Catalonia: The Poll Road to Independence


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A brief history of the Catalan independentist movement. The evolution of opion polls on the issue and the broad support for independence in our days

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Catalonia: The Poll Road to Independence

  1. 1. Catalan independentism 1 Catalan independentism Catalan independentism (Catalan: Independentisme català; Eastern Catalan: [indəpəndənˈtizmə kətəˈɫa], Western Catalan: [independenˈtizme kataˈla]) is a political movement, derived from Catalan nationalism, which supports the independence of Catalonia or the so-called Catalan countries from Spain and France. Catalan independentism is based on the thesis that Catalonia is a nation, derived from its own history, language and culture. The beginnings of the movement can be traced back to the early 20th century, when some organisations and political Catalan independentist mural in Belfast parties started demanding full independence of Catalonia from Spain. During the following years, and mainly due to Francos regime oppression against the Catalan people and culture, the movement gained more sympathizers. More recently, there has been an increase in the number of followers and non-binding and unofficial referendums have been held in municipalities around Catalonia. The Estelada flag, in its blue and red versions, has become its main symbol. History Some Catalan separatist authors argue that first precedents of Catalan independentism may date back as far as 1640, with the unsuccessful first Catalan Republic after the Reapers War, and subsequently during the War of the Spanish Succession. However, in the modern sense, the first political parties which started defining themselves as independentists[1] were created between the 1920s and the 1930s in Spanish Catalonia. The main separatist party created at this time was Estat Català[1] and its branch called Bandera Negra. Estat Català evolved into the new party Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, although some of its members refused it and remained faithful to the original Estat Català, now a minor party. After the Spanish Civil War, members of Estat Català and Nosaltres Sols founded the Front Nacional de Catalunya which became the main pro-independence party. However, one might argue that modern Catalan independentism was actually born in the 1960s with On the left, Francesc Macià, leader of ERC and the Partit Socialista dAlliberament Nacional (PSAN). Since then, the President of Catalonia between 1931 and 1933 pro-independence movement has assumed a mostly left-wing political trend and has often shifted its focus from "independence for Catalonia" to "independence for the Catalan Countries". By the 1970s, the PSAN split into several factions, and many other groups appeared, including the armed organization Terra Lliure. In the 1980s, the Moviment de Defensa de la Terra (MDT) became the major pro-independence political group but this too became divided by the end of the decade. During the 1990s, existing political parties such as Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya and the linguistic-national initiative Crida a la Solidaritat progressively evolved towards a more pro-independence stance.
  2. 2. Catalan independentism 2 Modern Independentism The parties explicitly campaigning for independence are Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, Solidaritat Catalana per la Independència and Reagrupament; the former two are currently represented in the Catalan Parliament. They won 11.6% of the total Catalan votes in the Catalan Parliament in the Catalonian parliamentary election, 2010 [2] becoming the 3rd most important party and having the key for the government. They are present as well in another parliament in the Catalan countries, namely that of the Balearic Islands, where they have one member.