Miànzi, Kèqi and Xiào - Insights into the Chinese business psyche


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Miànzi, Kèqi and Xiào - Insights into the Chinese business psyche

  1. 1. Volume 4 Number 1 January 2006 Miànzi, Kèqi And Xiào: Insights Into The Chinese Business Psyche By Andrew M. Williamson, Visiting Tutor, Business School, City College Norwich Introduction suffering retaliation; and losing the respect of This article examines how the values of bystanders and everyone else whom the miànzi (face), kèqi (humility/modesty) and other person tells, all of which will xiào (filial piety) may influence how the consequently cause you too to lose miànzi. In Chinese do business with Westerners, the such an event: seek the counsel of a Chinese key to which, guanxi (special relationship) intermediary as to how to restore miànzi, both was explored in the previous issue of this of the other person and your own. bulletin (Williamson, 2005). Thus, to save miànzi, yours and others'; any Since both articles are based on my book: 'criticism' should be positive; and delivered 'The Chinese Business Puzzle' [How To privately, discreetly and tactfully (i.e. in a Books, Oxford, 2003], the background and mutually miànzi-saving manner, akin to the caveat to the first also apply here. Western one minute reprimand), which makes a veritable minefield of reviewing and Concept of miànzi disciplining Chinese colleagues. The concept of the first value, 'face' or miànzi, differs between distinct languages Case Study 1 - Miànzi and cultures; and in the context of China has One of my first challenges in China (in 1997) been variously defined as: was to relocate our territorial head office from “Self-respect, prestige and reputation." Hong Kong to Beijing and amalgamate it with (Concise Chinese-English Dictionary our local representative office, hence an (1986) and New Chinese-English immediately miànzi'-threatening situation for Dictionary (1996)) our female Chinese Chief Representative in "Honour, integrity, privilege, respect Beijing who, until then, had been the and courtesy from others." (Welcome company's most senior executive there. to China, 2002) To complicate matters: the local authorities "The regard in which one is held by were slow to legalise my status as Director others or the light in which one for China, another potentially miànzi- appears. "(Seligman, 1997, p.50) threatening situation for her should they insist "An intangible commodity that is vital on re-designating me as Chief to a person's reputation, dignity and Representative for Beijing and, subsequently, prestige."(Seligman, 1999, p. 198) relegating her to a lower status. In other words: miànzi is quite simply a To maintain miànzi, hers and mine, the two- Chinese person's 'status'; and to lose it, and pronged strategy I successfully adopted was incur shame, is the worst thing that can befall to: them. 1. 'Work' alongside and under the tutelage Whilst this may seem similar to elsewhere in of my Beijing colleague for several days, the world, what distinguishes miànzi is that it in order to: can be not only 'lost', 'saved' or 'won', but x Establish my miànzi through personal also 'given' by others. effort rather than by edict from my employer. Losing and saving miànzi x Give her miànzi by being willing to Never treat the Chinese (i.e. friends, learn from her. colleagues or strangers) in any way that 2. Talk at length and in private with my would publicly demean them and thus cause colleague, giving miànzi to her by: them to lose miànzi. Otherwise, you run the x ‘Acknowledging’ her achievements. very real risk of: losing their co-operation; 26 The Research Centre, City College Norwich
  2. 2. The Research and Development Bulletin Mercedes, it was remarkable how quickly the x ‘Confirming’ her existing rank and traffic police made way for me pass through accountabilities. the milling crowds). x ‘Agreeing’ future divisions of shared responsibilities, based on our Giving miànzi respective strengths. In China (as mentioned above), miànzi may x ‘Sharing’ my concerns for her miànzi. be given to someone by a third party (e.g. x ‘Seeking’ her advice on how to when person A praises person B's work to resolve the issue. the latter's boss). In particular, the Chinese In other words: to sell, not tell, as a result of lay special store on miànzi given to them by which, she not only recognised that my role 'foreigners', whom they may consequently was sufficiently distinct as not to undermine and subsequently regard with particular her own, but also undertook to present a favour. case to the competent authority to legalise my status. Whose miànzi is it anyway? In theory: based on the Confucian Golden Case Study 2 Rule of 'reciprocity', the Chinese try to protect Shortly afterwards, on moving into brand new miànzi; each others' as well as their own. In premises which she had helped to choose, I practice, however, miànzi is so important to had to resolve the miànzi-challenging them that some may care far more about problem of allocating the private offices, their own than that of foreigners and try to including