Goldsmiths, Learning, Teaching and Web 2.0

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With the arrival of the social, participative web often referred to as Web 2.0 came talk of Learning 2.0. Learning 2.0 can be summarised as collaborative, project-based, self-directed, boundary-busting and above all connected. We discuss some national horizon scanning, and the ways Goldsmiths learners and teachers are using what the Web has to offer. We then discuss some of the challenges this poses for learners and academic teachers across higher education institutions, including issues of authority, credit, assessment, facilitation, intellectual property, data protection and support.

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  • The system is internally consistent and self-sustaining: League tables Research Assessment Exercise Quality Assurance Agency Copyright Law Data Protection Law You have to go out of your way to experiment. The VLE is largely used as a filing cabinet Students are acquiescent – for now
  • There are two axes here – one is a measure of comfort with particular technology to support learning and on the other is the degree of familiarity with the technology. As an example you see top right hand corner, instant messaging – comfortable using it for learning and familiar with the technology. Down here we have the Virtual Learning Environment Web CT… The interesting point is that they are familiar with using social networks such as Facebook, but not comfortable using them as part of their learning. Look at the bottom left quadrant. Learners aren’t comfortable with using newer technologies or established technologies in new ways, in their learning. There’s a perceived split between learning lives and social lives.
  • This also relates to the third of a university’s three missions – learning, teaching and public good.
  • Compose soundtracks for gallery images; pose questions – “if a painting could speak, what would it say?” Art Mobs returns with a new project. Last year we hosted a gallery event at Marymount Manhattan College. Now we're focusing our attention on the Museum of Modern Art . We've produced (unofficial) audio guides for MoMA, and we're making them available as podcasts . We'd love for you to join in by sending us your own MoMA audio guides, which we'll gladly add to our podcast feed. Why should audio guides be proprietary? Help us hack the gallery experience, help us remix MoMA! Deptford.tv is an audio-visual documentation of the urban change of the Deptford area in collaboration with SPC.org media lab, Bitnik.org , the Boundless.coop , Southspace and Goldsmiths College . Since September 2005 we started assembling AV material around the regeneration process of the Deptford area, asking community members, video artist, film-makers, visual artists and students to contribute statements, feedbacks, critiques of the regeneration process of Deptford. This rough material as well as edited media content will be made available on the Deptford.TV database and distributed over the boundless.coop wireless network with an open content license such as the creative commons and the gnu general public license.
  • You can think of Google’s PageRank technology as mass peer review (Boyle 2009) By participating in an online community, you can achieve a good reputation without having formal credentials. New ways to demonstrate understanding Reputation is beginning to challenge accreditation
  • There are clear issues here related to how do they provide a service and also ensure it operates within statutory requirements, for things including data protection. This is not trivial and there are clear challenges that they have to face, which in some cases go totally against the grain for cloud computing and personalization approaches. As a concrete example you can’t hold or process personal data outside the EU. Some online survey tools are located on servers outside the EU. If you give feedback or marks that’s personal data, do you know where the server is located? That’s just a very small part and heavily simplified part of the minefield that we have to navigate.
  • Goldsmiths, Learning, Teaching and Web 2.0

    1. 1. Goldsmiths, Learning, Teaching & Web 2.0 A sketch ~~~ Mira Vogel and John Phelps Goldsmiths Learning Enhancement Unit
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Learners in institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Academics and learners experimenting at Goldsmiths </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional responses </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and discussion points </li></ul>
    3. 3. John is with his family today
    4. 4. Change is here!
