X sorb eco technology b.v. Extending Solar Heating beyond seasonal limits
Presentation of Xsorb eco-technologies rev 2  15 October 2009  by A. Minkkinen Warm Air  Heat Store Ventilation Humidity A...
Winter Winter Summer Solar Energy Heating / Storage Paradox 3.0 2.0 1.0 MWh/a Excess Solar Direct Solar  Contribution Heat...
Humid Heat Energy <ul><li>The   sources are many : </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of outside humid air </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking...
Humid Heat Recovery Condensation on a heat transfer surface Recovers  heat of  water condensation  at ever lowering temper...
Humid Heat Energy How much heat when condensed?? 2 300 kJ / kg of water Or 2.3 MJ / kg
Adsorption Heat Energy How much heat when adsorbed ??? Heat of water condensation 2.3 MJ/kg plus heat of adhesion from  0....
Air/Air Heat Exchanger Warm fresh air to rooms Cold fresh air Expelled humid room air heated dry air Dry cool Ventilated a...
Air/Air Heat Exchanger Outside air Warm humid air Moist Ventilated air HeatStore Axial Fan Solar panel Xsorb Process   in ...
30 Degree C 40% 60% 80% Relative Humidity @ Inlet Temperature Expected  Air Temperature Rise   0 T 100 % 20 10 Mid Deplete...
10 20 Heat Duty  kW Heat Exchange Curves   0 30 0 Dry PFHE 5 degree C approach Xsorb Air Heating 40 HeatStore Adsorption h...
Solar Storage Performance 1.0 m 3   EnergyStore Energy storage density of  220 kwh / m 3 800 MJ of Space Heat @ 30 Degree C
Example Seasonal energy consumption  of a super insulated   150 m 2  house built to 2015 EU recommended  residential space...
Solar Contribution Then  0.8 x 8.3 GJ   =   6.6 GJ  needs  to be provided  by the  EnergyStore  solar battery If 20 % is c...
<ul><li>Based on EU ventilation standard of 50 m 3 /h/person </li></ul><ul><li>@ inside comfort of 50% humidity & 20 degre...
Example Conclusion Requires less than  2 %  of the house volume 150 m 2  house volume with 3 meter high   ceiling 150 m 2 ...
Xsorb Process   in Adsorption Heating Mode Front end view Fresh air inlet Vent dry air Heat exchanger HeatStore Glazed hyb...
Xsorb Process   in Recharging Mode Back end view   Ambient air inlet Cooled moist air vent Hybrid Thermal/PV Solar panel H...
<ul><li>Solar radiation collected  in roof top panels </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal capture to air  </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal ...
<ul><li>Heat energy </li></ul><ul><li>heat adsorbent bed to  around 40 °C </li></ul><ul><li>heat carrier gas to between  6...
<ul><li>Cost effective in-situ use of solar energy </li></ul><ul><li>Leak free solar heat storage </li></ul><ul><li>summer...
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  1. 1. X sorb eco technology b.v. Extending Solar Heating beyond seasonal limits
  2. 2. Presentation of Xsorb eco-technologies rev 2 15 October 2009 by A. Minkkinen Warm Air Heat Store Ventilation Humidity Adsorption Solar De-sorption Drying X sorb eco-technology Solar Energy In-situ Warm air
  3. 3. Winter Winter Summer Solar Energy Heating / Storage Paradox 3.0 2.0 1.0 MWh/a Excess Solar Direct Solar Contribution HeatStore Space heating demand curve Solar irradiation supply curve
  4. 4. Humid Heat Energy <ul><li>The sources are many : </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of outside humid air </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking generated boil off steam </li></ul><ul><li>Bathroom ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Clothes washing and drying generated vent streams </li></ul><ul><li>Purposely generated humidity from humidifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Human, animal and green plant respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Liberated gas from candle wax combustion </li></ul><ul><li>also </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion flue gas from gas fired water heaters </li></ul>
  5. 5. Humid Heat Recovery Condensation on a heat transfer surface Recovers heat of water condensation at ever lowering temperatures Adsorption on a solid surface Recovers heat of water adsorption at a useful temperature
  6. 6. Humid Heat Energy How much heat when condensed?? 2 300 kJ / kg of water Or 2.3 MJ / kg