that next to mine which, based on save the former at the expense of the latter, the concept of xiào, described below, she even their boss (laoban). In such an event, I assumed would be hers when, in fact, I had have found that the best (i.e. mutually miànzi- different ideas for operational reasons. saving) defence is to invoke miànzi by proxy, explained below. To maintain miànzi, hers and mine, the two- stage strategy successfully adopted was to: Miànzi by proxy x 'Initially': I gave her the office next to mine and designated the one where I In the same way as your personal guanxi (i.e. eventually wished to locate her as relationship) with someone also represents reserved for my Guangzhou-based the guanxi between your and their Chinese Deputy Director during his organisation (Williamson, 2005), so your own weekly visits to Beijing. miànzi is also your employer's miànzi, and vice-versa. Thus, in certain circumstances, x 'Later', when the latter's role diminished: I the miànzi that you win or lose may reflect offered her, as the next most senior vicariously on your known or close associates member of staff, the Deputy's vacant and/or employer by basking in reflected glory office, and re-assigned the office next- or cowering in reflected shame, such as door to an expatriate, in order to avoid experienced by the members of a winning or appearing to show favouritism amongst losing work team, respectively. the Chinese staff. This is where miànzi meets guanxi and In other words: 'slowly, slowly catchy collectivism: since the actions of individuals monkey'. reflect not only on themselves, but also on all of their immediate group and close Gaining miànzi associates, your being linked to others' failure Whilst losing or saving miànzi implies the could undermine your own guanxi, as no-one active involvement of a third-party (as wants to be tainted by failure, albeit vicarious described above), gaining miànzi is (Williamson, 2005). something that you can independently On the other hand, sharing in 'others' instigate, typically by acquiring status success' may not necessarily build your symbols (e.g. when I was fortuitously the first guanxi (e.g. shortly after I took delivery of a person in Beijing to own a new E-Class new Mercedes, mentioned above, my driver The Research Centre, City College Norwich 27
  3. 3. Volume 4 Number 1 January 2006 invited me to his village house outside Harmony Beijing, where I was royally entertained, Although the last tactic may appear whilst he stood outside proudly guarding the underhand by Western standards, it could car where all his neighbours could see it). equally be a case of a dishonourable means justifying an honourable end, such as: Saying "No" sparing the other person's miànzi. Indeed, A sure-fire way of scuppering your dealings unlike in the West, the Chinese do not with the Chinese is for you to say, or put consider 'lying' to be wholly dishonourable if them in a situation where they are compelled used to 'avoid conflict' and 'preserve to say, a bald 'No' (e.g. when responding to harmony' in personal relations, which or asking for an 'impossible favour', transcend each party's peculiar version of the respectively). truth, whatever that may be. As a general Not only will this cause a mutual loss of rule, in such cases, the greater good of the miànzi, with the attendant risks mentioned other outweighs the interests of self, another above; but also shut the door to further instance of miànzi meeting guanxi and discussion, since 'no' means 'no' to the collectivism. Chinese, for whom any later change of mind or heart would be a sign of weakness and, Case Study 3 thus, a further loss of miànzi. In mid-1997, a number of European 'No' is the antithesis of guanxi: once broken, governments publicly criticised China's record a relationship is hard to re-establish. You on human rights just as I was supposed to should, therefore, leave yourself a way out accompany our international Chief Executive and forward by taking a leaf out their book on Officer (CEO) to a series of pre-arranged tactics for saying 'no', described below, meetings in Beijing with some very senior based on their preferring 'circumlocution' to Chinese government officials. As a result, we 'blunt speaking', a fault they perceive in, and ran the real miànzi'-losing risk that, by way of for which they criticise, Western reprisal and/or out of embarrassment, the entrepreneurs and negotiators. Chinese might decide to cancel the meetings and/or field less senior officials. Chinese tactics for saying "No" Fortunately the CEO had just broken his leg, Rather than: The Chinese prefer to: which gave him a miànzi-saving pre-emptive reason for postponing our flight to China on the advice of his doctor. To dispel any doubt, Bluntly saying "no" Employ polite excuses he hosted a pre-arranged dinner for the of the "/ will get back to Chinese ambassador a few days later with you on that' type (such his leg in plaster. In this way, he saved as: "so-and-so is everyone's miànzi, ours and the Chinese. inconvenient, being discussed or under consideration") Making mistakes The Chinese will use identical tactics to hide Blatantly Proffer counter- or disown 'mistakes'. disagreeing suggestions of the "alternatively, have you thought of so-and-so?" Case Study 4 type In late 2002, I briefed a very senior UK civil servant prior to his leading a delegation to Saying anything Prefer to suck in air China to re-negotiate a Memorandum of through clenched teeth, Understanding (MOU) with the Chinese to give you time to think government. again During the negotiations, the leader of the UK Giving up or failing Tell an abject or white delegation invited his Chinese counterpart to lie visit a government research facility in Britain and asked whether he had been there before, 28 The Research Centre, City College Norwich