[3] They also have an elected member in the Consell de Mallorca[4] which belongs to the autonomic government. Out of Catalan Countries they have one MEP and 3 members of the Spanish Parliament. A number of members and voters of Convergència i Unió (CiU), nationalist federation of 2 parties[5] with the majority of seats at the Catalan parliament (38.5% of the vote in the 2010 Catalan parliamentary election) also give, usually less explicit, support to Joan Puigcercós, former leader of ERC, in Blanes independence. This tendency inside the party has presumably been growing since its leader proposed in 2007 the so called Casa Gran del Catalanisme project which, among other causes, includes the defense of self-determination for Catalonia. Finally, the left wing party Iniciativa per Catalunya (7.5% of the vote in the 2010 Catalan parliamentary election) claims to give full support to self-determination right and has several members explicitly supporting Catalan independence. The political parties that explicitly reject Catalan independence and self-determination rights are the Socialists Party of Catalonia,[6] the Peoples Party of Catalonia[7] and Ciutadans[8] which had 18,6%, 12,2% and 3,4% of the vote respectively in the 2010 Catalan parliamentary election. However, there is a significant fraction within the Socialist Party supporting the sovereignty of Catalonia within a federalized Spain.[9] Other independentist smaller parties or coalitions, without present representation in any parliament, are Estat Català, Unitat Nacional de Catalunya, Endavant, PSAN, MDT, CUP and Reagrupament. There are also youth organizations such as Maulets or Coordinadora dAssemblees de Joves de lEsquerra Independentista, and the student unions SEPC and FNEC. In recent years, some of the rationale for Catalan independentism has received support from individuals coming from a broader political spectrum other than the usual left or far-left Catalan nationalism. Relevant examples are the liberal economists Xavier Sala i Martín[10] and Ramon Tremosa Balcells (elected deputy for CiU in the European parliament in the 2009 election), the lawyer and FC Barcelona president Joan Laporta[11] or the jurist and former member of the Consejo General del Poder Judicial Alfons López Tena.[12] The think tank Cercle dEstudis Sobiranistes, led by the jurists "LEstelada Vermella" (The Red Starred Flag), the Alfons López Tena and Hèctor López Bofill was founded in 2007. red version of the independentist flag. Since then it has summoned a number of lawmakers, professors, businessmen, professionals, economists, journalists and intellectuals for the cause of Catalonias independence. In Spain, some considered
  3. 3. Catalan independentism 3 this trend to have been stimulated as a reaction especially against the policy of the latter Spanish governments of the Partido Popular party, and its opposition to certain legislative reforms such as the new proposal of Statute of Catalonia. Referendum on Catalonias independence Since 13 December 2009, non-official referendums on Catalan independence are being carried out[13][14][15] in 167[16] towns, "LEstelada Blava" (The Blue Starred Flag), the blue villages and 5 Comarcal council covering more than 700,000[17] version of the independentist flag. citizens with 15,000 volunteers,[18] following the first one celebrated in Arenys de Munt on 13 September, 30[16] international observers have been accredited, like the MEPs (Jill Evans from Plaid Cymru, Frieda Brepoels from Flanders, François Alfonsi from Corse and Oriol Junqueras from Catalonia).[19] Studies on social support to independentism in Catalonia Polls on the matter are troublesome as the question of independence is not on the daily political agenda, something which may be distorting replies from the interviewed. What is more, polls from different institutions vary greatly. The position of Catalans regarding the independence of either Catalonia or of the Catalan Countries must be studied taking into account an important fact, namely, that a huge number of Catalan citizens are of immigrant origin and that many of them feel little or no connection to the Catalan language or culture. It has been reckoned that the total population of Catalonia with no migrations would have grown from 2 million people in 1900 to just 2.4 million in 1980,[20] merely 39% of the actual population of 6.1 million at that date. This population has continued growing and was over 7.4 million in 2009. Polls A few institutions have performed polls which also include questions on the independence issue in Catalonia. The following are the most prominent ones: (1) Center for Social Research (Centro de Investigaciones Sociales CIS) which belongs to the Spanish government, (2) Social and Political Sciencies Institute of Barcelona (Institut de Ciències Polítiques i Socials ICPS) belonging to the Autonomous University of Barcelona and Diputation of Barcelona, and (3) Center for Opinion Studies (Centre dEstudis dOpinió CEO). The CEO was depending on the Economy Department of the Generalitat of Catalonia until early 2011. Since then it has been placed under direct control of the Presidency of the Generalitat. It is now headed by Jordi Argelaguet i Argemí. CIS performed a poll in Catalonia on 2001, including an explicit question on independence with the following results: 35.9% supporting it, 48.1% opposing it, 13.3% indifferent, 2.8% did not reply. ICPS performs annually an opinion poll since 1989, which always includes a section on independence. The question of independence has not been polled so far in other Catalan-speaking territories outside of Catalonia, but anecdotal evidence (basically the total absence of the independentist question in those territories) suggests that there is no sizeable support for the idea of independence of the Catalan-speaking territories outside of Catalonia. Polls seem to indicate an ambivalent and far from universal feeling. For example, the 2007 ICPS poll indicated that, when asked about the independence of Catalonia, 51% of the population would be against it, 32% would be for it, while 17% do not have an opinion, but, in the same poll, when asked about the meaning of Spain, only 5% of the interviewed identified with the downright independentist option ("Spain is an alien State of which my country is not a part").[21] The results are in the following table:
  4. 4. Catalan independentism 4 Year Support (%) Against (%) Indifferent (%) Do not reply (%) 1991 35 50 11 4 1992 31 53 11 5 1993 37 50 9 5 1994 35 49 14 3 1995 36 52 10 3 1996 29 56 11 4 1997 32 52 11 5 1998 32 55 10 3 1999 32 55 10 3 2000 32 53 13 3 2001 33 55 11 1 2002 34 52 12 1 2003* 43 43 12 1 2004* 39 44 13 3 2005 36 44 15 6 2006 33 48 17 2 2007 31.7 51.3 14.1 2.9 [22] 41.4 22.9 26.5 9.2 2011 • On 2003 and 2004 a different methodology was used (telephonic instead of door-to-door interview). CEO performs regular polls studying political opinion of Catalan citizens. The following table contains the answers to the question "Which kind of political entity should Catalonia be with respect to Spain?"[23]: Date Independent state Confederal Keep it as it is Spanish region Do not know Do not reply (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) June 2005 13.6 31.3 40.8 7.0 6.2 1.1 November 2005 12.9 35.8 37.6 5.6 6.9 1.2 March 2006 13.9 33.4 38.2 8.1 5.1 1.2 July 2006 14.9 34.1 37.3 6.9 6.1 0.7 October 2006 14.0 32.9 38.9 8.3 5.1 0.8 November 2006 15.9 32.8 40.0 6.8 3.7 0.8 March 2007 14.5 35.3 37.0 6.1 4.9 2.2 July 2007 16.9 34.0 37.3 5.5 5.4 1.0 October 2007 18.5 34.2 35.0 4.7 6.0 1.5 December 2007 17.3 33.8 37.8 5.1 5.0 1.0 January 2008 19.4 36.4 34.8 3.8 4.1 1.6 May 2008 17.6 33.4 38.9 5.1 4.3 0.7 July 2008 16.1 34.7 37.0 6.1 5.2 0.9 November 2008 17.4 31.8 38.3 7.1 4.2 1.2
  5. 5. Catalan independentism 5 February 16.1 35.2 38.6 4.5 3.6 2.0 [24] 2009 [25] 20.9 35.0 34.9 4.4 3.0 1.7 May 2009 [26] 19.0 32.2 36.8 6.2 4.2 1.6 July 2009 December 21.6 29.9 36.9 5.9 4.1 1.6 [27] 2009 2010 1st 19.4 29.5 38.2 6.9 4.4 1.6 [28] series 2010 2nd 21.5 31.2 35.2 7.3 4.0 0.7 [29] series 2010 3rd 24.3 31.0 33.3 5.4 4.9 1.0 [30] series 2010 4th 25.2 30.9 34.7 5.9 2.7 0.7 [31] series 2011 1st 24.5 31.9 33.2 5.6 3.5 1.3 [32] series 2011 2nd 25.5 33.0 31.8 5.6 3.4 0.8 [33] series 2011 3rd 28.2 30.4 30.3 5.7 3.9 1.5 [34] series • Also, since the second quarter of 2011, CEO is asking about the behaviour in an independence referendum: Date In favor (%) Against (%) Abstain (%) Other (%) Do not know (%) Do not reply (%) [33] 42.9 28.2 23.3 0.5 4.4 0.8 2011 2nd series [34] 45.4 24.7 23.8 0.6 4.6 1.0 2011 3rd series This means that, in the 2011 3rd series, for a turnout of 71.4 %, the opinion is 60.3% in favor of independence and 39,7% against. • The Catalan newspapers El Periódico and La Vanguardia have been publishing their own surveys in recent times. La Vanguardia