  7. 7. Adsorption Heat Energy How much heat when adsorbed ??? Heat of water condensation 2.3 MJ/kg plus heat of adhesion from 0.5 to1.7 MJ/kg (wet to dry) Average heat of water adsorption 3.4 MJ / kg of water over cycle
  8. 8. Air/Air Heat Exchanger Warm fresh air to rooms Cold fresh air Expelled humid room air heated dry air Dry cool Ventilated air Kitchen Shower HeatStore Laundry Axial Fan Solar panel Xsorb Process in Heating Mode Adsorbing
  9. 9. Air/Air Heat Exchanger Outside air Warm humid air Moist Ventilated air HeatStore Axial Fan Solar panel Xsorb Process in Recharging Mode Warm fresh air Hot solar heated air Drying
  10. 10. 30 Degree C 40% 60% 80% Relative Humidity @ Inlet Temperature Expected Air Temperature Rise 0 T 100 % 20 10 Mid Depleted Adsorbent at Middle of Run ( MOR ) Inlet Temperature Deg C 20 10 30
  11. 11. 10 20 Heat Duty kW Heat Exchange Curves 0 30 0 Dry PFHE 5 degree C approach Xsorb Air Heating 40 HeatStore Adsorption heat Ventilated humid room temperature Fresh warm air 5 degree C approach Degree C
  12. 12. Solar Storage Performance 1.0 m 3 EnergyStore Energy storage density of 220 kwh / m 3 800 MJ of Space Heat @ 30 Degree C
  13. 13. Example Seasonal energy consumption of a super insulated 150 m 2 house built to 2015 EU recommended residential space heating duty 15 kWh/m 2 equivalent to 55 MJ /m 2 thus: 55 MJ/m 2 x 150 m 2 = 8 250 MJ 8.3 GJ
  14. 14. Solar Contribution Then 0.8 x 8.3 GJ = 6.6 GJ needs to be provided by the EnergyStore solar battery If 20 % is considered as the direct solar fraction
  15. 15. <ul><li>Based on EU ventilation standard of 50 m 3 /h/person </li></ul><ul><li>@ inside comfort of 50% humidity & 20 degree C </li></ul><ul><li>A house with 4 persons living inside ventilates stale humid air with roughly 4 200 kg of water vapor in a typical heating season </li></ul><ul><li>with only 50 % recovery 2 100 kg of water is adsorbed </li></ul><ul><li>The adsorption heat recovered to useful house </li></ul><ul><li>space heating @ 3.1 MJ/kg </li></ul><ul><li>is 2 100 kg x 3.1 MJ/kg = almost 6 600 MJ </li></ul><ul><li>volume of adsorbent required would be </li></ul><ul><li>6 600 MJ / 800 MJ/m 3 around 8.0 m 3 </li></ul>Example Ventilation Humid Heat Recovery
  16. 16. Example Conclusion Requires less than 2 % of the house volume 150 m 2 house volume with 3 meter high ceiling 150 m 2 X 3 m = 450 m 3 thus: 8.0 m 3 / 450 m 3 = 0.0177
  17. 17. Xsorb Process in Adsorption Heating Mode Front end view Fresh air inlet Vent dry air Heat exchanger HeatStore Glazed hybrid PV/thermal solar panel Humid room air Humid room air Humid room air Warm air Warm air Warm air Warm air Xsorb heated dry air Warm air duct Vent air duct ID axial fan Dark PV cell surface Air space Not used Warm air Hot water CV Humid room air Window closed
  18. 18. Xsorb Process in Recharging Mode Back end view Ambient air inlet Cooled moist air vent Hybrid Thermal/PV Solar panel HeatStore Solar heated hot air inlet connection at the opposite end Warm moist air Preheated fresh air FD axial fan Inlet air header Hot air header ID axial fan used used Dormer room
  19. 19. <ul><li>Solar radiation collected in roof top panels </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal capture to air </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal capture to water </li></ul><ul><li>PV and thermal capture to air or water </li></ul>Solar Recharging
  20. 20. <ul><li>Heat energy </li></ul><ul><li>heat adsorbent bed to around 40 °C </li></ul><ul><li>heat carrier gas to between 60 to 80 °C </li></ul><ul><li>This slowly evaporates water from adsorbent </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier gas </li></ul><ul><li>heated outside air </li></ul><ul><li>heated inside dry air </li></ul><ul><li>This carries water vapor from adsorbent </li></ul>Recharging Requirements
  21. 21. <ul><li>Cost effective in-situ use of solar energy </li></ul><ul><li>Leak free solar heat storage </li></ul><ul><li>summer use gets fully valorized </li></ul><ul><li>good combination with hybrid air & water cooled PV solar technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for newly built “green” buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly complete elimination </li></ul><ul><li>of fossil fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions in space heating </li></ul>Conclusion

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