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Reported by:
Forte,Jessica T.
BSE-MATH/2ND YR.
“Anyone who stops learning is old,
whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone
who keeps learning stays young.”
Henry Ford
Think back to the past 60 days. What is one
thing you learned?
Perhaps you learned to play chess because you always
wanted to learn to play the game.
Perhaps you had a flat tire on the way home, and
you had to learn to change the tire because you
had to do it. You didn’t want to, but you had no
choice.
If you’re like most adults, you learn to do most
things as an adult because
you want to learn it
Or
you need to learn it.
OBJECTIVES
 By the end of this session ,participants will be able to:
 Define adult learning/Andragogy
 Define pedagogy
 Differentiate between pedagogy and Andragogy
 Apply adult learning principles in training adults
WHAT IS ADULT LEARNING?
WHAT ELSE CAN WE CALL IT?
ANDRAGOGY
 The term “Andragogy” was coined by researchers of
adult learning in order to contrast their beliefs about
learning to the pedagogical model.
 Malcolm Knowles first introduced the concept in the
US in 1968.
 The concept of Andragogy implies self-directedness
and an active student role, as well as solution-
centered activities.
 It was derived from the Greek word “aner” (with the
stem andr-) meaning “man, not boy.”
WHAT IS PEDAGOGY?
PEDAGOGY
The term “pedagogy” was derived from the
Greek words “paid” (meaning “child”)
and“agogus” (meaning “leading”).
Thus, it is defined as the art and science of
teaching children.
CAN YOU MENTION ONLY ONE EXAMPLE
ON PEDAGOGICAL LEARNING?
 children’s formal learning is usually led by someone
else and is based on their learning specific tasks
to prepare them to learn additional, more
complicated tasks.
 For example, you learned to count to 100 in
kindergarten, so that you could learn to add and
subtract in first grade, so that you could learn to
multiply and divide in third grade, so that you
could learn algebra in eighth grade, so that you
could learn trigonometry in high school, so that you
could learn calculus in college.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE TWO CONCEPTS
; PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY?
Self Concept
Need to Know
Experience
Readiness to Learn
Time Perspective
Orientation to learning
COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY
ASSUMPTIONS
Andragogypedagogy
Adults expect and enjoy
independence
Children are dependent on teacher and
enjoy dependence.
Self
Concept
• They like control, i.e., like to
take control.
Expects to be taught. Takes no
responsibility of teaching self.
Learning is a process of
sharing with the teacher and
one another.
Expects teacher to be dominant in
determining what, when, and how
to be learned.
• Teacher has responsibility
to encourage and nurture the
process of self-direction.
COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY
ASSUMPTIONS
Andragogypedagogy
Adult learners
need to know why
they need to learn
something before
undertaking to
learn it.
Children need to
know what the
teacher teaches
in order to pass
and get
promoted.
Material does not
need to be “life
applicable
Need to Know
COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY
ASSUMPTIONS
Andragogypedagogy
Have many experiences;
therefore, teacher must
draw on adult-learner
experiences.
Children have few experiences
relevant to what is being
taught; therefore, teacher
must create pertinent
experiences
Experience
Trade-off. Anyone in class
also could share.
Teachers or experts are the
transmitters of experience
In some areas, students
may have more experience
than the instructor.
Teacher seldom recognize
experiences that children do
have
Elicits 2- and 3-way
communication: instructor
to student and student to
student.
Elicits little discussion in class-
-teacher to student, one-way
communication
COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY
ASSUMPTIONS
Andragogypedagogy
Adults normally come to
class motivated and
ready to learn, because
they’ve chosen the
training.
Children are not
necessarily ready to
learn. Teacher must
decide when it is time
to learn specific skills
or knowledge and tries
to create motivation.
Readiness to Learn
Adults learn in order to
cope with real-life tasks
We impose uniform
curricula on children by
classes and age groups
Adults do not group by
age, sex, but by
experience.
COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY
ASSUMPTIONS
AndragogyPedagogy
Pragmatic—want
application today.
Children are believed
content to study for
the future. (“Someday
you’ll need this.”)
time
Perspective
Can barely tolerate
studying anything that
can’t be applied to a
task they expect to
perform.
Children are believed
content to only accept
knowledge and
understanding level, not
application level.
COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY
ASSUMPTIONS
Andragogypedagogy
Adults and teachers
need to be problem or
task centered.
Children and teachers
of children are
subject-centered and
enjoy being so (1:00
reading, 2:00 math,
etc.)
Orientation to
learning
Learning is a process
of increasing
competence to achieve
full potential in life.
Learning is a process
of acquiring subject
matter content to be
used at a later time in
life.
WHO IS MALCOLM KNOWLES?
Malcolm Knowles is considered the father of adult
learning theory. Because
pedagogy is defined as the art and science of
teaching children, European adult educators coined
the word Andragogy to identify the growing body of
knowledge about adult learning.
It was Dr. Knowles’ highly readable book, The Adult
Learner: A Neglected Species, published in 1973,
that took the topic from theoretical to practical.