    5. 5. Change <ul><li>Web 2.0 – the social, interactive, participatory web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US election campaigning 2008-9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter and the Trafigura gagging injunction (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil society moving online - government’s ‘Twitter Czar’ </li></ul><ul><li>Openness; cultural commons (Boyle 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratisation of authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia; YouTube; Lulu (micro-publishing); Guardian’s CiF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established media disrupted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explosion of choice, individualisation, fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications for education </li></ul>
    6. 6. Andrew Stott, £160,000 Twitter Czar
    7. 7. Change <ul><li>Web 2.0 – the social, interactive, participatory web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US election campaigning 2008-9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter and the Trafigura gagging injunction (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil society moving online - government’s ‘Twitter Czar’ </li></ul><ul><li>Openness; cultural commons (Boyle 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratisation of authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia; YouTube; Lulu (micro-publishing); Guardian’s CiF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established media disrupted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explosion of choice, individualisation, fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications for education </li></ul>
    8. 8. Learners
    9. 9. Learners and technology today (Melville, 2009) <ul><li>Own laptop and phone </li></ul><ul><li>Digital divide (e.g. bandwidth, skills, access, vision, mobility) </li></ul><ul><li>9/10 students use social networking sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ me’, ‘we’ and ‘see’ spaces for private interaction, group interaction, and performances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But collaboration is haphazard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information literacies - a deficit area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question-finding (formulating effective searches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critically analysing the results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making sense of; synthesising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working together </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. A vision of students of today <ul><li>Michael Wesch is a digital ethnographer from Kansas State University: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a cultural anthropologist exploring new media, society and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired mag calls him “the explainer” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watch Wesch, M (2007) A vision of students today. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o </li></ul>
    11. 11. Rumbles <ul><li>“ Only the Catholic Church has been around longer and, like the Catholic Church, universities today bear a striking structural resemblance to what they were in medieval times.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Davidson & Goldberg 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the years to come, we will say that it was a quiet decade, with the existing system having remained largely unchanged, almost unsuspecting, even, of the major changes that were to follow.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Downes 2008) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Learners in institutions
    13. 13. Strategies! <ul><li>“ The Strategy will, therefore, outline the ways in which we intend to support students to become self-motivated learners , enabled to take responsibility for, and control of, their learning whilst at Goldsmiths and beyond .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We will explore the development of more informal social spaces and other tools including social software , communication (e.g. wikis and blogs) and conferencing tools, video streaming and assessment tools to enhance learning, facilitate widening participation and improve opportunities for student feedback .” (Goldsmiths, 2007) </li></ul>
    14. 14. A local strategy <ul><li>“ Encourage our students’ reflective abilities through innovative learning , teaching and assessment supported by a developing infrastructure of information and communication technologies ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Goldsmiths Sociology Department, 2007) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Universities are also concerned with continuity
    16. 16. The HE system is largely self-sustaining
    17. 17. Plus ç a change <ul><li>“ Today’s child is bewildered when he enters the 19th century environment that still characterizes the educational establishment where information is scarce but ordered and structured by fragmented, classified patterns subjects, and schedules .” </li></ul><ul><li>(McLuhan, 1967) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Great Expectations (JISC Ipsos MORI, 2008) Familiar Unfamiliar Comfortable Not comfortable Instant messaging Text message admin updates Administrative materials online Using existing online social networks to discuss coursework Emailing tutors Course-specific materials online Posting questions Online to tutors Web CT Using social networks such as Facebook as a formal part of the course Submitting assignments online Using podcasts Making podcasts Making wikis
    19. 19. Great Expectations (JISC Ipsos MORI, 2008) Use Second Life Contact tutor Submit essays Social Networking Scholarly websites Non-digital resources Online library resources Discuss coursework Online course info University portal Course specific materials % Students using approach regularly Usefulness (Scale 1-4) 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4
    20. 20. Learners adapt to gain their qualification <ul><li>“ The world they encounter in higher education has been constructed on a wholly different set of norms . … </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively, they are managing a disjuncture , and the situation is feeding the natural inertia of any established system. It is, however, unlikely to be sustainable in the long term. The next generation is unlikely to be so accommodating and some rapprochement will be necessary”. </li></ul><ul><li>(Melville, 2009) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Little demand for Web 2.0 from learner or teacher roles – some resistance <ul><li>&quot;By the standards of e-university marketing consultants, I had done everything wrong … I had conducted all the lectures and tutorials, working way over workload ... I did not record my lectures in any form. I did not even use PowerPoint . If students missed a session, there was no way for them to 'catch up'. I was inflexible, disciplined and demanding ... I transgressed all the dogmatic rules for flexibility established by educational managers…” </li></ul>
    22. 22. … <ul><li>… Yet the students stood and cheered at the end.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Brabazon, 2007, p217) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Academic teachers and learners are exploring technologies … … independently, in their own ways
    24. 24. Opening up – learning commons <ul><li>Understanding that courses are more than their lectures and notes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning reconceived: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated, not transmitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Participatory learning <ul><li>“… virtual communities where they share ideas, comment on one another’s projects, and plan, design, implement, advance, or simply discuss their practices, goals, and ideas together.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Davidson & Goldberg 2009) </li></ul>Goldsmiths Design students independently raised money for their end-of-year show with a line of accessories and a vast community on Facebook.