  4. 4. The Research and Development Bulletin to which the latter replied: 'Yes' when, in fact, Chinese colleague whose sphere of guanxi he had not. Shortly afterwards, the second- was such that: ranking Chinese took aside the leader of the x Antagonising him might result in his bad- UK delegation and puzzled him for some five mouthing me in local government. minutes explaining how and why the Chinese x Not dismissing him could throw doubt on do not always say what they mean before my credibility and integrity in business eventually reaching the inevitable miànzi- circles. saving conclusion that when his boss had To ensure a satisfactory outcome for all said: 'Yes' what he actually meant was 'No'. parties, my successful strategy was to: In other words, his 'Yes' was in response to x 'Win' the support of my Chinese Deputy, the invitation (i.e. 'Yes, I would like to come') whom the colleague and I trusted and rather than to the question as in: 'Yes, I have respected. been already'. x 'Ask' him to act as a go-between, In this way miànzi was maintained. The suggesting to the colleague that he Chinese host had neither made a mistake nor consider retiring early. misunderstood the exchange. His answer was still the same: it just needed to be x 'Agree' subsequently to meet the clarified, to ensure the meaning was colleague to agree terms. unambiguous. x 'Inform' other staff that their colleague had indeed taken early retirement. Conflict Management In accordance with the Confucian model of Rules of miànzi how the Superior Man should behave From research as well as personal (Confucius, no date, 16:10), the Chinese are experience, the main advice that I normally conditioned to control their emotions to such give to Westerners regarding the rules of an extent that Westerners consider them miànzi may be summarised as follows: inscrutable; surprisingly, the feeling is mutual. Always: Thus, as intimated above, losing your temper x Avoid conflict and preserve harmony. is miànzi-losing behaviour and, hence, not x Resolve conflicts privately, discreetly, acceptable in China. Indeed, it may tactfully and using positive criticism. exacerbate the situation, by making your x Ask sensitive questions in private. opponent even more determined not to grant x Respect rank and title. your request, as well as losing respect for x Give miànzi. you. Instead, you should: x Offer a miànzi-saving way out. Never: x State your annoyance and reasons objectively. x Reprimand, criticise, embarrass, insult, make insulting remarks about, offend, x Allow the other person a miànzi- saving lose your temper with, shout at, behave way out. disrespectfully towards, prove wrong One such method is to use a mutually anyone in public. acceptable intermediary to convey bad news which, in China, is not a cop out under such x Say 'no'. circumstances, but an acceptable mutually miànzi-saving form of mediation. Concept of kèqi This is especially true when a foreigner The Chinese consider it impolite to be needs to give bad news to a Chinese, to arrogant and brag about yourself or your avoid the added indignation of losing miànzi guanxi. Rather, they espouse the opposing, to a foreign devil. second value of kèqi, which not only means considerate, polite and well-mannered Case Study 5 behaviour, but also represents humbleness Unfortunately, I had to dismiss a senior The Research Centre, City College Norwich 29
  5. 5. Volume 4 Number 1 January 2006 and modesty. The expression is most often famous steamed pork and preserved used in the negative, as in 'buyao kèqi’ vegetable dish, which she always meaning: 'you shouldn't be so kind and polite served with special pride. "Ai! This to me1 or 'you're welcome1 (Travel Essentials dish not salty enough, no flavour," she (2002). complained, after tasting a small bite. "It is too bad to eat." This was our Application of kèqi family's cue to eat some and proclaim As one of the virtues expected of the it the best she had ever made. But Confucian Superior Man, kèqi has evolved before we could do so, Rich said, "You into a series of public displays of modesty, know, all it needs is a little soy sauce." such as: And he proceeded to pour a riverful of When: The Chinese may the salty black stuff on the platter, right say: before my mother's horrified eyes."