CAUSES:• AGE • MORE COMMON• SMOKING IN MEN AND• HIGH THOSE WHO CHOLESTEROL HAVE CLOSE LEVELS RELATIVES WITH ISCHEMIC HEART• EATING MEAT DISEASE• DIABETES• HYPERTENSION
Signs and Symptoms• Angina pectoris (chest pain on exertion, in cold weather or emotional situations)• Acute chest pain: acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina or myocardial infarction ("heart attack", severe chest pain unrelieved by rest associated with evidence of acute heart damage)• Heart failure (difficulty in breathing or swelling of the extremities due to weakness of the heart muscle)• Heartburn
PREVENTION• Various treatments are offered in people deemed to be at high risk of coronary artery disease. These include control of cholesterol levels in those with known high cholesterol, smoking cessation, dietary intervention (especially eating more vegetables and less meat),and control of high blood pressure.
CAUSESDisturbance in the blood supply of the brain.Ischemia (lack of blood flow)As a result, the affected area of the brain cannotfunction, which might result in an inability tomove one or more limbs on one side of thebody, inability to understand or formulatespeech, or an inability to see one side of thevisual field
PREVENTION• Keep your blood pressure under control. If your blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg for long periods of time, it can damage the blood vessels and increase your risk of stroke.
PREVENTION• STOP SMOKING• Drink in moderation. People who drink more than two alcoholic drinks per day face a significantly higher risk of stroke.• Lower your cholesterol• Get regular physical activity• Ask your doctor if you have blood or blood circulation problems that could increase your risk for stroke.
• is the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a pair of commonly co- existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed. This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs, causing shortness of breath.
CAUSES• Smoking• Occupational exposures (gold mining, coal mining)• Air pollution• Genetics (commonly among relatives)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS• An ongoing cough or a cough that produces a lot of mucus (often called smoker’s cough)• Shortness of breath, especially with physical activity• Wheezing (squeaky sound when you breath)• Chest tightness• Lips or fingernails turn blue or gray.• Not mentally alert.
PREVENTION• Stop smoking• Stay away from polluted areas if possible• Avoid dust exposure
CAUSES• The most common cause of a respiratory tract infection is one of over 200 viruses.• The viruses that cause nearly all upper respiratory tract infections are:• Rhinovirus (common cold)• Adenovirus (viral gastroenteritis)• Enterovirus (cold and flu)• Coronavirus (SARS)• influenza virus (flu)• parainfluenza virus (viral pathogens)• respiratory syncytial virus(dry cough, sore thraoat)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS• Fever and chills• Sinus infections• Nausea and vomiting• Common cold and cough with phlegm coming up.• Traces of blood in the phlegm, which can be rusty or grayish green in color.• Fever and acute body ache.• Burning sensation in the eyes and sometimes watery eyes.• Difficulty in breathing due to blocked nose.• Scratchy or a pricking sensation in the throat.• Loss of appetite and fatigue.• Breathless and a feeling of tightness in the chest.
PREVENTION• Respiratory Infection Treatment In order to diagnose the presence of infection in the respiratory tract, a person may have to get a blood test or an X-ray. The physician may prescribe the following methods of treatment, to the affected individual:In order to get rid of cold or cough, there are many over-the- counter (OTC) drugs like decongestant drops and sprays available.
• If lower respiratory tract infection is caused due to bacterial infestation, then the doctor may prescribe antibiotics like amoxicillin or procaine penicillin.• To ease headache, body pain and fever, the doctor may also prescribe painkillers like paracetamol. If you are suffering from fever, make it a point to increase the intake of fluids, in order to avoid dehydration.• In some instances, this infection can also lead to acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), a more serious condition if left untreated. So, it is advisable to consult a doctor, as soon as you observe the symptoms and go in for treatment in order to curb the infection.
Key facts• Diarrhoeal disease kills 1.5 million children every year.• Globally, there are about two billion cases of diarrhoeal disease every year.• Diarrhoeal disease mainly affects children under two years old.• Diarrhoea is a leading cause of malnutrition in children under five years old.
CAUSES• Severe dehydration and fluid loss• Impaired immunity• Diarrhea is usually a symptom of an infection in the intestinal tract, which can be caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms.• Infection is spread through contaminated food or drinking-water, or from person-to-person as a result of poor hygiene.
THREE TYPESThere are three clinical types of diarrhoea:• acute watery diarrhoea – lasts several hours or days, and includes cholera;• acute bloody diarrhoea – also called dysentery;• persistent diarrhoea – lasts 14 days or longer.
Signs and symptoms• Frequent loose, watery stools• Abdominal cramps• Abdominal pain• Fever• Bleeding• Lightheadedness or dizziness from dehydration
PREVENTIONKey measures to prevent diarrhea include:• access to safe drinking-water• improved sanitation• exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life• good personal and food hygiene• health education about how infections spread
The most common cause of death from a heartattack in adults is a disturbance in the electricalrhythm of the heart called ventricularfibrillation. – Ventricular fibrillation can be treated, but it requires applying an electrical shock to the chest called defibrillation. – If a defibrillator is not readily available, brain death will occur in less than 10 minutes.
• One way of buying time until a defibrillator becomes available is to provide artificial breathing and circulation by performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR.
– By performing CPR, you keep oxygenated blood flowing to the heart and brain until a defibrillator becomes available.• Because up to 80% of all cardiac arrests occur in the home, you are most likely to perform CPR on a family member or loved one.
• are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse and oral sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without having a disease.
PREVENTION• The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner. Not all sexual activities involve contact: cybersex, phonesex or masturbation from a distance are methods of avoiding contact. Proper use of condoms reduces contact and risk. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom.
Vaccines• Vaccines are available that protect against some viral STIs, such as Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and some types of HPV. Vaccination before initiation of sexual contact is advised to assure maximal protection.