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Data analysis


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Its about data analysis and report writing....Presented at St Andrew's College at Bandra on 22nd Jan 2014

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Data analysis

  1. 1. DATA…..ANALYSIS….REPORT Mira K. Desai Associate Professor University Department of Extension Education SNDT Women’s University
  2. 2. Steps in RESEARCH        Formulation of a problem (Assumptions and Objectives) Review of Literature Decisions about Design/Method Sampling design (Size-Frame-Procedure) Data Collection (Tools-Techniques-ProceduresExperiences) Data analysis Report writing
  3. 3. What is DATA? Numbers Information Statistics Facts Figures Records
  4. 4. DATA is………….INFORMATION   Plural of datum but often used a singular having quantitative and qualitative attributes  that has been organised and categorised for a pre-determined purpose.
  5. 5. Types of Data PRIMARY    Collected by researcher first hand Demands efforts and resources Depends upon the researcher’s ability and clarity of purpose      SECONDARY Collected by someone else but used by researcher second hand Various sources/forms Cheaper and quicker Needs lesser resources Have to ascertain accuracy of content/time/sources/ purpose/methods/ adequacy/ credibility
  6. 6. Data Collection…steps Construction of tools for data collection  Decision about techniques of data collection  Testing the tool/technique by Pilot study or Pre-testing of tool/technique  Finalization of tool/technique  Ascertaining reliability and validity of tools/techniques to be used for data collection  Actual collection of data 
  7. 7. Factors influencing decision about data collection Tool/Technique/Method Scale and magnitude of the study  Characteristics of the respondents  Unit of inquiry and analysis  Availability of resources: Money, Time, Human, Technical, Compete nce  Field Conditions  Subject under study  Expected outcome 
  8. 8. Decisions about data collection Method Settings: Natural – Contrived/Artificial  Inquiry: Obstructive/Undisguised – Unobstructive/Disguised  Nature: Qualitative – Quantitative  Structure: Structured – Semi structured – Unstructured  Questions: Open ended – Closed ended  Administration: Human – Mechanical  Analysis: Pre coded – Not coded 
  9. 9. Data comes through…. Tools & Techniques METHOD Procedure
  10. 10. Right Question…?! United Nations conducted a Worldwide survey. The question asked was: "Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world?" The survey was a huge failure. Africa didn't know what 'food' meant, India didn't know what 'honest' meant, Europe didn't know what 'shortage' meant, China didn't know what 'opinion' meant, the Middle East didn't know what 'solution' meant, South America didn't know what 'please' meant, And in the USA they didn't know what 'the rest of the world' meant !!
  11. 11. Good DATA depends upon… Clarity of purpose/objectives of the study  Appropriateness of tool/technique  Sharpness of the tool and abilities of investigator/researcher in using the techniques  Cooperation/rapport with the respondents  Decisions about utilization at analysis stage 
  12. 12. Data Analysis…..Decisions      Type: Qualitative and/or Quantitative Nature/Mode: Manual or Mechanical Type of Statistics: Descriptive- Inferential Type of Analysis: Univariate- BivariateMultivarite- Scores Presentation: Textual- Tabular-Graphical
  13. 13. Data Analysis…..Steps          Making code book Coding of data Creating code-sheets Data entry Data Cleaning ANALYSIS Interpretation Presentation Conclusion         Transcription of data Organizing data Creating codes Classifications Adding personal observations Patterns and themes New set of data collection Generalizations
  14. 14. Data Analysis DESCRIPTIVE Statistics  Frequency and Percentages  Dispersion: Averages, Range, Standard Deviation,  Associations: Correlations,  INFERENTIAL Statistics
  15. 15. Example Do you have internet on your mobile? If yes, Do you use internet on mobile? Is yes, how frequently….. ASSUMPTIONS: Everyone has mobile- there may be internet too!! OBJECTIVES: To know how many people use internet on move. DATA: 100 out of 200 people here have internet on their mobile and 75 of them use it everyday. 
  16. 16. Example- Data Interpretation n=200 150 people have mobiles. 100 of them has Internet on their mobile 75 of them use Internet through mobile everyday.    75% of the people have mobile. (3 in 4 person) 67% mobile owners have Internet on their mobile. 37.5% of all the people use internet on mobile everyday OR Half (every 2nd) of the mobile owners use Internet on their mobile everyday.
  17. 17. Research REPORTING Decisions    Why did you undertake research? (AcademicIndustry) What is the purpose of research? (Degree/PureApplied/solutions) Who is funding your work? (Funder expectations)
  18. 18. THANKS for TIME & PATIENCE…