(Tan, 1989, p. 197). They serve you a "/ hope you like our sumptuous and simple food! We are Ritual kèqi magnificent home- very poor and cooked banquet unadventurous cooks" One purpose of kèqi is ritually to cede superiority to others by praising them and You compliment "You flatter me! I took deprecating oneself, in accordance with the them on their so little care and practice of hierarchism, explained below. handiwork (for m a d e so many However, although ritualistic, such displays example: painting or mistakes, that I was are not necessarily always false modesty or model-making) going to throw it away hollow flattery as some sceptics might think. because it's so bad" The mere fact that the Chinese bother to You compliment "You're too kind: I observe their code of gentlemanly behaviour their s o n ' s don't think anybody when dealing with unequal foreign devils is in achievement (for else turned up for the itself a sufficient demonstration of genuine example: acting, or audition or applied for respect. promotion) the job". That is not to say, however, that the Chinese Not to mention the ritual three-fold refusal of do not use false modesty or hollow flattery, gifts (outside the scope of this paper), which they may do to put you in your place. normally followed by acceptance. For example: As Chairman Mao said: When you, in halting Chinese, compliment "We should be modest and prudent, their genuinely excellent command of your guard against arrogance and rashness language and they reply "But not as good as and serve the Chinese people with your spoken Chinese" or "your Chinese heart and soul". (Mao, 1945, p. 253) calligraphy makes mine look like a child's Foreigners should follow suit. For example: scrawl": do not be fooled, but check your ego. when complimented on your spoken In fact, they may really mean the opposite Chinese, you should reply along the lines of: and be just trying it on in line with the "Thank you, but my grammar and Western saying that: 'flattery will get you pronunciation are very bad", rather than anywhere'. boast about having a first-class degree in the language from an ivy-league University. For Concept of xiào example: The concept of the third and last value, xiào "The worst was when Rich criticised or 'filial piety', is fundamental to Confucianism my mother's cooking, and he didn't and expressed as: even know what he had done. As is "In serving his parents, a son may the Chinese cook's custom, my remonstrate with them, but gently; mother always made disparaging when he sees that they do not incline remarks about her own cooking. That to follow his advice, he shows an night she chose to direct it toward her increased degree of reverence, but 30 The Research Centre, City College Norwich
  6. 6. The Research and Development Bulletin does not abandon his purpose; and long after the work relationship has ended, as should they punish him, he does not a means of giving miànzi (e.g. my Chinese allow himself to murmur". (Confucius, ex-Personal Assistant (PA) still occasionally no date, 4:18) addresses me in English as 'my boss'). Consequently, the Chinese are conditioned to respect social order and in particular, are Rules of laobanism taught to respect age and seniority and defer In my experience as one, the laoban always to authority, age and rank. expects and is expected to: x Never make mistakes, but be right every Dead men's shoes time, if only by virtue of being older, even In the past, one way in which respect for age when obviously wrong: that is why (s)he and seniority traditionally manifested itself is the boss, otherwise (s)he would not be. was the dead men's shoes method of x Because infallible, never change his/her promotion, (i.e. you rise through the ranks to mind, nor openly be challenged, which fill the gaps left by your elders). In other would be a loss of miànzi. words: experience and advancement are a x Make every decision - the Chinese function of age not competence. In the future, workers' means of upward delegation. however, this practice may change in x Arrive last and leave first, and certainly accordance with the eighth of Jiang Zemin's no-one should leave until (s)he has done Eight Dos and Don'ts. when Head of State in so. 2002 (Zemin, 2002). When the laoban is foreign and does not Thus, the implications of xiào for business understand the Chinese ways, the result may may be that: be disastrous. For example: as intimated x 'Rank' should correlate to 'age1. For earlier, the Chinese staff may stand by and example, bosses may (be) expect(ed) to watch the laoban make all the mistakes in be older than their staff and the leader of the book and lose miànzi, whilst ensuring a delegation older than its members. they do not lose their own. x 'Remuneration' should also correlate to age. For example, older colleagues may Case Study 6 (be) expect(ed) to earn more than During my first few months in China, I was younger ones, even if the former are most impressed by the dedication of the performing identically or worse in the Chinese staff to a company few had heard of same or a smaller job. when applying for jobs, and whose x Foreign 'high flyers' who are too young for international Head Office was half-way round their seniority