HOW CAN WE APPLY ADULT
LEARNING PRINCIPLES IN TRAINING
ADULTS?
TRAINERS AND ADULT EDUCATORS BEGAN
TO IMPLEMENT PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
BASED ON DR. KNOWLES’ SIX
ASSUMPTIONS
• Adults have a need to know why they
should learn something before investing
time in a learning event.
• Trainers must ensure that the learners
know the purpose for training as early as
possible.
• Adults enter any learning situation with
an image of themselves as self
directing, responsible grown-ups.
• Trainers must help adults identify their
needs and direct their own learning
experience.
Adults come to a learning opportunity with a
wealth of experience and a great deal to
contribute.
Trainers are successful when they identify
ways to build on and make use of adults’
hard-earned experience.
Adults have a strong readiness to learn
those things that help them cope with
daily life effectively.
Training that relates directly to
situations adults face is viewed as
relevant
Adults are willing to devote energy to
learning those things that they believe
help them perform a task or solve a
problem.
Trainers who determine needs and
interests and develop content in
response to these needs are most
helpful to adult learners.
Adults are more responsive to internal
motivators such as increased self-
esteem than external motivators such
as higher salaries.
Trainers can ensure that this internal
motivation is not blocked by barriers
such as a poor self-concept or time
constraints by creating a safe learning
climate.
WHAT CAN A TRAINER DO TO APPLY
ADULT LEARNING EFFECTIVELY?
HOW CAN A TRAINEE MAKE THE BEST USE OF ADULT
LEARNING OR TRAINING?
IF YOU’RE THE TRAINER
 Create a learning environment that is safe.
 Be organized, have well-defined objectives, and establish a
clear direction
 for your session based on the participants’ needs.
 Be so well organized that it is easy to be flexible when the
participants’ needs are different from what you anticipated.
 Ensure that your content is meaningful and transferable to
the learners’ world.
 Treat your learners with respect, understanding, and genuine
concern.
 Invite learners to share their knowledge and experiences.
IF YOU’RE THE LEARNER
 Be an active learner, participating in the interactive
exercises.
 Be critical of poorly defined sessions, an unprepared trainer,
or processes that prevent your learning; provide constructive
feedback to the trainer.
 Ensure your personal success by encouraging feedback from
the trainer.
 Delivering constructive feedback is a key action expected of
all professional trainers.
 Learners have a right to receive feedback from their
trainers.
 Recognize that you’re responsible for your own learning, so
ensure that all your questions are answered.
 Contribute to your own success by clearly identifying a
learning plan for yourself; then do your part to achieve your
objectives.
“A MAN WHO DARES TO WASTE ONE HOUR OF TIME
HAS NOT DISCOVERED THE VALUE OF LIFE.”
~CHARLES DARWIN

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Applying Adult Learning Principles

  • 1.
  • 3. “Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young.” Henry Ford
  • 4. Think back to the past 60 days. What is one thing you learned?
  • 5. Perhaps you learned to play chess because you always wanted to learn to play the game. Perhaps you had a flat tire on the way home, and you had to learn to change the tire because you had to do it. You didn’t want to, but you had no choice. If you’re like most adults, you learn to do most things as an adult because
  • 6. you want to learn it Or you need to learn it.
  • 7. OBJECTIVES  By the end of this session ,participants will be able to:  Define adult learning/Andragogy  Define pedagogy  Differentiate between pedagogy and Andragogy  Apply adult learning principles in training adults
  • 8. WHAT IS ADULT LEARNING? WHAT ELSE CAN WE CALL IT?
  • 9. ANDRAGOGY  The term “Andragogy” was coined by researchers of adult learning in order to contrast their beliefs about learning to the pedagogical model.  Malcolm Knowles first introduced the concept in the US in 1968.  The concept of Andragogy implies self-directedness and an active student role, as well as solution- centered activities.  It was derived from the Greek word “aner” (with the stem andr-) meaning “man, not boy.”
  • 11. PEDAGOGY The term “pedagogy” was derived from the Greek words “paid” (meaning “child”) and“agogus” (meaning “leading”). Thus, it is defined as the art and science of teaching children.
  • 12. CAN YOU MENTION ONLY ONE EXAMPLE ON PEDAGOGICAL LEARNING?
  • 13.  children’s formal learning is usually led by someone else and is based on their learning specific tasks to prepare them to learn additional, more complicated tasks.  For example, you learned to count to 100 in kindergarten, so that you could learn to add and subtract in first grade, so that you could learn to multiply and divide in third grade, so that you could learn algebra in eighth grade, so that you could learn trigonometry in high school, so that you could learn calculus in college.
  • 14. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO CONCEPTS ; PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY?
  • 15. Self Concept Need to Know Experience Readiness to Learn Time Perspective Orientation to learning
  • 16. COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY ASSUMPTIONS Andragogypedagogy Adults expect and enjoy independence Children are dependent on teacher and enjoy dependence. Self Concept • They like control, i.e., like to take control. Expects to be taught. Takes no responsibility of teaching self. Learning is a process of sharing with the teacher and one another. Expects teacher to be dominant in determining what, when, and how to be learned. • Teacher has responsibility to encourage and nurture the process of self-direction.