  6. 6. Catalan independentism 6 Date Yes (%) No (%) Other (%) [35] 35 46 19 02/11/09 [36] 36 44 20 15/03/10 [37] 37 41 22 19/05/10 [38] 47 36 17 18/07/10 [39] 40 45 15 07/09/10 [40] 34 30 35 11/04/11 El Periódico Date Yes (%) No (%) Other (%) [41] 33.9 43.9 22.3 October 2007 [42] 39.0 40.6 20.4 December 2009 [43] 48.1 35.3 16.6 June 2010 [44] 53.6 32.0 14.4 January 2012 • The FUNDACC Government Association conducted a survey over 5084 people that threw the following result. Date Yes (%) No (%) Other (%) [45] 34 30 36 April 2011 Public figures supporting Catalan independence • Víctor Alexandre, writer • Miquel Calçada, journalist and reporter[46] • José Carreras, tenor singer[47] • Àngel Colom, politician, founder of the Independence Party, currently member of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia • Joan Laporta, former president of the Barcelona Football Club, and chairman of the Catalan Solidarity for Independence • Alfons López Tena, jurist, former member of the General Council of the Judicial Power of Spain • Hèctor López Bofill, political scientist and poet • Joel Joan, actor • Oriol Junqueras, historian and political activist • Justo Molinero, Radio host[48] • Quim Monzó, short story writer • Manuel de Pedrolo, writer • Felip Puig, politician (Democratic Convergence of Catalonia) [49][50] • Jordi Pujol i Soley, former president of the Generalitat de Catalunya • Oriol Pujol i Ferrusola, politician (Democratic Convergence of Catalonia)[51] • Pilar Rahola, journalist and author, co-founder of the Independence Party • Jordi Rebellón, actor • Francesc Ribera i Toneu, lead singer of the group Brams
  7. 7. Catalan independentism 7 • Xavier Rubert de Ventós, philosopher[52][53] • Xavier Sala-i-Martin, economist • Carles Solà i Ferrando, chemist • Joan Solà, philologist[54] • Toni Strubell i Trueta, linguist • Josep-Maria Terricabras, philosopher • Matthew Tree, British-born Catalan writer • Ramon Tremosa i Balcells, economist • Lluís Maria Xirinacs i Damians, author • Thierry Henry, football player and former striker of Barcelona Football Club[55] References and Footnotes [1] http:/ / www. estat-catala. cat/ [2] http:/ / www. parlament. cat/ web/ composicio/ distribucio-escons [3] http:/ / fitxers. esquerra. cat/ arxius/ illes/ ParlamentMallorca. pdf [4] http:/ / www. parlamentib. cat/ catala/ sec0830. php3?fonssup=& zona=& cod_grupo=3 [5] http:/ / www. ciu. info/ [6] http:/ / www. socialistes. cat/ [7] http:/ / www. ppcatalunya. com/ [8] http:/ / www. ciudadanos-cs. org/ [9] http:/ / www. cronica. cat/ noticia/ Lultima_batalla_dels_catalanistes_del_PSC [10] "Sala-i-Martins Independence" (http:/ / www. columbia. edu/ ~xs23/ papers/ independ english. htm). . Retrieved 2009-11-09. [11] http:/ / www. fcbarcelona. com/ web/ catala/ club/ historia/ presidents/ joanlaporta. html [12] http:/ / vilaweb. tv/ ?video=4948 [13] New York Times Catalans Vote In "Referendum" on Independence (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ reuters/ 2009/ 12/ 12/ world/ international-uk-spain-catalonia. html?_r=1& scp=1& sq=catalonia& st=cse) [14] Chicago Tribune Villages in Spains Catalonia region hold nonbinding vote on independence (http:/ / www. chicagotribune. com/ news/ nationworld/ sns-ap-eu-spain-catalonia-referendum,0,4944505. story) [15] Daily Telegraph Catalonia holds referendums to push for independence from Spain (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ spain/ 6789168/ Catalonia-holds-referendums-to-push-for-independence-from-Spain. html) [16] http:/ / www. vilaweb. cat/ noticia/ 3666870/ paperetes-obren-escenari-politic-pais. html [17] Rainsford, Sarah (2009-12-12). "Catalonia votes on independence" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 8409767. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2010-04-28. [18] http:/ / www. lavanguardia. es/ politica/ noticias/ 20091213/ 53843511680/ 166-municipios-catalanes-ya-votan-en-la-jornada-de-consultas-soberanistas. html [19] http:/ / www. vilaweb. cat/ noticia/ 3666112/ quatre-eurodiputats-faran-dobservadors-consultes. html [20] "Anna Cabré: Immigration and welfare state (in Catalan)" (http:/ / www. ced. uab. es/ publicacions/ PapersPDF/ Text183. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009-11-09. [21] http:/ / www. icps. es/ archivos/ sondeigs/ SC2007. pdf [22] Sondeig dopinió Catalunya 2011 (http:/ / www. icps. es/ sondeigs. asp?con=35& apr=1#35)(Catalan) [23] Centre dEstudis dOpinió (http:/ / www. gencat. cat/ economia/ ceo/ ceo. html) Poll results [24] Baròmetre dOpinió Política. Febrer 2009 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ estudis/ categories/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=1586& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + Febrer+ 2009) [25] Baròmetre dOpinió Política. Maig 2009 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ estudis/ categories/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=1748& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + Maig+ 2009) [26] Baròmetre dOpinió Política. Juliol 2009 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ estudis/ categories/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=1989& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + Juliol+ 2009) [27] Baròmetre dOpinió Política. Desembre 2009 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ estudis/ categories/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=2308& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + Desembre+ 2009) [28] Baròmetre dOpinió Polític. 