by Chinese standards (e.g. the globe in a country they might never visit. say, under 50) and thus insufficiently For example: their attendance was experienced in Chinese eyes, may at best exemplary, not only never arriving late nor not be taken seriously and at worst be leaving early, but also, when preparing to misconstrued as an insult by the home receive delegations from that Head Office, office for not appointing someone of arriving early, staying as long as needed and sufficient gravitas; an indication of the even working the odd weekend, all apparent lack of importance that the voluntarily and unpaid. Thus, in an effort to home office attributes to China. practise what I preach, I gave them miànzi by praising their efforts in writing to the Laobanism international board. 'Laobanism' is the term coined by me, as far Shortly afterwards, however, following a as I am aware, to describe the blind discussion with my Chinese bi-lingual PA, it obedience of subordinates to their laoban or dawned on me that perhaps the staff felt boss, or the subjugation of truth to hierarchy, obliged to arrive before and leave after I did. which is rife in China. Thus, it is not unusual Hence, I called them together informally to for laoban to be addressed as such, even explain that I stayed late on certain days only The Research Centre, City College Norwich 31
  7. 7. Volume 4 Number 1 January 2006 because my driver and I were waiting for my change of mind as laoban. wife whose contract with the British Council This was the beginning of my coaching the was outside normal office hours. So, please, Chinese management team to develop a it was perfectly all right for them to go home culture where they could make mistakes and on time. change their minds, without losing miànzi in For the next few days, they did as they were the eyes of their subordinates. bid; but gradually slipped back into their old ways, despite my emerging from my office at Business hierarchy closing-time to encourage them to leave. In business, hierarchical distinctions (i.e. rank Eventually, I had to resign myself to the and status) are important to the Chinese and situation - after all I was getting real value for at the root of China's bureaucratic structures. money - but tried to compromise by leaving Thus, to save miànzi, yours and others, you earlier when I could, and celebrating success should interact with people of similar rank with a staff meal or outing when appropriate. and, therefore, 'age'. Otherwise, you may detract from the miànzi of a more senior or Changing your mind much older person, or lose miànzi when If, for the average person, 'changing your dealing with a more junior or much younger mind' is a loss of miànzi, then, for the laoban one. it can be mistaken for a lack of ability or show of weakness when, in fact, the opposite may Rules of business hierarchy be true. In practice, however, such behaviour is wholly impractical, especially in the quest for Case Study 7 guanxi, for which reason I recommend that: As mentioned above (Case Study 1), one of When dealing with You should behave: my first tasks in China was to re-locate the people of: Head Office from Hong Kong to Beijing and Higher Rank Respectfully (i.e. amalgamate it with the Beijing deferentially and Representative Office, which move inevitably diffidently, even involved reviewing staffing issues. flattering the other and Following Western management practice, deprecating yourself) therefore, as well as being new to China, I Lower Rank Neither as if you decided to consult senior colleagues (i.e. consider yourself Chinese and expatriate) individually before more important than convening a collective brain-storming session the other person, nor to finalise and agree details. For the older too informally. Chinese staff, with an average age then of mid-40s, this was probably a new and unheard-of method of working, albeit most Practice of business hierarchy welcome, despite their predilection for Within the workplace, junior staff will often consensus (Williamson, 2005). ask senior staff to sound out the laoban on Half-way through the brain-storm, during a their behalf, rather than making a direct coffee-break, my Chinese Deputy told me approach (e.g. drivers spend more time with something of which I was previously the laoban than many of the staff do, as a unaware. Consequently, on re-convening result of which it is common practice for after the coffee break, I announced that, on employees to ask the driver to bend the the basis of this new information, I wanted laoban's ear in the car or to eavesdrop on in- the team to back-track and re-consider some car conversations). of their decisions, which they did, in order to reach better ones. Exercising Authority Afterwards, one of my senior Chinese As a corollary of being conditioned to respect colleagues (a female ex-Red guard) privately their elders and betters, those Chinese who expressed to me her total shock at my fall into this category expect natural respect 32 The Research Centre, City College Norwich
