-Intelligent building application for occupant safety in elevators 5-Leveraging elevator smoke management technology
  3. 3. B-44 Top Ten 6-AHJ’s perspective towards elevator evacuations7-Mobility impaired evacuation and the use of elevators 8-Real life examples of elevators for evacuation 9-Video of exterior emergency elevator 10-Summary & Questions
  4. 4. 1-History of elevator use during fire scenarios and evacuation techniques 1993-2001 1904 Initiate discussion in The Great regards to “Elevators Toronto Fire For Safe Evacuation” that initiated in & Defend-in-place elevator shaft1854Elisha Graves 1973Otis Code - Not toEliminated use elevator’s THEone of the for evacuation due to deaths 2001major limits in elevator WORLD TRADEto building CENTERheight shafts ATTACT
  5. 5. 2- Demystifying CSA-B44, NFPA 101 & National Building Code NFPA 101 Life Safety Code USA APPLICATIONS Part 9 9.4.3 Fire Emergency Operations 9.4.3.1 All new elevators shall conform to thenot 9.6.3.2.1 Initiated Elevator detection does Fire Fighters’ Emergency Operations requirements of have to trigger building evacuation if constantly ASME A 17.1/CSA B44, Safety code for Elevators monitored and Escalators 9.6.3.2.1 Elevator lobby, hoistway, and associated machine room smoke detectors used solely for elevator recall, and heat detectors used solely for elevator power shutdown shall not be required to activate the building evacuation alarm if the power supply and installation wiring to such detectors are monitored by the building fire alarm system, and if the activation of such detectors initiates a supervisory signal at a constantly attended location 5
  6. 6. ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 USA application ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 USA APPLICATIONS Fire alarm initiating devices are to be provided in 2.27.3.2.1 (a) at each floor served by the elevator (LOBBY SMOKE DETECTOR) (b) in the associated elevator machine room, control space, or control room (MACHINE RM. SMOKE DETECTOR) (c) in the elevator hoistway, when sprinklers are located in those hoistway (PIT HEAT AND TOP OF SHAFT SMOKE DETECTORS) 6
  7. 7. ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 Canadian application National Building Code of Canada CANADIAN APPLICATIONS Part 3 3.2.4.15 Elevator Emergency Return 1) Except as permitted by Sentence (3), in a building having elevators that serve a storey and that are equipped with an automatic emergency recall feature, smoke detectors shall be installed in the elevator lobbies on the recall level so that when these smoke detectors are actuated, the elevators will automatically return directly to an alternate floor level. 7
  8. 8. ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 Canadian application ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 CANADIAN APPLICATIONS Fire alarm initiating devices are to be provided in 2.27.3.2.2 In jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC, smoke detectors, or, if applicable, the building fire alarm system (fire alarm initiating devices), used to initiate Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, shall be installed in conformance with the requirements of the NBCC, and shall be located in: (a)Elevator lobby (LOBBY SMOKE DETECTOR) (b) Machine room (MACHINE ROOM SMOKE DETECTOR) 2.27.3.2.3 (c) In the hoist way (PIT HEAT & TOP OF SHAFT SMOKE DETECTOR) 8
  9. 9. ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 Ontario Amendment CANADAIAN JURISDICTIONAL AMMENDMENTS TO B44DESPITE (PRESCRIPTION NBCC DIV. B 3.2.4.11 – NO FIRE DETECTORS REQUIREDIF AREA IS SPRINKLERED ) B44 STATES THAT DETECTORS ARE REQUIRED EVEN IFTHE AREA IS SPRINKLERED SPECIFICALLY AT ELEVATOR LOBBIES FOR PHASE IRECALL
  10. 10. ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 May 1, 2012 Ontario Amendment
  11. 11. 3-Detector locations and recall requirements PHASE I- EMERGENCY RECALL OPERATION NORMAL ELEVATOR OPERATIONFire Begins Smoke travels beyond Smoke reaches elevator lobby room of origin alarm Phase I operation initiates General alarm Elevators recalled to lobby level
  12. 12. Simplified hydraulic elevator system Heat Detector Smoke Detector Sprinkler 2 Detector Operation ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 2.27.3.2.4 2 1 Recall to Alternate LevelAlternate 2 2 Recall to Designated Level Level 4 1 3 Recall to Designated Level (Warning) 3Designated 1 4 Power Disconnect (Shunt Trip) Level
  13. 13. Devices that are required to initiate elevator recall Devices that are required to initiate Heat Detector Smoke Detector elevator recall Sprinkler ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 2.27.3.2 Smoke detector in mechanical room(s) and/or A. Smoke detector in each elevator lobbies and/or B. Smoke or heat detector in the hoistway or pit and or C. Water flow switch on sprinkler in A,B, location
  14. 14. Devices that are not permitted to initiate elevator recall Devices that are not permitted to initiate elevator recall CSA B-44 Amendments 2.27.3.2.2 A. Manual station not permitted to initiate recall B. Sprinkler flow in other areas such as underground parking space C. Smoke/Heat detector in other areas
  15. 15. Elevator recall annunciation & zoningSmoke Detector Initiated in elevator machine roomSmoke Detector Initiated at Top of Elevator ShaftFire Detector Initiated at Elevator PitElevator Recalled to Designated Level from elevator lobby or building FA systemElevator Recalled to Alternate Level via smoke detector only
  16. 16. Elevator recall annunciation & zoningA red fire hat symbol on the main floor level entrance door jamb identifies anElevator for Use by FirefightersFlashing fire hat- Steady illumination - firefighters in operation“Shunt Trip”- fire hat- illuminate intermittently
  17. 17. Pre-action sprinkler and shunt trip Pre-Action sprinkler and shunt trip “shunt trip”- ASME 17.1require the heat detectors used for shunt trip to initiate phases I and delay the removal of power and the release of water to allow the completion of recall. If the elevator is in phase II, the recall operation will not occur but shutdown and water release will still be delayedHeat Phase I Removal of Solenoid Sprinkler Water FlowDetected Elevator power to Activatesin elevator Recalls elevator shaft initiated
  18. 18. Elevators & SprinklersSprinkler Clarification Shaft Detector Clarification• No Code requirement to • No specific NFPA 101 code sprinkler an elevator shaft requirement for smoke unless the shaft or the detection in a shaft unless it elevator car fails to meet has sprinklers at the top. the non-combustibility • This detector is needed to requirements recall and safely park the• NFPA 13 exception elevator. re- combustible hydraulic fluid
  19. 19. Elevators & SprinklersMachine Room Clarification Machine Room Heat Detector or Flow Switch• Where the machine room is • Where the machine room is sprinklered, smoke sprinklered a flow switch detection or heat detection without any time delay to is required (NFPA 101). shunt power is required.• This detector is needed to • Instantly shut off the power recall and safely park the to the elevator before water elevator. is discharged.
