Introduction. Information technology (IT) is concerned with the development, management, and use of computer-based information systems. Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term "information technology" in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT). Based on the storage and processing technology employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre- mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD), mechanical (1450– 1840), electromechanical (1840–1940) and electronic.This article focuses on the latter of those periods, which began in about 1940.
Definition.The Information TechnologyAssociation of America has definedinformation technology (IT) as "thestudy, design, development, application, implementation, support ormanagement of computer-basedinformation systems", but the termhas also been applied more narrowlyto describe a branch of engineeringdealing with the use of computers andtelecommunications equipment tostore, retrieve, transmit andmanipulate data.Although commonlyused to refer to computers andcomputer networks, IT encompassesother information-distributiontechnologies such as television andtelephones, a wider field moreexplicitly known as information andcommunications technology.
Abstract.First, the society in the developed countries will be divided into twomajor groups: On the one hand,there will be technophilepeople, who embrace the new possibilities which InformationTechnology offers to their lives. On the other hand, there will betechnophobic people, who will obstruct the inroads of InformationTechnology into their daily lives. Contrary to what most peoplewould think, this part of the population will not only consist ofecologists, but also of conservative people who see technology assomething unnatural for humanity, people who don’t immediatelyproﬁt from technological progress such as the rural population andpeople who are simply overwhelmed by the new technologies andcannot keep up with the pace anymore. This group of technophobicpeople has a potential to grow temporarily to at most 25% of thetotal population.
Secondly, the deﬁnition of society for the 75% of thepopulation who will embrace Information Technologywill change radically. What makes a society today willnot be of much importance in the future. People wouldthese days agree that a society is deﬁned mostly bylocation, language, culture,political system, sharedcustoms, standard of living and common history. Mostof these things will fade in importance, instead otherthings will be much more important, namely personalpreferences and interests. Due to the new technicalossibilities, societies will look different and consist ofdifferent people.
Information Technology is defined as the use ofcomputers and software to manage information. Insome companies, it can be called ManagementInformation Services (MIS) or InformationServices (IS). The informationtechnology department of a large company isresponsible for storing information, protectinginformation, processing theinformation, transmitting the information, andlater retrieving information if needed. Around1980, computers with integrated circuits on asingle chip started to become available as anaffordable item, specifically designed for useby consumers. The first IBM (News -Alert) PCwas released in 1981.
Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), which are theprograms that enable users to look at screenswith windows, clickable commands and color—appeared in the late 1980s. Windows wasintroduced in 1983, while the first AppleMacintosh came on the market in 1984. Fifteen years ago, a computer with 24 megabytesof random access memory (RAM (News -Alert)) wasgreat amount of memory. Currently, most newcomputers boast a memory of one gigabyte – whichis an increase of over forty times.
Information technology has also shifted fromfocusing on single computers to networks ofcomputers, as the years have passed andtechnology has advanced. Networked computersallow many different users to have access tocommon databases, which has allowed databases tobe where most business records for big companiesare held. Software that implements thesedatabases has quickly become a billion-dollarindustry. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)software drives business activities for manylarge enterprises who sells products across theworld.
Information technology has brought us theInternet. The web has quickly grown to become aprimary choice in order for people tocommunicate whether it be through email orinstant messaging services. The Internet alsoworks as an advertising platform for millions ofbusinesses around the globe.Information technology has made banking online areality. So much time was once spent on dailytrips to the bank, but now via the Internetpeople can keep tabs on all their banktransactions with the click of a mouse.Some big companies in the IT industry areMicrosoft, IBM, Intel, Cisco, Apple, Dell (News -Alert), Hp, Toshiba and Compaq.
Advantages of IT.Made our lives Easier.Decreased Manual work.Word processing quickerand easier.Social/ Communication .Education.Meet more friends.Improved communicationusing email, socialnetworking.Quicker communication .
Disadvantages of IT.Unemployment .Privacy .Lack of job security.Dominant culture.Primitive societies.More people arestarving . Less face to facecommunication.More chance ofbullying. Cyber stalking.
Technophile versus technophobicsociety. Technophile Population. Technophobic Population.
New society. Ubiquitous HUD Computing Diversiﬁ ed Contacts New society
Benefits of IT (Information Technology)in Modern Day Business. Business has become very competitive. Improve infrastructure performance . Improve internal and Externally, operating efficiency and quality. Purchases from different countries easier and more convenient. Increasing awareness and reducing prejudice. Helped to make communication cheaper, quicker, and more efficient
Technological research has to pay attention in the sense thatthere can be no advance in technical areas without considering thesocial impacts an innovation has. As has been shown, not alldevelopments will be received with pleasure by all people, butthey are a force to be reckoned with when releasing newtechnologies. Researchers have to try and make technology ﬁt asseamlessly as possible into the lives of humans.IT should be seenas something useful and not as a necessary evil otherwiseresearchers may end up as scapegoats for a signiﬁcant part of thepopulation. Having said that, when looking at the markettoday, there are already some technologies which were badlyaccepted by the population, such as the WAP (Wireless ApplicationProtocol) services. The people simply didn’t see the beneﬁtbehind. This time it was the mistake of marketing people, but it isforeseeable that technologies will fail in the future because theyare not accepted by the population for social reasons.
The conclusion that can be drawn from this is that it might makesense to start setting up a ﬁeld, of study (e.g. at universities orresearch laboratories) which focuses on the impact of(technological) innovation. It seems important that researchers notonly focus on their ﬁeld of study,butalso be aware of the socialconsequences of their work.3. Mobility will be, contrary to popularbelief, less important in the new century, mainly due to the factthat most business contacts can be handled via virtualreality, without the need to travel constantly around the world.Also, depending on how far the virtual travelling possibilitygrows,leisuretime trafﬁc may also be reduced. This raisesquestions about the current direction of trafﬁc policy, buildingmore and more new roads and airports, which may be obsoletesooner than we think.