“I’ve Been Afraid of      Changing”: Using Motivational Interviewing  principles in academicadvising to promote positive  ...
Outline• Background and Context• Definition of MI• Development of/theory behind MI• The spirit of MI• Key areas of skill• T...
Background and Context•  My background  •  M.Ed. in counseling  •  Trained in MI as part of a smoking cessation research  ...
Background and Context          • Conception            •  Retention and Outreach            program            •  Used el...
What is Motivational Interviewing?• A client-centered, directive approach for enhancingintrinsic motivation to change by e...
Development of and theory        behind MI•  The “dilemma of change”  •  ambivalence = feeling two ways about something  •...
Ambivalence Illustration
Development of and theory        behind MI•  Types of ambivalence  •  Approach-approach conflict: choose between two     si...
Development of and Theory        behind MI • We usually see double approach-avoidance, the most challenging to resolve.
Development of and theory        behind MI•  Motivation has three critical components:  •  Ready: priorities  •  Willing: ...
Noticing motivation to            change• Listen for “changetalk”  • Disadvantages of  status-quo  • Advantages of change ...
Example“I’ve been afraid of changing, ‘cause I’ve built my lifearound you. But time makes you bolder, children getolder, I...
Resistance • You will also hear “resistance talk”   • “I’ve been afraid of changing,   ‘cause I’ve built my life around   ...
The “Righting Reflex”•  Avoid the “righting reflex”  •  Reflex to push someone in the “right”     direction      •  “Have you...
What is Motivational Interviewing?   • Re-examine the definition:     • Client-centered (student-centered)     • Directive ...
The Spirit of MI•  Collaboration  •  Exploration and support vs. authoritarian     coercive•  Evocation  •  Elicit vs. imp...
Key Areas of Skill• Reflective listening• Responding to change talk• Responding to resistance
Reflective Listening•  Reflect the core of thestudent’s statement back tohim/her.   • Clarifies meaning  • Encourages continu...
Responding to Change Talk• It is not possible to reflect allmeanings of a statement. • Reflect selectively by choosingto refl...
Responding to Resistance• Resistance is a reflection ofambivalence.• Resistance rises from the client/counselor relationshi...
The Phases of MI•  The goal is to use these guiding principles to   move clients through the phases of MI:  •  Building in...
Tempting traps• Q/A trap: avoid with open-ended questions andreflective listening• Taking sides: avoid arguing one side of ...
Student Populations and MI  •  What student populations might benefit     from an MI approach?    •  Students struggling wi...
Important Considerations • MI’s popularity has resulted in confusion • Not teaching how to practice, just basic underlying...
References• Miller, W. R.  Rollnick, S. (2002).Motivational Interviewing: PreparingPeople for Change, (2nd ed.). NewYork, ...
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Mi presentation march2012

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NACADA Region 8 (2012) presentation on Motivational Interviewing in Academic Advising