1a onada 2010 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ estudis/ categories/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=2488& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + Febrer+ 2010) [29] Baròmetre dOpinió Polític .2a onada 2010 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ home/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=2668& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + 2a+ onada+ 2010) [30] Baròmetre dOpinió Polític. 3a onada 2010 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ home/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=2908& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + 3a+ onada+ 2010)
  8. 8. Catalan independentism 8 [31] Baròmetre dOpinió Polític. 4a onada 2010 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ home/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=3068& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + 4a+ onada+ 2010) [32] Baròmetre dOpinió Polític. 1a onada 2011 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ home/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=3368& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + 1a+ onada+ 2011) [33] Baròmetre dOpinió Polític. 2a onada 2011 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ home/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=3648& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + 2a+ onada+ 2011) [34] Baròmetre dOpinió Polític. 3a onada 2011 (http:/ / ceo. gencat. cat/ ceop/ AppJava/ pages/ home/ fitxaEstudi. html?colId=3808& lastTitle=Baròmetre+ dOpinió+ Política+ (BOP). + 3a+ onada+ 2011) [35] (http:/ / www. lavanguardia. es/ politica/ noticias/ 20091102/ 53816274034/ la-mayoria-aprueba-la-consulta-independentista-pero-votaria-en-contra-ciu-icv-psc-pp-laporta-institu. html) La mayoría aprueba la consulta independentista pero votaría en contra (Spanish) [36] (http:/ / www. lavanguardia. es/ politica/ noticias/ 20100315/ 53897625621/ el-apoyo-a-las-consultas-y-el-rechazo-a-la-independencia-se-mantienen-estables. html) El apoyo a las consultas y el rechazo a la independencia se mantienen estables (Spanish) [37] (http:/ / www. lavanguardia. es/ politica/ noticias/ 20100519/ 53928729662/ la-independencia-logra-su-mayor-cota-mientras-cae-el-rechazo-a-la-secesion-erc-ciu-estatut-noxa-psc-. html) La independencia logra su mayor cota mientras cae el rechazo a la secesión (Spanish) [38] (http:/ / www. lavanguardia. es/ politica/ noticias/ 20100717/ 53965335140/ ciu-sigue-cerca-de-la-mayoria-absoluta-frente-a-un-tripartito-que-no-remonta. html) CiU sigue cerca de la mayoría absoluta frente a un tripartito que no remonta (Spanish) [39] (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. lavanguardia. es/ politica/ noticias/ 20100907/ 53996153467/ el-apoyo-a-la-independencia-remite-y-cae-al-40-tribunal-constitucional-partido-popular-instituto-nox. html)] [40] (http:/ / www. lavanguardia. com/ politica/ 20110411/ 54139721337/ el-34-de-los-catalanes-votaria-si-a-la-independencia-mientras-el-30-se-decantaria-por-el-no. html) El 34% de los catalanes votaría sí a la independencia mientras el 30% se decantaría por el no (Spanish) [41] (http:/ / www. elperiodico. cat/ default. asp?idpublicacio_PK=46& idioma=CAT& idnoticia_PK=450428& idseccio_PK=1008) El suport a un referèndum a Catalunya sorprèn els partits (Catalan) [42] (http:/ / www. elperiodico. cat/ ca/ noticias/ politica/ 20091222/ lindependentisme-avanca-fins-quedar-se-punt-majoria/ 233940. shtml) Lindependentisme avança fins a quedar-se a un punt de la majoria (Catalan) [43] (http:/ / www. elperiodico. cat/ ca/ noticias/ politica/ 20100619/ quasi-meitat-catalunya-trencaria-avui-amb-espanya/ 335765. shtml) Quasi la meitat de Catalunya trencaria avui amb Espanya (Catalan) [44] (http:/ / societat. e-noticies. cat/ la-independencia-guanya-a-les-enquestes-61097. html) La independència guanya a les enquestes segons el baròmetre dEl Periódico (Catalan) [45] (http:/ / www. fundacc. org/ docroot/ fundacc/ includes/ noticies/ fitxers/ entrada11758/ fitxer1326/ 0411-Independencia. pdf) El 34 per cent dels catalans votaria sí a la independència, el 30 per cent votaria no, el 23 per cent no sap o no contesta, el 9 per cent sabstindria i el 3 per cent votaria en blanc (Catalan) [46] http:/ / www. naciodigital. cat/ noticia/ 12760/ miquel/ calcada/ dignitat/ catalunya/ nom/ nom/ independencia [47] http:/ / www. intereconomia. com/ programa/ gato-al-agua/ tenor-jose-carreras-camara-visca-catalunya-lliure [48] http:/ / www. elsingulardigital. cat/ cat/ notices/ 2010/ 04/ justo_molinero_promoura_la_consulta_sobre_independencia_de_cornella_50097. php [49] http:/ / www. lamalla. cat/ politica/ article?id=399273 [50] http:/ / www. elpais. com/ articulo/ espana/ cupula/ Convergencia/ abraza/ independentismo/ Cataluna/ elpepuesp/ 20071028elpepinac_16/ Tes [51] http:/ / www. elsingulardigital. cat/ cat/ notices/ 2010/ 07/ oriol_pujol_es_declara_independentista_54758. php [52] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=6FqmcPhp0j8 [53] http:/ / video. google. com/ videoplay?docid=-7040807663819337937# [54] http:/ / cardedeuperlaindependencia. cat/ joan-sola-i-les-consultes [55] http:/ / www. insideworldsoccer. com/ 2009/ 02/ henry-catalunya-is-not-spain. html
  9. 9. Catalan independentism 9 External links • A video based on an article about Catalonias independence by professor Xavier Sala-i-Martin from Columbia University. ( • Party Urging More Autonomy From Spain Seems to Win in Catalonia ( html?res=FA0611FD385B0C718CDDA80994DE404482) Article on New York Times, November 2, 2006 • Courage in Catalonia ( html?res=F60D10FD34550C718EDDAF0894DE404482) Article on New York Times, June 22, 2006 • Voters in Catalonia Approve A Plan for Greater Autonomy ( html?res=F70D11FF35550C7A8DDDAF0894DE404482) Article on New York Times, June 19, 2006 • Spain Moves On Law to Give Broad Powers To Catalonia ( html?res=F30C13FF39540C728FDDAA0894DE404482) Article on New York Times, March 31, 2006 • Independentist sites (à/PolÃtica_i_govern/Independentisme//) at the Open Directory Project. (Catalan) • History of Catalan independentism ( Dossier of the Catalan magazine El Temps. (Catalan) • Estatpropi.Cat, Webpage to count and to show the support to create an own state for the Catalan Countries (http:/ / • Spains secret conflict (Documentary) (
  10. 10. Article Sources and Contributors 10 Article Sources and Contributors Catalan independentism  Source:  Contributors: Akerbeltz, Alexander Domanda, Alexandrecomas, Alpha claudii, Avizcaino, Behemoth, Belchman, Betacommand, Blondlieut, Brattanie, Chris the speller, Cnoguera, Curb Chain, Dannycas, David Latapie, DerBorg, Diego Moya, Dúnadan, Edsova, Enric, EoGuy, Epbr123, Epfnc, Eumolpo, EvanSeeds, Everyking, Felpeyu, Fobizan, Friviere, Gershake, Gsp, Guiladg, HappyInGeneral, Hibernian, Hmains, Icemanofbarcelona101, IkonicDeath, Independència, JORDI SIRVENT NUÑEZ, Jaume87, Jey86, Joan sense nick, Joaquin008, John of Reading, Jordi G, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jotamar, Liberlogos, LilHelpa, Lordet, MacRusgail, Miguel303xm, Miquel Girones, Mountolive, Mysid, Purpleturple, Queenmomcat, Radagast83, Rubenset, SMP, SQGibbon, SimonP, Sonicology, Taraborn, Toniher, Torecilla, Trivial, Tygerpencil, VR-Land, Viator slovenicus, Wllacer, Womansblues, Wrathchild, Xtv, YuriBCN, Zzuuzz, 82 anonymous edits Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:Paisos catalans belfast.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Asarlaí, Erri4a, Friviere, Javierme, Joan Puigbarcell, Martorell, Toniher, Wknight94, 5 anonymous edits File:Manuel Ainaud Sanchez 3.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0  Contributors: Family File:Puigcercosblanes.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Joanut File:Estelada roja.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: CHV, Comunaire, Friviere, Huhsunqu, Joan Puigbarcell, Martorell, Mutxamel, Pmmollet, Van der Hoorn, Vilallonga, 6 anonymous edits File:Estelada blava.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Comunaire, Conscious, Friviere, Huhsunqu, Joan Puigbarcell, Martorell, Mutxamel, Pmmollet, Van der Hoorn, 4 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //