Antennae         Issue 24 - Spring 2013                                                                                   ...
Antennae  The Journal of Nature in Visual Culture                        Editor in Chief                            Giovan...
EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION                                         ANTENNAE ISSUE 24Collaboration is one of the most important...
GUEST EDITORS INTRODUCTION                                             ANTENNAE ISSUE 24                            BEING ...
Of course, the focus on looking was scripted for Halas and Batchelor by Orwell’s novel, which famouslyends: “The creatures...
Hurley and Daniel Bruins explain the choices involved in the process of writing and drawing a story toraise awareness of t...
CONTENTS                                                                ANTENNAE ISSUE 24  8 An Illustrated Theriography  ...
AN ILLUSTRATED                   THERIOGRAPHY                   1 9 4 3 - 2 0 0 2                                         ...
“What is it, Mother?” he asked. “What is it, Mother?”                       His mother answered, between gasps, “It – was ...
Felix Salten                                                                      thA Life in the Woods [1923], translated...
Wishing to make himself more like a homo-professor Mmaa, he tried          to throw up his thorax and stand on his hind le...
Stefan ThemersonProfessor Mmaa’s Lecture, with drawings and endpapers by Franciszka Themerson (London: Gaberbocchus, 1953)...
The monkey dropped. Without pain he remembered the assembly of        animal shapes that had been presented to him the nig...
Brigid Brophy                                                      stHackenfeller’s Ape with decorations by Ásgeir Scott, ...
It is our duty to admit that no plan and no system governed this childish         ranging far and wide. She sought no fiel...
Tybor DeryNiki: the Story of a Dog, translated by Edward Hyams, 1st UK edition (London: Secker & Warburg, 1958)Design by C...
Roslyn looks at the horse running only a yard to one side of her. She could       reach out and touch its eyes. It is a me...
Arthur Miller              stThe Misfits, 1 US edition (New York: Viking, 1961)Design by Don Ervin, author photo by Erich ...
Napoleon stood up and, casting a peculiar sidelong glance at          Snowball, uttered a high pitched whimper of a kind n...
Geaorge Orwell                      thAnimal Farm [1945], 17 reprint of 1951 Penguin edition in association with Secker & ...
Eco-Fiction raises important questions about man’s place in the system:      •   Will man continue to ignore the warnings ...
John Stadler (Ed.)              thEco-Fiction, 4 reprint or 1971 Washington Square Press edition (New York: Pocket Books, ...
On the fourth and lowest deck were all the beasts whose size it had           been feared would sink the ark: and here the...
Timothy Findley                                    stNot Wanted on the Voyage [1984], 1 UK edition (London: Macmillan, 198...
My momm y went to the incinerator. She was not allowed to suckle me. I’m        a herbivore but I was made into a carnival...
Deborah Levy                   stDiary of a Steak, 1 UK edition (London: Book Works, 1997)Design by Herman Lelie.         ...
I was alone and orphaned, in the middle of the Pacific, hanging onto          an oar, an adult tiger in front of me, shark...
Yann Martel                     stLife of Pi, [2001], 1 UK edition (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2002)Design by James Hutcheson, ...
THE VANISHING COWStarting from 1934, the covers of The New Yorker began to portray images of melancholy animals looking at...
expression on the cow’s face, but we can                 The M elancholy Coweasily guess it would betray a certain degreeo...
Fig.1 Ilona Karasz                                                  thUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, Split, ...
identification” with them (xii). However, the          The cow and the deer, respectively signifyingmelancholia that perme...
Fig.2 Thomas ColeIndian at Sunset, 1845-1847, Oil on canvas, 36x44 cm, private collectionof expansionism rather than freez...
Fig.3 Constantin AlajalovUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 15 May 1954, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé...
that was implemented in 1956, the                               As the covers show, the restorationunrelenting spread of t...
Fig.4 Charles E. Martin                                     Fig.5 William SteigUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker...
Fig.6 Julian de MiskeyUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 23 May 1959, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Na...
Fig.7 Peter ArnoUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 19 May 1956, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast.   ...
The Gazing Cow                                           cinematic animal, the ones found in The                          ...
Fig. 8 Peter ArnoUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 28 Feb 1942, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast.  ...
reasonless creature, it was always excluded                 covers, the end of our story.from any greater plan grounded on...
Fig.9 Peter ArnoUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 21 Aug 1965, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast    ...
Fig.10 Mark UlriksenUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 10 Mar 2003, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast...
Despite wilderness being pushed out of thescene, the idea of pastoralism was harder tolet go. William Steig would keep up ...
