Vital signs


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Vital signs

  1. 1. Vital Signs
  2. 2. VITAL SIGNS Blood Pressure Heart Rate Respiratory Rate BMI Body Temperature
  3. 3. BLOOD PRESSURE What is blood pressure?  Force of blood against the walls of the arteries Systolic pressure  Force of blood in the arteries as the heart contracts  Measured as first beat Diastolic pressure  Force of blood in the arteries as the heart relaxes  Measured as the point when no more sounds are heard Blood pressure is written with the systolic number on top and the diastolic number on the bottom
  4. 4. HOW TO TAKE BLOOD PRESSURE1. Have the patient sit with his or her arm at heart level2. Wrap the cuff around the arm above the elbow with the bladder centered over the brachial artery (follow arrows)3. Position your stethoscope over the brachial artery in the cubital fossa and inflate the cuff to about 200mmHg4. Turn the knob to slowly release pressure listening for a heart beat, the pressure reading when you hear the first beat is the systolic pressure5. Continue releasing slowly until all the sounds fade and disappear, the pressure when you first hear no sound is the diastolic pressure6. Completely release pressure rapidly to zero
  5. 5. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Systolic (mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg) Normal Less than 120 AND Less than 80 Prehypertensive 120-139 or 80-89 Hypertension stage 1 140-159 or 90-99 Hypertension stage 2 ≥160 or ≥100 Hypertensive Crisis ≥180 or ≥110-Hypotension is blood pressure that is lower than normal: i.e. 100/60-A hypertensive crisis indicates an emergency and the patient should go to the ED
  6. 6. HEART RATE• Heart rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute• Can be taken at various peripheral and central locations• For most pulses, use your second and third finger pads and apply gentle pressure to the artery• Names in RED can be tested during this sessionPERIPHERAL CENTRAL • Temporalis • Brachial artery  Carotid • Radial artery  Aortic • Popliteal artery  Femoral • Posterior tibial • Dorsalis Pedis
  8. 8. ABNORMAL HEART RATES• Rhythm refers to the character of the heart beat – Can be strong, weak, bounding, irregular• Tachycardia – Faster than normal heart rate Beats per Minute• Bradycardia Normal 60-100 – Slower than normal heart rate Normal 100-160• A thready pulse refers to one Infant Tachycardia >100 that is weak and fast Bradycardia <60
  9. 9. RESPIRATORY RATE Respiratory rate is the number of breaths per minute Easily measured by watching chest expansions  It is important not to tell your patient that you are recording his or her breathing rate  A good trick is to watch or feel chest rise while pretending to be taking a pulse Hyperventilation Breaths per  Faster than normal respiration minute Hypoventilation Normal 12-20  Slower than normal respiration Hyperventilation >20 Hypoventilation <12
  10. 10. BMI Body mass index is a measurement of body fat based on height and weight Not an entirely accurate measurement (athletes or body builders) BMI = kg/m2 or (lbs x 703)/in2 Classification BMI Underweight <18.5 Normal 18.6-24.9 Overweight 25-29.9 Obese 30-39.9 Morbidly Obese >40
  11. 11. BODY TEMPERATURE Fever  Pros  Can kill some infectious organisms  Enhance some immune factors  Cons  Can cause disorientation and confusion  Produces excess stress on the heart Temperature Hypothermia <35° C (<95°F) Normal 36.7° C–37.8° C (98-100°F) Fever >37.9° C (>100.3°F) Hyperthermia >41° C (>105.8°F)