  20. 20. ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 detector placement & recall sequencesELEVATOR RECALLASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 Section 1.3Phase I: Emergency Recall Operation: the operation of anelevator where it is automatically or manually recalled tothe recall level and removed from normal service becauseof activation of firefighters emergency operation.
  21. 21. ASME A17.1/CSA-B44 detector placement & recall sequencesELEVATOR RECALLASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07Section 1.3Phase II: Emergency In-Car Operation:the operation of an elevator byfirefighters where the elevator isunder their control.
  22. 22. 4 - Intelligent building applications for occupant safety in elevators
  23. 23. Air sampling detection of elevator machine room VESDA 88 LaserPLUS Inside machine roomProvide very early warning, constant real-time detection of elevator Equipment Learn the environmental changes and adjust to compensate for the pressure changes Pre-alarms can integrate with pre-action sprinkler or equipment protection
  24. 24. Air sampling detection of elevator hoist way VESDA 88 LaserPLUS Inside shaftProvide very early warning, constant real-time detection of elevator shaft Learn the environmental changes and adjust to compensate for the pressure changesAdjustable sensitivity, can be used in dirty applications such as elevator pits
  25. 25. Air sampling detection of elevator lobby VESDA 88 LaserPLUS At Elevator EntranceProvide very early warning, constant real-time detection of each floor’s lobby areaCombined with shaft detection and smoke management to enable safe evacuation
  26. 26. TYPICALLY ALL THIS INFORMATION DISPARATE BUILDING SYSTEMS & IS BOTTLED UP IN THE BUILDING PROCESSLEVERAGED FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDERS NOT AND STORE A LARGE AMOUNT OF DATATHAT IS POTENTIALLY USEFUL TO EMERGENCY RESPONDERS BY INTEGRATING ALL OF THESE SYSTEMS WE CAN IMPROVE BUILDING VISUALIZATION ENABLING ELEVATORS FOR MOBILITY IMPAIRED EVACUATION
  27. 27. 5 - Leveraging elevator smoke management technology Unprotected elevators can provide a significant path for vertical smoke movement from fire through buildingPressurizePressurize Exhausting Tight-Fitting
  28. 28. Smoke management for “Safe Elevator Lobbies” D7 ClosedD2 & D3 Closed D1 Open D4 Closed
  29. 29. Smoke management for “Safe Elevator Lobbies”
  30. 30. Smoke management for “Safe Elevator Lobbies”
  31. 31. 6 - AHJ’s perspective towards elevator evacuationsA fire safety plan shall include the procedures for use of elevatorsCombustible materials, other than those for which the location, room or space isdesigned, shall not be permitted to accumulate in any part of an elevator shaft,ventilation shaft, means of egress, service room or service space.Flammable liquids or combustible liquids shall not be stored in or adjacent toexits, including outdoors, elevators or principal routes that provide access to exits.
  32. 32. A Fire Code maintenance of fire emergency systemsThe keys required to recall elevators and topermit independent operation of eachelevator shall be kept in the locationrequired by the Building CodeThe required firefighters’ elevator symbol shallbe maintained in identifiable condition
  33. 33. Mobility impaired evacuation and the use of elevators
  34. 34. 8-Real life examples of elevators for evacuation Stratosphere Tower in Las Vagas, NevadaElevators are designed for safe emergency egress
  35. 35. 9-Video of exterior emergency elevator
  36. 36. Summary & QuestionsHistory of Elevator use during fire scenarios and evacuation techniques Demystifying CSA-B44 NFPA 101 & National Building Code Detector Locations and Recall Requirements Intelligent building application for occupant safety in elevators Leveraging elevator smoke management technology
  37. 37. Summary & QuestionsA Fire Code perspective towards elevator evacuationsMobility impaired evacuation and the use of elevators Real life examples of elevators for evacuation Video example of exterior emergency elevator
  38. 38. B44 Elevator Standards & AHJ’s Interpretations Regarding Fire Alarm installations

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