Objectives Define a nutrient. Give examples of what is and what is not a nutrient. Define recommended exercise and lifestyle changes needed when you start exercising. Give examples of foods that contain certain nutrients. Understand the importance of balance in nutrients and expenditure.
Nutrition Nutrients nourish your body and play roles in all bodily processes Some examples include carbohydrates for energy, proteins for cell replication and growth, and lipids for energy storage
Nutrients The six major categories of nutrients are: Carbohydrates Fats Minerals Vitamins Proteins Water
Case Study – Part 1 You are a pediatrician A 16 year old adolescent comes in for his yearly well visit. You have been his physician since he was 10 years old. The chart from the nurse shows height 5’8” and weight of 180lbs. One year ago, he was 5’6” and 140lbs. Physical examination is unremarkable. Patients complains of insomnia, specifically difficulty falling
What should we aim to eat?•The USDA recommends that we eatfollowing the new food guide, thefood plate, as shown on the right.•The amount of an individual fooddepends on age, gender andphysical activity.•All recommendations by thegovernment are for those gettingless than 30 minutes of physicalactivity a day aside from normal
Fruits Any fruit or 100% fruit juice Fruits may be canned, frozen, dried, cut up, whole or pureed Daily recommendations: Children: 1 - 1 ½ cups Adolescents and adults: 1 ½ - 2 cups
Vegetables Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice They may be raw, cooked, fresh, froz en, canned, etc. Daily Recommendations: • Children: 1 – 1 ½ cups • Adolescents and Adults: 2 – 3 cups
Grains Grains are divided into whole grains and refined grains. Whole grains include the bran, the germ and the endosperm (oatmeal, brown rice) Refined grains are processed to remove the bran and the germ (white bread, white rice) This process also removes much of the fiber and vitamins
Grains Daily recommendations: Over the age of 4: 5-8 servings of grains A serving could be a slice of bread, 1 cup of cereal, ½ cup of rice, ½ cup of pasta. Half of your daily grains should be whole
Clinical Correlation – FolicAcid, Grains and Spina Bifida• Folic Acid is a micro nutrient that helps reduce the likelihood of – Neural Tube Defects – Anemia – Growth Retardation• Folic acid is essential during pregnancy to reduce the chances of developmental complications.• Since 1998, all enriched grain products in the US are required to be fortified with folic acid.• This has reduced neural deformities by up to
Dairy • All fluid milk and foods made from milk • Foods made from milk that maintain their calcium content • Calcium-fortified soymilk is also in this category • Daily Recommendation: 2-3 cups • Most choices should be fat-free or low-fat In Skim Milk oz. cup 2% Milk one 8 of milk Whole Milk Calories 86 122 146 % Milk Fat 0% 2% 3.25 – 4.0% Grams of Total Fat 0 5 8Grams Saturated Fat 0 3 5
Daily RecommendationProtein 2-3 yrs 2.0 oz Children 4-8 yrs 4.0 oz All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, bean Girls 9-18 yrs 5.0 oz 9-13 yrs 5.0 oz s and peas, eggs, processed Boys 14-18 yrs 6.5 oz soy products, nuts, and 19-30 yrs 5.5 oz seeds Women 31+ yrs 5.0 oz Beans and peas are also 19+ yrs 6.5 oz considered vegetables Men 31-50 yrs 6.0 oz Meat and poultry choices 51+ yrs 5.5 oz should be lean and low-fat
Case Study – Part 2a• Hx: 16 y/o boy, gained 40 lbs and grew 2 inches in the last year (current BMI = 27.5), insomnia.• What questions should we ask?• What are you, as the pediatrician, concerned about?• Any tests we should run?
Case Study – Part 2b Lab tests are normal Thyroid function is normal When asked how school was going, the boy said he did not make the soccer team this year. He had been playing since he was five years old but got cut from the varsity squad several months ago. Instead of practice everyday, he started working at his dad’s law office filing papers. He claims to have not changed his diet.
Empty Calories • A lot of foods that people eat today have a high amount of calories but relatively no nutritional value. • These include solid fats (butter, etc.) and added sugars. • A small amount is ok, but most
Exercise The USDA recommends that we get 30 minutes of moderate or vigorous activity daily. Exercise also helps lower your risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular
Case Study – Part 3a What is the diagnosis? What are your recommendations?
Case Study – Part 3b What is the diagnosis? BMI is consistent with being overweight, not obese From the history, he is eating more nutrients than energy he is expending, due to decreased physical activity What are your recommendations? Exercise more and eat less Give an exercise plan: 30 minutes 3-4 times/week Motivate: Try out for the soccer team next
Conclusion You are what you eat!! But one can definitely enjoy other foods in moderation Find activities that you enjoy and stick to them Try to get your families and friends involved too!