  • 17. COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY ASSUMPTIONS Andragogypedagogy Adult learners need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. Children need to know what the teacher teaches in order to pass and get promoted. Material does not need to be “life applicable Need to Know
  • 18. COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY ASSUMPTIONS Andragogypedagogy Have many experiences; therefore, teacher must draw on adult-learner experiences. Children have few experiences relevant to what is being taught; therefore, teacher must create pertinent experiences Experience Trade-off. Anyone in class also could share. Teachers or experts are the transmitters of experience In some areas, students may have more experience than the instructor. Teacher seldom recognize experiences that children do have Elicits 2- and 3-way communication: instructor to student and student to student. Elicits little discussion in class- -teacher to student, one-way communication
  • 19. COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY ASSUMPTIONS Andragogypedagogy Adults normally come to class motivated and ready to learn, because they’ve chosen the training. Children are not necessarily ready to learn. Teacher must decide when it is time to learn specific skills or knowledge and tries to create motivation. Readiness to Learn Adults learn in order to cope with real-life tasks We impose uniform curricula on children by classes and age groups Adults do not group by age, sex, but by experience.
  • 20. COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY ASSUMPTIONS AndragogyPedagogy Pragmatic—want application today. Children are believed content to study for the future. (“Someday you’ll need this.”) time Perspective Can barely tolerate studying anything that can’t be applied to a task they expect to perform. Children are believed content to only accept knowledge and understanding level, not application level.
  • 21. COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY ASSUMPTIONS Andragogypedagogy Adults and teachers need to be problem or task centered. Children and teachers of children are subject-centered and enjoy being so (1:00 reading, 2:00 math, etc.) Orientation to learning Learning is a process of increasing competence to achieve full potential in life. Learning is a process of acquiring subject matter content to be used at a later time in life.
  • 22. WHO IS MALCOLM KNOWLES?
  • 23. Malcolm Knowles is considered the father of adult learning theory. Because pedagogy is defined as the art and science of teaching children, European adult educators coined the word Andragogy to identify the growing body of knowledge about adult learning. It was Dr. Knowles’ highly readable book, The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species, published in 1973, that took the topic from theoretical to practical.
  • 24. HOW CAN WE APPLY ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES IN TRAINING ADULTS?
  • 25. TRAINERS AND ADULT EDUCATORS BEGAN TO IMPLEMENT PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON DR. KNOWLES’ SIX ASSUMPTIONS • Adults have a need to know why they should learn something before investing time in a learning event. • Trainers must ensure that the learners know the purpose for training as early as possible.
  • 26. • Adults enter any learning situation with an image of themselves as self directing, responsible grown-ups. • Trainers must help adults identify their needs and direct their own learning experience.
  • 27. Adults come to a learning opportunity with a wealth of experience and a great deal to contribute. Trainers are successful when they identify ways to build on and make use of adults’ hard-earned experience.
  • 28. Adults have a strong readiness to learn those things that help them cope with daily life effectively. Training that relates directly to situations adults face is viewed as relevant
  • 29. Adults are willing to devote energy to learning those things that they believe help them perform a task or solve a problem. Trainers who determine needs and interests and develop content in response to these needs are most helpful to adult learners.
  • 30. Adults are more responsive to internal motivators such as increased self- esteem than external motivators such as higher salaries. Trainers can ensure that this internal motivation is not blocked by barriers such as a poor self-concept or time constraints by creating a safe learning climate.
  • 31. WHAT CAN A TRAINER DO TO APPLY ADULT LEARNING EFFECTIVELY?
  • 32. HOW CAN A TRAINEE MAKE THE BEST USE OF ADULT LEARNING OR TRAINING?
  • 33. IF YOU’RE THE TRAINER  Create a learning environment that is safe.  Be organized, have well-defined objectives, and establish a clear direction  for your session based on the participants’ needs.  Be so well organized that it is easy to be flexible when the participants’ needs are different from what you anticipated.  Ensure that your content is meaningful and transferable to the learners’ world.  Treat your learners with respect, understanding, and genuine concern.  Invite learners to share their knowledge and experiences.
  • 34. IF YOU’RE THE LEARNER  Be an active learner, participating in the interactive exercises.  Be critical of poorly defined sessions, an unprepared trainer, or processes that prevent your learning; provide constructive feedback to the trainer.  Ensure your personal success by encouraging feedback from the trainer.  Delivering constructive feedback is a key action expected of all professional trainers.  Learners have a right to receive feedback from their trainers.  Recognize that you’re responsible for your own learning, so ensure that all your questions are answered.  Contribute to your own success by clearly identifying a learning plan for yourself; then do your part to achieve your objectives.
  • 35. “A MAN WHO DARES TO WASTE ONE HOUR OF TIME HAS NOT DISCOVERED THE VALUE OF LIFE.” ~CHARLES DARWIN