Mira K. Desai
University Department of Extension Education
SNDT Women’s University
What is DATA?
What does web say about data??
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be
drawn; "statistical data”
The term data means groups of information that
represent the qualitative or quantitative attributes of
a variable or set of variables(en.wikipedia.org/wiki)
information; A collection of object-units that are
distinct from one another. (en.wiktionary.org/wiki/data)
Data is Information that has been organised and
categorised for a pre-determined purpose.
What does web say about data??
In computer science, data is anything in a form
suitable for use with a computer. Data is often
distinguished from programs. A program is a set of
instructions that detail a task for the computer to
perform. In this sense, data is thus everything that is not
program code. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_(computing))
are the smallest units of measure. The word is
technically the plural of datum but often used as a
singular. Data are the components of information. They
may be the 1's and 0's of computer memory, names and
addresses in a demographic file, or the raw facts and
figures before interpretation.
Types of Data
Depends upon the
and clarity of
Collected by someone
else but used by
researcher second hand
Cheaper and quicker
Needs lesser resources
Have to ascertain
Construction of tools for data collection
Decision about techniques of data collection
Testing the tool/technique by Pilot study or
Pre-testing of tool/technique
Finalization of tool/technique
Ascertaining reliability and validity of
tools/techniques to be used for data
Actual collection of data
Factors influencing decision about data
Scale and magnitude of the study
Characteristics of the respondents
Unit of inquiry and analysis
Availability of resources: Money, Time,
Human, Technical, Competence
Subject under study
Degree of precision/reliability required
Decisions about data collection
Settings: Natural – Contrived/Artificial
Inquiry: Obstructive/Undisguised –
Nature: Qualitative – Quantitative
Structured – Semi structured – Unstructured
Questions: Open ended – Closed ended
Administration: Human – Mechanical
Analysis: Pre coded – Not coded
Data comes through….
Tools & Techniques
Framing of Questions…
Length of a question/tool
Language, Sequence, Style
Objective of asking (measuring what?)
Hypothetical/ambiguous, median replies,
Loaded/ Inbuilt coercion-forced, Double
barreled, Double negatives
When you collect Data…YOU mustRecord time (time of the day/date/
month/year) when you collected it
Total time (number of days/months/
years) it took to collect it along with
field note for each response
Procedure you followed to collect it
Average time per respondent/unit
Experiences you had collecting it
United Nations conducted a Worldwide survey. The
question asked was:
"Would you please give your honest opinion
about solutions to the food shortage in the rest
of the world?"
The survey was a huge failure.
Africa didn't know what 'food' meant, India didn't
know what 'honest' meant, Europe didn't know what
'shortage' meant, China didn't know what 'opinion'
meant, the Middle East didn't know what 'solution'
meant, South America didn't know what 'please'
meant, And in the USA they didn't know what 'the rest
of the world' meant !!
Good DATA depends upon…
Clarity of purpose/objectives of the study
Appropriateness of tool/technique
Sharpness of the tool and abilities of
investigator/researcher in using the
Cooperation/rapport with the respondents
Decisions about utilization at analysis stage