    26. 26. Mobile or ‘untethered’ learning <ul><li>Independence of time and place; “a meshing of schedules” (Downes 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>“… instead of delivering content to the student, they can require the student to go out and get it – or even better, to go out and create it.” (Downes 2008) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Liquid course reader <ul><li>A proposed project in Art, Design and Media </li></ul><ul><li>To involve students in negotiating and curating their own course reader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovatively designed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated face-to-face and also online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided by academic teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://liquidbooks.pbworks.com/New+Cultural+Studies:+The+Liquid+Theory+Reader </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Goldsmiths Library on our VLE
    29. 29. Winkball – made in Goldsmiths http:// www.winkball.com/walls/Press_Officer/Goldsmiths_Open_Day
    30. 30. Challenges (i.e. headaches) for institutions
    31. 31. Universities and Colleges Information Systems Association (2008-9) <ul><li>Balancing / integrating Web 2.0 and institutional VLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should tutors be on Facebook? </li></ul><ul><li>Online collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Involving non-academic service (e.g. Libraries) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating personal devices </li></ul>
    32. 32. Assessment and standards <ul><li>“ as more and more of a person’s life becomes available online, the need for certification will diminish, as people acquire reputations of their own … Where certification is granted, people presenting certification without having acquired a reputation for work in the community will be viewed with suspicion.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Downes, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Google’s PageRank technology as mass peer review (Boyle 2009) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Internet sites as learning institutions <ul><li>“ To ban sources such as Wikipedia is to miss the importance of a collaborative, knowledge-making impulse in humans who are willing to contribute, correct, and collect information without remuneration: by definition, this is education. To miss how much such collaborative, participatory learning underscores the foundations of learning is defeatist, unimaginative, even self-destructive.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Davidson and Goldberg 2009) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Learners cannot replace teachers <ul><li>The Web is no Oracle; students still find it hard to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct effective searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critically analyse - make sense of - the results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create, synthesise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rowlands et al (2008) debunked the idea of a fundamentally different ‘Google Generation’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners don’t tend to understand how the Web ‘works’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main difference is today’s proliferation of information sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities don’t have to transmit information any more, we can help students make sense of what is out there. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Scaffolding learning today <ul><li>&quot;The aim of this process is to give students - and citizens - the ability to move text into diverse contexts , and observe how meanings change … Critical literacy remains an intervention, signaling more than a decoding of text or a compliant reading of an ideologue’s rantings. The aim is to create cycles of reflection . Operational literacy – encoding and decoding – is a cultural practice of reproduction. Critical literacy requires the production of argument, interpretation, critique and analysis .” </li></ul><ul><li>(Brabazon, 2007, pp29-30) </li></ul>
    36. 36. Questions <ul><li>Is it appropriate for institutions to expect to insert learning into social environments? </li></ul><ul><li>What do higher education institutions have to offer which isn’t readily available on the Web? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we envisage teachers evolving their roles? </li></ul>
    37. 37. References <ul><li>Boyle, J., 2008. The public domain: enclosing the commons of the mind , Available at: http://thepublicdomain.org/thepublicdomain1.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Brabazon, T., 2007. The university of Google. Education in a post-information age. Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Davidson, C. & Goldberg, D., 2009. The future of learning institutions in a digital age. Available at: http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/chapters/Future_of_Learning.pdf. </li></ul><ul><li>Downes, S., 2008. The Future of Online Learning: Ten Years On. Available at: http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2008/11/future-of-online-learning-ten-years-on_16.html [Accessed May 15, 2009]. </li></ul><ul><li>Glenaffric Ltd, 2008. HEFCE : Publications : Research and evaluation reports : 2008 : Review of the 2005 HEFCE Strategy for e-Learning. Available at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/rdreports/2008/rd20_08/ [Accessed September 16, 2009]. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldsmiths Sociology Department, 2007. Goldsmiths Sociology Department Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategy and Action Plan 2008/9 - 2011/12. Available at: http://www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/learning-teaching/deptstrategy-sociology.pdf. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldsmiths, University of London, 2007. Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategy for Goldsmiths, University of London. Available at: http://www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/learning-teaching/LTAcontext1.php [Accessed September 16, 2009]. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2009. HEFCE : Publications : 2009 : 2009/12 : Enhancing learning and teaching through the use of technology - A revised approach to HEFCE's strategy for e-learning. Available at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/2009/09_12/ [Accessed September 14, 2009]. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, L., Levine, A. and Smith R., 2009. Horizon Report. Available from: http://www.nmc.org/horizon </li></ul><ul><li>JISC Ipsos MORI (2008) Great expectations of ICT: How Higher Education institutions are measuring up. Available from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/documents/greatexpectations.aspx. </li></ul><ul><li>Melville, D., 2009. Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World : JISC. Available at: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/documents/heweb2.aspx#downloads [Accessed September 18, 2009]. </li></ul><ul><li>Rowlands, I. et al., 2008. The Google generation: the information behaviour of the researcher of the future. Available at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/infostudies/research/ciber/downloads/ggexecutive.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Wesch, M (2007) A vision of students today. Video. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o </li></ul>

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