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13 phonetics iii

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consonants

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13 phonetics iii

  1. 1. Phonetics III: Dimensions of Articulation October 15, 2012
  2. 2. A Quick and Dirty Review • Let’s run through that last set of practice exercises… • Last time we learned about…. • phonemes, phones, and allophones • phonetic transcription • the primary phonemes of the English language • the principle of contrast • This time we’ll learn: • how we actually produce the sounds of English
  3. 3. Tools of the Trade vocal tract diaphragm
  4. 4. A Basic Distinction • Vowels and Consonants • Vowels: unconstricted flow of air through vocal tract (above the larynx) • Consonants: completely or severely constricted flow of air through vocal tract • Also: sound is often created at the consonant constriction • Let’s look at the production of consonants first… • (it’s easier to sense what we’re doing with our articulators)
  5. 5. Consonants • Consonants are produced with more obstruction of the airflow through the vocal tract than vowels • They are characterized by the following set of attributes: 1. Voicing • vocal fold position and movement 2. Place of Articulation • location of constriction in the vocal tract 3. Manner of Articulation • type of constriction made in the vocal tract
  6. 6. Voicing • On the way out of the lungs • Air passes through the trachea • Reaches the larynx • The larynx consists of two “vocal folds” which may be opened and closed. If the vocal folds are: 1. open: air passes cleanly through = voiceless sound 2. lightly brought together: vocal folds vibrate in passing air = voiced sound
  7. 7. Vocal Fold Schematics Voiceless (folds open) Voiced (folds together)
  8. 8. Some Voicing Distinctions • Among English consonants: Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced [f] [v] [p] [b] [t] [d] [s] [z] [k] [g]
  9. 9. Laryngoscopy Source: http://homepage.mac.com/changcy/endo.htm
  10. 10. Stefan’s Bogus video
  11. 11. Place of Articulation • bilabial = constriction made by both lips • bilabial consonants in English include: [p] [b] [m]
  12. 12. Place of Articulation • labio-dental = constriction made by lower lip and upper teeth • labio-dental consonants in English include: [f] [v]
  13. 13. Place of Articulation • interdental = constriction made by pushing tip of tongue between the teeth • interdental consonants in English include:
  14. 14. Place of Articulation • alveolar = constriction made by tip of tongue against alveolar ridge • alveolar consonants in English include: [t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l]
  15. 15. Place of Articulation • post-alveolar = constriction made by blade of tongue behind alveolar ridge • post-alveolar consonants in English include: [r]
  16. 16. Place of Articulation • palatal = constriction made by body of tongue near top of the palate • the only palatal consonant in English is: [j]
  17. 17. Place of Articulation • velar = constriction made by back of tongue against soft palate • velar consonants in English include: [k] [g]
  18. 18. Place of Articulation • glottal = constriction made at the glottis • glottal consonants in English include: [h]
  19. 19. Stefan’s Bogus Video, again
  20. 20. Manner of Articulation 1. Stop = complete closure in vocal tract • English stops: [p] [t] [k] [b] [d] [g] 2. Fricative - narrow constriction that causes disruption of airflow • think “friction” • English fricatives: [f] [s] [h] [v] [z]
  21. 21. Manner of Articulation 3. Affricate • = brief closure with a fricated release • English affricates: 4. Nasal • = velum is lowered and allows air to flow through the nose • English nasals: [m] [n]

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