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Mi presentation march2012

  1. 1. “I’ve Been Afraid of Changing”: Using Motivational Interviewing principles in academicadvising to promote positive student change Miranda Atkinson Career Academic Adviser School of Journalism Communication University of Oregon
  2. 2. Outline• Background and Context• Definition of MI• Development of/theory behind MI• The spirit of MI• Key areas of skill• Traps to avoid• Advising applications• Important considerations
  3. 3. Background and Context•  My background •  M.Ed. in counseling •  Trained in MI as part of a smoking cessation research program for University of Michigan•  Motivational Interviewing •  Counseling theory/approach developed in 1991 by William Miller and Stephen Rollnick •  Designed to help clients change •  Originally developed for counseling clients with substance abuse •  Other appropriate applications have been developed.
  4. 4. Background and Context • Conception •  Retention and Outreach program •  Used elements of Motivational Interviewing in individual conversations •  Presence of “change language” indicated higher likelihood of improved grades
  5. 5. What is Motivational Interviewing?• A client-centered, directive approach for enhancingintrinsic motivation to change by exploring andresolving ambivalence.
  6. 6. Development of and theory behind MI•  The “dilemma of change” •  ambivalence = feeling two ways about something •  ambivalence is normal, getting “stuck” is the problem •  “Ambivalence is a reasonable place to visit, but you wouldn’t want to live there” (Miller Rollnick, 2002, p. 14). •  lack of motivation = unresolved ambivalence
  7. 7. Ambivalence Illustration
  8. 8. Development of and theory behind MI•  Types of ambivalence •  Approach-approach conflict: choose between two similarly attractive options •  Avoidance-avoidance conflict: choose between two negative options •  Approach-avoidance conflict: attracted to and repelled by same option •  Double approach-avoidance conflict: choose between two options, each with attractive and negative qualities
  9. 9. Development of and Theory behind MI • We usually see double approach-avoidance, the most challenging to resolve.
  10. 10. Development of and theory behind MI•  Motivation has three critical components: •  Ready: priorities •  Willing: importance •  Able: confidence•  These components are intrinsic•  Our goal is to help students become ready, willing, and able to change.
  11. 11. Noticing motivation to change• Listen for “changetalk” • Disadvantages of status-quo • Advantages of change • Optimism for change • Intention to change
  12. 12. Example“I’ve been afraid of changing, ‘cause I’ve built my lifearound you. But time makes you bolder, children getolder, I’m getting older too.” What types of change talk did you hear?
  13. 13. Resistance • You will also hear “resistance talk” • “I’ve been afraid of changing, ‘cause I’ve built my life around you.” • This is a reflection of ambivalence, which is a normal part of the change process.
  14. 14. The “Righting Reflex”•  Avoid the “righting reflex” •  Reflex to push someone in the “right” direction •  “Have you considered...?” •  “You should try...?” •  “If you would just...?” •  A physics lesson
  15. 15. What is Motivational Interviewing? • Re-examine the definition: • Client-centered (student-centered) • Directive approach • Enhances intrinsic motivation to change • Explores and resolves ambivalence
  16. 16. The Spirit of MI•  Collaboration •  Exploration and support vs. authoritarian coercive•  Evocation •  Elicit vs. impart information•  Autonomy •  Facilitate self-direction vs. telling client/ student what to do
  17. 17. Key Areas of Skill• Reflective listening• Responding to change talk• Responding to resistance
  18. 18. Reflective Listening•  Reflect the core of thestudent’s statement back tohim/her. • Clarifies meaning • Encourages continued exploration of issue • Does not simply repeat the student’s words
  19. 19. Responding to Change Talk• It is not possible to reflect allmeanings of a statement. • Reflect selectively by choosingto reflect change talk.• This encourages the client/student to continue exploringchange talk.
  20. 20. Responding to Resistance• Resistance is a reflection ofambivalence.• Resistance rises from the client/counselor relationship. • It is not fixed.• Resistance is an indication ofdissonance • Client is not on the same page • Roll with resistance to find themeaning behind it and moveforward together.
  21. 21. The Phases of MI•  The goal is to use these guiding principles to move clients through the phases of MI: •  Building intrinsic motivation for change •  Strengthening commitment to change and developing a plan to accomplish it
  22. 22. Tempting traps• Q/A trap: avoid with open-ended questions andreflective listening• Taking sides: avoid arguing one side of ambivalence• Expert trap: avoid “fixing” or prescribing a solution• Labeling trap: avoid attaching a diagnosis or label tothe client
  23. 23. Student Populations and MI •  What student populations might benefit from an MI approach? •  Students struggling with academic performance •  Students struggling with destructive behavior •  Students struggling with a difficult decision •  All students benefit from an open, non- judgmental student-advisor relationship.
  24. 24. Important Considerations • MI’s popularity has resulted in confusion • Not teaching how to practice, just basic underlying principles. • Brief adaptations of MI are not = MI • Advisers will not always have time for MI. • Not all students are ready to change.
  25. 25. References• Miller, W. R. Rollnick, S. (2002).Motivational Interviewing: PreparingPeople for Change, (2nd ed.). NewYork, NY: The Guilford Press.• Other resources: MI Website • http://www.motivationalinterview.org/• Questions?

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