  8. 8. The Research and Development Bulletin in the exercise of their authority, and, Case Study 8 consequently, may feel threatened by those Shortly after arriving in China (1997), I took Western management practices such as the opportunity to review our market entry Empowerment and Self-Directed Team strategy in consultation with senior Chinese working, that would turn Chinese business colleagues, a new but welcome experience hierarchies upside down to cast the laoban in for them, as intimated above, and was the role of facilitator with responsibilities subsequently able to present a revised rather than of leader with privileges. Similarly, strategic plan to my international board with some Chinese staff may at best be confused their full backing, which undoubtedly by, and at worst lose respect for, a foreign contributed to its acceptance. Later, as a laoban who tries to be one of the boys. miànzi-giving means of giving credit where credit was due, I invited them to meet the Deferring to Authority international General Manager (GM), during Self-deprecation and deferring to authority his visit to Beijing and present their must be interpreted in the afore-mentioned contribution to him so that he might commend contexts. On occasions, therefore, the them. Chinese may fail to recognise and hence take When it came to the turn of a senior middle- genuine opportunities that you offer to them aged male colleague, he immediately to behave otherwise in their best interests. deferred to my Chinese Deputy as his line For example, it was not uncommon for my manager and asked him to speak on his middle-aged Chinese colleagues to present behalf. If this surprised and disappointed us, me with a problem and expect me to solve it imagine how much more surprised but for them, however, they were not normally pleased we were when another colleague of averse to suggesting a solution, once asked. equal rank but younger challenged the same line manager by taking issue with something Paternalism he had said as being inaccurate. The former Such exercise of or deference to authority is missed the opportunity to impress the GM: not always limited to work-related issues. the latter did so without even realising. Thus, the paternalistic nature of the relationship between employees and the Social Hierarchy laoban, flowing from the Confucian concept When discussing jobs and careers, do not be of xiào, means that the latter may freely surprised by an apparently inverted social advise, or be consulted by, the former about hierarchy, in Western terms, left over from their personal matters, a practice that Maoism (e.g. whilst practising conversational contradicts those Western management Chinese with my first driver, I struggled to traditions that advocate keeping personal explain that my father had been a doctor, problems out of the workplace. However, in only to be trounced by the driver who replied, China, a good laoban is one who looks after with obvious pride and superiority, that his his employees' general welfare, not out of father was a peasant). altruism, but for the collective good of the whole staff, since a happy worker is a References productive one. Bond, M. J. (1991). Beyond the Chinese Face: Insights from Psychology. Bond, Oxford University Conformity and Disagreement Press. From the foregoing, it will come as no Concise Chinese-English Dictionary (1986). surprise to learn that the basic rule is 'Honor Concise Chinese-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. the hierarchy first, your vision of the truth Confucius (no date). The Analects. second' (Bond, 1991, p.83). Since the http://www.wam.umd.edu/~stwrigrit/rel/conf/Anale Tiananmen incident of 1989, however, there cts.html [accessed 20.12.05]. is less reserve amongst younger Chinese to challenge authority as described in Case Study 8. The Research Centre, City College Norwich 33
  9. 9. Volume 4 Number 1 January 2006 Mao, T. (1945). China's Two Possible Destinies, Selected Works, Vol. III. art- bin.com/art/omao17.html+we+should+be+modest +and+prudent+chaimnan+mao&hl=en[accessed 21.12.05]. New Chinese-English Dictionary (1996). New Chinese-English Dictionary. China. Seligman, S. D. (1997). Dealing with the Chinese.UK: Management Books 2000. Seligman, S. D. (1999). Chinese Business Etiquette. USA: Warner Books. Tan, A. (1989). The Joy Luck Club New York: Ivy Books. Travel Essentials (2002). Tips to plan your China Travel - about etiquette in China Travel http:/www./travelchinapuide.com/essential/etipuett e.htm [accessed 01.07.02]. Welcome to China, (no date). What is it in the "face" http://www.welcome-to- china.com/ltr/tip/67p.htm [accessed 2002]. Williamson, A. M. (2005). Guanxi: the key to doing business with the Chinese. The Research and Development Bulletin 3(2). Norwich:The Research Centre, City College Norwich. Zemin, J. (2002). Jiang Zemin's Report at the 16th Party Congress http://www.china.orq.en/enqlish/2002/Nov/49107. htm [accessed 20.12.05]. Further Information: www.minim.biz Copyright: No part of this article may be reproduced without the express permission of the author in writing. © Copyright 2003 Andrew M. Williamson 34 The Research Centre, City College Norwich