Haraway, Donna. Primate Visions: Gender, Race and                   Swan, Jon. “A Portable Gallery of Pastoral Animals.” T...
of a highly influential portion of the society turns it into         (xxi). Victor Bobritsky, Untitled Cover Illustration,...
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Antennae issue 24

  1. 1. Antennae Issue 24 - Spring 2013 ISSN 1756-9575 Literary Animals LookRobert McKay – An Illustrated Theriography / Andrea Vesentini – The Vanishing Cow / John Miller – Illustrating the Fur Trade in Boy’s OwnAdventure Fiction / June Dwyer – A Visit from the Doom Squad: How War Transforms Ways of Seeing Zoos / Udine Sellbach – The Archipelago ofOld Age and Childhood: Creaturely Life in the Floating Islands / Claire Nettleton – The Caged Animal: the Avant-Garde Artist in Manette Salomon /Scott Hurley/Daniel Bruins – Engendering Empathy for Nonhuman Suffering: Using Graphic Narratives to Raise Awareness about Commercial DogBreeding Operations / Katherine Bishop – The Anti-Imperialist American Literary Animal: Esure I nvisioning Empathy / Julian Monatgue – VolumesFrom an Imagined Intellectual History of Animals, Architecture and Man
  2. 2. Antennae The Journal of Nature in Visual Culture Editor in Chief Giovanni Aloi Academic Board Steve Baker Ron Broglio Matthew Brower Eric Brown Carol Gigliotti Donna Haraway Linda Kalof Susan McHugh Rachel Poliquin Annie Potts Ken Rinaldo Jessica Ullrich Advisory Board Bergit Arends Rod Bennison Helen Bullard Claude d’Anthenaise Petra Lange-Berndt Lisa Brown Rikke Hansen Chris Hunter Karen Knorr Rosemarie McGoldrick Susan Nance Andrea Roe David Rothenberg Nigel Rothfels Angela Singer Mark Wilson & Bryndís Snaebjornsdottir Global Contributors Sonja Britz Tim Chamberlain Concepción Cortes Lucy Davis Amy Fletcher Katja Kynast Christine Marran Carolina Parra Zoe Peled Julien Salaud Paul Thomas Sabrina Tonutti Johanna Willenfelt Copy Editor Maia Wentrup Front Cover Image: Julian Monatgue, Volumes From an Imagined Intellectual 2 History of Animals, Architecture and Man © Julian Monatgue
  3. 3. EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION ANTENNAE ISSUE 24Collaboration is one of the most important values in the making of any issue of Antennae. Thispresent one is an exceptional example of the results a collaboration driven by a sincere passion forthe written word, images and animals can achieve. Besides thanking all the contributors whosework has enabled such interesting issue to arise, my warmest thank you goes to Susan McHugh andRobert McKay who have co-curated its content. Their expertise on the subject of literature andhuman-animal studies has indeed proved pivotal. Susan McHugh currently is Professor of English at the University of New England, USA. All ofher research and some of her teaching focus on literary, visual, and scientific stories of species. Inaddition to publishing dozens of essays in peer-reviewed journals and edited collections, McHugh isthe author of Animal Stories: Narrating across Species Lines (Minnesota, 2011), as well as Dog(Reaktion, 2004). She serves as Managing Editor of the Humanities for Society & Animals, and she isa member of the editorial boards of Antennae: The Journal of Nature in Visual Culture, AnimalStudies Journal, H-Animal Discussion Network, and Humanimalia: A Journal of Human-AnimalInterface Studies. Along with Garry Marvin, she is presently co-editing The Routledge Handbook ofHuman-Animal Studies (Routledge, 2013). Robert McKay currently is Lecturer in English Literature at the University of Sheffield, UK. Hisresearch and teaching focuses on representations of animals and animal politics in literature andfilm since 1945. In addition to being the literature editor for Society & Animals, he has publishedessays on J.M. Coetzee, Angela Carter, Alice Walker and Margaret Atwood. In 2006, his co-writtenbook (with the Animal Studies Group) Killing Animals was published by University of Illinois Press. Acurrent research project looks at how the literature and culture of the post-war period complicatesand exceeds public and political humanitarianism. Two essays from this are forthcoming, one onJohn Huston’s The Misfits (in Animals and the Moving Image, edited by Michael Lawrence andLaura McMahon) and another on James Agee’s ‘A Mother’s Tale’ (in Against Life, edited by AlastairHunt and Stephanie Youngblood). Without further ado I shall take a back seat and let our co-editors take us through a literaryjourney populated by animals, humans, words and images…Giovanni AloiEditor in Chief of Antennae Project 3
  4. 4. GUEST EDITORS INTRODUCTION ANTENNAE ISSUE 24 BEING AND SEEING LITERARY ANIMALS John Halas and Joy Batchelor Animal Farm, 1954 © UniversalThree pigeons, two cows, a horse, a goat, two geese, four sheep and an outraged, braying donkey lookat the words “ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS”. This scene takesplace in a sequence of shots near the end of John Halas and Joy Batchelor’s 1954 film adaptation ofGeorge Orwell’s Animal Farm, the UK’s first animated feature film. In its portrayal of the same moment,the novel offered perhaps the most persistently recognisable twentieth-century literary archetype ofhypocrisy. What is not often noted, though, is the vertiginous interspecies complexity at play in the filmicversion of this coup de grâce in the sacrifice of an ethics of community in favour of naked self-interest. For in this scene we find the film audience watching Halas, Batchelor and their team (themselvesoverseen by the CIA, who financed the film), looking at Orwell’s text, in which he portrays (via his narrator)a written text that has been produced by the pigs of Animal Farm; through it, they are lookingduplicitously at all animals, some of whom are looking back, through that text, at them. So, if we take it(as Orwell’s text certainly suggests we should) that it is not pigs but humans who are the quintessentially“more equal” animals—that is, the ones who trade on rhetoric to advance their own dubiousexceptionalism—then what we have here is something really quite remarkable. It is a piece of text inwhich animals look at animals looked at by animals, looking at an animal who looks (through an animal)at animals looking at animals looking at animals! Suffice to say, then, that such an involuted scene offers an especially intriguing moment to begina reflection on the possibilities of political and aesthetic representation that emerge when we considerthe more-than-human world in relation to the visual, the linguistic and the literary, the special focus of thisissue. 4
  5. 5. Of course, the focus on looking was scripted for Halas and Batchelor by Orwell’s novel, which famouslyends: “The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again;but already it was impossible to say which was which.” It is an illusion that anchors disillusionment, andmight be seen as redeemed only by its being distributed across a multispecies and collectiveperspective. Revealing how literary animals trouble looking, in a broader perspective this scenemultiplies the unfathomable eye of the whale Moby-Dick, and projects ahead to how this featurefamously becomes the “face” of the animal in John Huston’s 1956 film of Melville’s novel. Renderedvisual, then, literary animals look to the questions that this issue is intended to explore. How do people see animals in literature? What are the migrations of imagery between literatureand other arts? How does literature visualise animal subjects and with what effects for their roles in othermedia? In what ways are such developments proving influential to visual, literary and animal studies, aswell as other disciplines? Our contributors rise to this challenge in a broad variety of ways, even ones thatimplicitly query our objectives in calling attention to the cultural conditions that inform the ever-increasingpresence of animals in the pages of periodicals like our journal. In an insightful and lively ‘chronicle’ ofthe meaning of animals in the covers of the New Yorker magazine, Andrea Vesentini accounts for someimportant ways in which these images reinforce the trope (made famous by John Berger) of animals asdisappearing in modernity. The preponderance of animals in children’s and young-adult fiction has been a mainstay forcenturies, albeit one that has been studiously ignored by literary scholars, so their visual explorations ofnonhuman life provide critical inroads into texts that otherwise remain all too often neglected in criticalliterary traditions. In a bold account of mid-nineteenth-century adventure stories for boys, John Miller’sessay exemplifies this new work by bringing fascinating insight into its visual representations of theCanadian fur trade as an important, indeed foundational, aspect of human-animal relations. Miller’sexplorations of the ways in which imperial representational strategies shape understandings add depthto the range of material covered, and help to explain why the examples chosen linger, as bothgenerally informative and individually exhibitive of a macabre, even perverse delight in their singularity. The migration of the imperial gaze through combinations of verbal and visual spectacle is atheme underpinning many of our contributions. June Dwyer’s essay brings the focus on animal andhuman looking to contemporary popular nonfiction by comparing how Diane Ackerman’s and LawrenceAnthony’s wartime zoo stories differently work to transform non/secular (and implicitly post/colonial)rhetorics of animal captivity. Through careful close readings, her discussion also provides a usefulcontext for understanding how visual texts inform these popular narratives’ relationship to longer historiesof biblically-inspired animal imagery, particularly the paintings of Edward Hicks. Because historically the visual predates any literary representations of animals by millennia,tracing the journey from images to words adds an important dimension to human self-identifications assuch. Along this trajectory, Undine Sellbach sketches one multifaceted personal journey through art thatimagines different potentials for interspecies relations. Inverting the conventional timeline of literaryillustration, she guides us through the story that she composed around images initially produced by herfather, artist Udo Sellbach, for his own inimical purposes at the end of his life. Rather than telling the storyof how images created for private use go public, so to speak, Sellbach relays the process of making theworld of mysterious beasts and transformations inside The Floating Islands. The classic literary trope of writing the scene of artistic creation takes on a new significancethrough Claire Nettleton’s posthumanistic consideration of the Goncourt brothers’ novel ManetteSalomon. Nettleton shows how the traditionally separated contexts of avant-garde aesthetics andnatural history became intricately interrelated in the figure of the artist-as-animal in nineteenth-centuryFrance. Through comparisons of the novel’s depictions of Paris’s famous Jardin des Plantes zoo and itsrole in the institutionalization of natural history, Nettleton’s discussion also creates a rich context forchallenging the “presentism” of current discussions of posthumanism, not to mention posthumanisttheorists’ preoccupation with the challenges of visual narrative forms. In recent decades, the development of manga opens new spaces for encounters with verbal,visual, and species forms. Offering a first-hand view of literary as well as visual artistic collaboration, Scott 5
  6. 6. Hurley and Daniel Bruins explain the choices involved in the process of writing and drawing a story toraise awareness of the lifelong behavioural problems fostered within commercial dog breedingoperations. Locating their inspiration in the graphic novel’s capacity to foster empathy, Hurley andBruins situate their anti-puppy-mill project’s overt activism in the context of other contemporaryexamples like Sue Coe’s Sheep of Fools, arguing for the broader development of the graphic novel asa crucial tool for pro-animal involvement in the twenty-first century. These affective capacities also extend longer and more fraught histories of literary illustration, apoint clarified by Katherine Bishop’s illuminating essay on the interplay of story and form in ErnestHoward Crosby and Dan Beard’s Captain Jinks, Hero. Bringing to light an understudied anti-imperialistAmerican novel that is contemporaneous with the formerly isolationist US’s fateful turn toward empire,Bishop explores an unlikely strategy through which the story fosters empathy for enemies of the statethrough depictions of animals. Through a discussion of the novel’s animal imagery in concert with itsillustrations, Bishop shows how it puts these aspects in meaning-generating tension, focusing on the useof pejorative animal imagery in order to call to account dominant worldviews and practices. Weavingtogether several threads across the essays, Bishop’s analysis indicates how the histories of word-imageinterplay continue to shape future possibilities for human-animal relating. Calling attention to the importance of the materiality of the text, we have bookended the issuewith two very different pieces that show the ways in which we judge animal books by their covers.Robert McKay’s image-essay provides a rich introduction to the choices behind some of the mosthaunting book-jacket art from the past seventy years. And the issue closes with a selection of artistJulian Montague’s faux books, which we dream of having written. Although Literary Animals Look primarily focuses on writing that examines issues concerninganimals in literary representation, we hope it will also act to provoke trans-disciplinary interest in theinterplay between written and imaged animals: here, one might think of the different co-presences ofvisual animality and textuality in the works of Boo Chapple, David Shrigley, Julian Schnabel, or SunauraTaylor.(i) That said, we hope equally that this issue will open up vistas for further explorations in the visualdimensions of literary animal studies. Lastly, we are grateful to our Editor-in-chief Giovanni Aloi for creating space and providingsupport for this adventure. No venue but Antennae could offer the exceptionally inclusive approach toforms of art that are required for thorough engagements with how literary animals look to -- and at --us.Susan McHugh and Robert McKay(i) See for example Chappel’s A Rat’s Tale (2007); Shrigley’s I’m Dead (2010); Schnabel’s Fox Farm Painting IV (1989); and Taylor’s The Lives of Animals (2010). 6
  7. 7. CONTENTS ANTENNAE ISSUE 24 8 An Illustrated Theriography Book covers, and more specifically dust jackets, are perhaps the first site in the conversion of a book into a fetish object; the five parts of the jacket paper, four times folded, constitute the primary erogenous zones in the erotics of bookselling. If the high price publishers are charged by the chain bookseller for a place at display tables is anything to go by, the foremost of these is the cover; it must offer its appeal to the eye instantly to arouse attention, but with enough charm to induce the potential reader into engaging a hand, to pick it up. For book designers, too, it’s clear that the heavy lifting of illustration tends to be exerted in producing the cover. Text by Robert McKay 29 The Vanishing Cow Starting from 1934, the covers of The New Yorker began to portray images of melancholy animals looking at the changes occurring in the American landscape at the time, endangering their presence in the modern way of living. The essay chronicles the story of the vanishing animal, a recurring theme of the magazine’s covers from the mid- thirties to the mid-sixties, as a visual counterpart to the advancement of progress and the effects it had on the landscape, as well as on the utopian pastoral ideal that it purported to democratize among the middle class. The thread linking these New Yorker covers therefore offers a modern rendition of an American Paradise Lost, and the artists’ illustrations become what Akira Mizuta Lippit calls ‘virtual shelters for displaced animals.’ Among several popular magazines, The New Yorker was by far the greatest chronicler of this loss, despite its urban focus, or perhaps thanks to it, as it allowed a sense of unbiased detachment and urbane condescendence towards the suburbs and the country. Text by Andrea Vesentini 48 Illustrating the Fur Trade in Boy’s Own Adventure Fiction The second half of the nineteenth century witnessed a remarkable proliferation of writing for young male readers. Boy’s-own fiction, as it came to be known, routinely featured a daring protagonist journeying through foreign lands in the service of the crown. Consequently, such texts are notable for their intimacy with the material practices of empire, representing and stimulating exploration, conquest and rule. Depictions of wild and savage beasts are a prominent part of the genre’s undoubtedly successful formula. Animals operate as metonyms for the exotic lands to be conquered and as antagonists in the hero’s struggle for self-assertion. As the adventurer emerges victorious, the narrative gaze is drawn unerringly to the wounded animal’s body in endlessly re-imagined scenarios of victimhood relentless in their schadenfreude. Animal suffering seems an integral part of both the politics and the pleasure of these texts in an era that, paradoxically, also saw significant attempts to legislate against cruelty to animals. Text by John Miller 58 A Visit From the Doom Squad: How War Transforms Ways of Seeing Zoos This essay looks at texts that describe two war-ravaged zoos—the Warsaw Zoo that was all but destroyed in 1939 by extensive Nazi bombing, and the Baghdad Zoo that was damaged by American air strikes and then looted during the beginning of the Second Iraq War in 2003. The fate of both zoos demonstrates that as war disrupts cultural and material environments, it often disrupts the traditional visual tropes that are associated with these environments. Text by June Dwyer 68 The Archipelago of Old Age and Childhood: Creaturely Life in the Floating Islands The Floating Islands book began with a vast collection of small drawings, made by my father, Udo Sellbach, towards the end of his life. The drawings show a child in a row boat, surrounded by a floating archipelago inhabited by an alternate evolution of insects, birds and beasts. I wrote a story in response to this strange natural world. In the process, childhood and old age, began crossing over, opening up a creaturely realm at the edges of human time and space. Text by Undine Sellbach 75 The Caged Animal: the Avant-Garde Artist in Manette Salomon From Eugène Delacroix’s majestic lions to Rosa Bonheur’s roaring tigers, animals occupied a privileged place in nineteenth century French art. However, these imagined representations of animals did not reflect the tragic reality of caged animals in the urban sphere. This study is a posthumanistic consideration Manette Salomon (1867), a French novel about art written by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt. The novel depicts the menagerie of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris as a natural paradise where artists are able to experience a profound connection with animals. Text by Claire Nettleton 91 Engendering Empathy for Nonhuman Suffering: Using Graphic Narratives to Raise Awareness about Commercial Dog Breeding Operations From Eugène Delacroix’s majestic lions to Rosa Bonheur’s roaring tigers, animals occupied a privileged place in nineteenth century French art. However, these imagined representations of animals did not reflect the tragic reality of caged animals in the urban sphere. This study is a posthumanistic consideration Manette Salomon (1867), a French novel about art written by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt. The novel depicts the menagerie of the Jardin des Plantes in Paris as a natural paradise where artists are able to experience a profound connection with animals. Text by Scott Hurley and Daniel Bruins110 The Anti-Imperialist American Literary Anima: Envisioning Empathy As animal imagery can highlight trends and tendencies in ourselves and in others that we might ignore otherwise, its use can denaturalize in- and out-group compartmentalization, especially in times of national division. By showing how animal-related arguments and representations function in anti-imperialist American literature from the period surrounding the Philippine Revolution, this article explores the machinations of empathetic tactics in anti-imperialist literature, using Ernest Howard Crosby and Dan Beard’s Captain Jinks, Hero (1902) as its central text. Using animal-centric illustrations and connecting their rhetoric to that of their fellow-activists, animal advocates allowed anti-imperialists to polarize positive and negative feelings across lines of empathy, rather than nation, and push back against the tide of visual culture supporting imperial action. Text by Katherine E. Bishop125 Volumes From an Imagined Intellectual History of Animals, Architecture and Man Julian Montague’s series of faux books are part of a larger project called Secondary Occupants/Collected & Observed. The project consists of a series of installations, photographs and small mixed-media projects considering the relationship between animals and architecture. At the center of the work is an unnamed fictional author/investigator who appears to be obsessed with the way that animals occupy architectural structures. The books are meant to be the reading material of this character. Text and Images by Julian Montague 7
  8. 8. AN ILLUSTRATED THERIOGRAPHY 1 9 4 3 - 2 0 0 2 by ROBERT McKAYB ook covers, and more specifically dust jackets, are perhaps the first site in the conversion of a book into a fetish object; the five parts of the jacket paper, four times folded, constitute the primary erogenous zones in the erotics ofbookselling. If the high price publishers are charged by the chain bookseller for aplace at display tables is anything to go by, the foremost of these is the cover; itmust offer its appeal to the eye instantly to arouse attention, but with enough charmto induce the potential reader into engaging a hand, to pick it up. For bookdesigners, too, it’s clear that the heavy lifting of illustration tends to be exerted inproducing the cover. But, as any second-hand book lover knows, a lightness ofdesign touch on the spine is most likely to generate a response, by rewarding therightward tilt of the head (for me, anyway) that’s needed to navigate the strangeaxial geometry of horizontal text running downwards. Conventionally, thereafter, thefront flap will offer guidance and the back cover reassurance, but the back flap isalways the most ambivalent and therefore full of possibility, finally offering a vision ofauthorship—perhaps as egotism, perhaps as intrigue— that will destroy or enhancereaderly pleasure. Coming to books, then, is simultaneously affective and rational: with bodyand mind, idea and object, luck and judgment, improvisation and convention,freedom and manipulation all at work. That is to say, it is far as one can imaginefrom the humanist ideal of pure linguistic communication from one mind toanother. The books in this annotated theriography, a brief tour through some of thepostwar animal writing that has spoken to me, all similarly demand of their readersthat they look beyond conventional ideas of the human, both on and under thecovers. 8
  9. 9. “What is it, Mother?” he asked. “What is it, Mother?” His mother answered, between gasps, “It – was – He!” Bambi shuddered and they ran on. (p. 76)The unsurprisingly modest success of Disney’s version of Bambi when released in 1942doesn’t stop Cape leading with the film tie-in on the jacket of this edition: the fate of Salten’swork to be eclipsed by its animated cousin was already sealed. Indeed, Disney went on touse his Perri (1938), advertised on the back of this edition, as the inspiration for a 1957 film inits True-Life Adventure series. That Whittaker Chambers translated this classic animal story isalso now largely forgotten, its recognition in turn eclipsed by farce. Accused of libel in 1948after infamously naming U.S. State Department official Alger Hiss as a communist, heproved his case by producing incriminating microfilm documents which he had hiddeninside a pumpkin. 9
  10. 10. Felix Salten thA Life in the Woods [1923], translated by Whittaker Chambers [1928], 6 UK impression (London: Jonathan Cape, 1943) Design andillustration uncredited. 10
  11. 11. Wishing to make himself more like a homo-professor Mmaa, he tried to throw up his thorax and stand on his hind legs. Only the first part of this experiment was successful, and he fell back heavily to the termitan posture. (p.103)Professor Mmaa’s Lecture is an insect novel consonant with other artistic attacks on thehuman self-image in the post-war, whether voiced by Beckett or shown by Bacon orChadwick. Working themselves in film, writing and drawing, in the late 1950s the Themersonsheld an avant-garde salon called The Gaberbocchus Common Room, “a congenial placewhere artists and scientists and people interested in science and art can meet andexchange thoughts”. Stephan himself, then, must have delighted in reading ‘Some Accountof the Termites, which are found in Africa and other hot Climates’ in the letter of Mr HenrySmeathman, of Clement’s Inn, to Sir Joseph Banks published in the 1781 edition that gavehim his cover image. Although the source has been digitized by Google, the image on theimage has been corrupted, the tactility of the original fold-out plates resisting the will tocomplete digital visuality. 11
  12. 12. Stefan ThemersonProfessor Mmaa’s Lecture, with drawings and endpapers by Franciszka Themerson (London: Gaberbocchus, 1953)Design uncredited. The gravure on the jacket is reproduced from the philosophical transactions of the Royal Society – 1781. 12
  13. 13. The monkey dropped. Without pain he remembered the assembly of animal shapes that had been presented to him the night before, though he could not now tell if the experience had any reality. It came to him that all these kinds of creature could, though he had no time to work it out, be arranged as a progressive series. It must have been with the idea of adding to, perpetuating or improving that series that the Professor had exorted him to try and try, to seek something that had always been just past the horizon of his understanding. (p. 101)In 1965 Brigid Brophy published ‘The Rights of Animals’ in The Sunday Times; this essay wasan inspiration to the “Oxford Group” of philosophers that included Stanley and RosalindGodlovitch, Richard Ryder and David Wood. With Brophy and others, including the novelistMaureen Duffy, members of the group produced Animals, Men and Morals (Gollancz,1971), an early work in the flourishing of pro-animal writing and thought in the 1970s. ÁsgeirScott’s beautiful, delicate and melancholy illustration of the eponymous ape’s retreat fromthe approaching reader captures the novel’s shame at humanity’s misbegotten, violent andasymptotic attempts to know other species. 13
  14. 14. Brigid Brophy stHackenfeller’s Ape with decorations by Ásgeir Scott, 1 UK edition (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1953)Design and illustration by Ásgeir Scott. 14
  15. 15. It is our duty to admit that no plan and no system governed this childish ranging far and wide. She sought no field-mouse, did not try to find the track of a hare, and, as we have seen, even gave up burrowing in the mole-hill when she had gone just far enough to enjoy a whiff of its velvety fragrance. She was looking at everything, sniffing at everything, and abandoning everything for the next remembered excitement close at hand. (p. 123)In the 1950s, Secker & Warburg published J. R. Ackerley’s My Dog Tulip (1956). In the sameyear, another of the century’s great dog books was written; but by the time Niki: The Story ofa Dog appeared in English, Dery was in prison, sentenced to nine years for ‘overthrowing theorder of the state’ during the Hungarian revolution of 1956. The simply organised midcenturyaesthetic of Colin Sawyer’s design is energized by Niki’s proud tail, inquisitive if pensive eyes,and raised paw, ready to run. These features, like the novel itself, are quietly revolutionarystatements of the fundamental needs for creativity and mutual empathy in humans and indogs that no social system can suppress. 15
  16. 16. Tybor DeryNiki: the Story of a Dog, translated by Edward Hyams, 1st UK edition (London: Secker & Warburg, 1958)Design by Colin P. Sawyer, illustration uncredited. 16
  17. 17. Roslyn looks at the horse running only a yard to one side of her. She could reach out and touch its eyes. It is a medium-size brown stallion, glistening with sweat. She hears the high screaming wheeze of its breathing, and the strangely gentle tacking of its unshod hooves on the hard lake bed. It is stretching out now, and its stricken eyes seem blind and agonized. Suddenly, from behind, a noose falls over its ears and hangs there askew. (p.108)This is the third incarnation of Arthur Miller’s work about the end of the mustang hunt, TheMisfits, which appeared as a story in Esquire in 1957 and was filmed by John Huston in 1961(it was both Clark Gable’s and Marilyn Monroe’s last film). The publishers rather grandioselyclaim this is a “new medium […] a ‘cinema-novel’”. Miller says more simply (if self-regardingly) that it is written in “an unfamiliar form, neither novel, play, nor screenplay […]every word is there for the purpose of telling the camera what to see and the actors whatthey are to say” (p. ix). It thus holds a peculiar place in the visual history of literary animals, orthe literary history of visual animals. The jacket design, however, speaks more to the film’scross-marketing as a unique combination of different aspects of postwar artistic prestige.On this jacket, the work of Miller, Huston, Monroe, Gable et al is joined by the abstractillustration style of Don Ervin from advertising design pioneers George Nelson and Co. andthe photo of Miller by Erich Hartmann of the Magnum agency, who had exclusive rights todocument the film-shoot. 17
  18. 18. Arthur Miller stThe Misfits, 1 US edition (New York: Viking, 1961)Design by Don Ervin, author photo by Erich Hartmann. 18
  19. 19. Napoleon stood up and, casting a peculiar sidelong glance at Snowball, uttered a high pitched whimper of a kind no one had heard him utter before. At this there was a terrible baying sound outside, and nine enormous dogs wearing brass studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed straight for Snowball who only sprang from his place just in time to escape their snapping jaws.Animal Farm is currently the highest-selling Penguin Modern Classic paperback, but it hasbeen released in a bewildering number of editions. Its series of different covers would makean intriguing study in postwar jacket design, from the austere two-tone green diagonaldesign of the 1945 first edition to the Heidegger-influenced street art style of ShepardFairey’s 2008 UK edition and the Halas and Batchelor-quoting brooding dark red 2013edition by David Pearson Design. As time passes, designers have emphasized differentaspects of the novel’s meaning, but Paul Hogarth’s crazed depiction twists Romek Marber’sclassically cool grid design with a focus on Napoleon’s key moment of repressive politicalviolence. This in turn evokes the work’s insidious ability to threaten the reader with thenightmare of duplicitous political rhetoric. 19
  20. 20. Geaorge Orwell thAnimal Farm [1945], 17 reprint of 1951 Penguin edition in association with Secker & Warburg (Harmondsworth:Penguin, 1967) Design uncredited, but is based on a general design by Romek Marber, illustration by Paul Hogarth. 20
  21. 21. Eco-Fiction raises important questions about man’s place in the system: • Will man continue to ignore the warnings of the environment and destroy his source of life? • Will he follow the herd into the slaughterhouse?This book’s jacket illustration is the epitome of macabre eco-gothic: a space-helmetedman apparently suffocating in a sparse but regenerating nature world, with the symbolicraven of death cawing his demise. The grandiose gesture of the image echoes thetroubled humanism of the subtitle description—itself a nice example of the confluence ofdescriptive discourse often used on anthology covers and the didactic style that propels thisone. The book itself is a slightly desperate document, collecting texts from the 30s to the60s, some realist, some science fiction, and one from 1839, that are only at a widest stretchinterpretable as attempts to address early 1970s environmentalist concerns. But thehistrionic jacket design suggests that the crisis is so pressing that any resource may beconscripted to answer it. 21
  22. 22. John Stadler (Ed.) thEco-Fiction, 4 reprint or 1971 Washington Square Press edition (New York: Pocket Books, 1973)Design and illustration uncredited, the front cover image bears the signature "Michael Eagle". 22
  23. 23. On the fourth and lowest deck were all the beasts whose size it had been feared would sink the ark: and here the darkness was absolute. (p. 198)Drawson’s illustration presents a colourful tableau of a recognizable Biblical story, but withunexpected twists. Why is there a blue boy, and who is the Amazonian woman in red,leaning like one of Modigliani’s androgynous figures were it not for the shapely bust, andwhy is she paying no heed to her lost parasol? Why is a frightened cat leaping from amatronly woman and, wait, … were there really bacteria on the ark? Stylistically combiningas it does the garish backdrops of the 19th century popular stage with the obliquely viewedfaces of cubism, the image is a neat evocation of the unsettling self-reflexive awareness ofFindley’s political novel, which itself plays in classic postmodernist style with familiar narrativesand moods (Biblical story; the talking animal tale; sentimental fiction). This story, we canguess, may well end with a new covenant between humans and animals, if not with God,but it will not necessarily be one that retains the conventional pattern of power. 23
  24. 24. Timothy Findley stNot Wanted on the Voyage [1984], 1 UK edition (London: Macmillan, 1985)Design by David Wyman, illustration by Blair Drawson, author photo by Elisabeth Feryn. 24
  25. 25. My momm y went to the incinerator. She was not allowed to suckle me. I’m a herbivore but I was made into a carnival. (p. 49)The dustcover bears a life-size image of a steak pictured against a silver background whichresembles a meat display; inside is reproduced a price ticket bearing the legend: ‘ENGLISH,10lbs’. The process of purchasing this book was thus uncannily (or was for this vegan, atleast) like a trip to the butcher shop. But an entirely strange trip, when the steak attemptssuch a surreal form of aesthetic seduction, by hijacking the text on the butcher’s name-ticket. Levy, who has only recently begun to receive much public recognition (on the BookerPrize shortlist in 2012 for Swimming Home), is one of the UK’s most innovative contemporarywriters, her work a persistent reimagining of the possibility of ethnic, sexual and speciesidentity. With Diary of a Steak, she challenges her reader to accept but also to critique theposition of consumer—of ideas, of imagery of women, and of animals—a process thatbegins with the seductive interpellation on the cover. 25
  26. 26. Deborah Levy stDiary of a Steak, 1 UK edition (London: Book Works, 1997)Design by Herman Lelie. 26
  27. 27. I was alone and orphaned, in the middle of the Pacific, hanging onto an oar, an adult tiger in front of me, sharks behind me, a storm raging about me. Had I considered my prospects in the light of reason, I surely would have given up and let go of the oar, hoping that I might drown before being eaten. (p. 107).Martel’s 2002 Booker winner about a boy at sea with a tiger has been a rising publishing tideto sink all other Booker boats. UK publisher Canongate delightedly announced that it hadsold its 3,141,593th copy in all editions in February 2013—Ang Lee’s 2012 film tie-in addedto the sales garnered by the high production value edition illustrated by Tomislav Torjanac(RRP £40) and the Kindle version (sold at 20p in February 2013). And yet the momentumbehind the massive success of the book came in no small part from its early editions, whichhad perhaps the most recognizable jacket design of any animal novel, with Andy Bridge’sserene painting used for the hardback and paperback across the world. The stylized calmof its deep-blue sea illuminated by a tiger’s warm orange; the ease of that tiger echoed bythe peaceful pre-natal positioning of the Indian boy; the peacable sublime confirmed by aguard of dolphins and sea turtles. But, the runaway success of a work that celebrates boththe zoo and fiction itself as organizations of a supposed human need for belief (famouslyconfirmed by Barack Obama in a note to Martel after reading the book with his daughter),might give us cause for worry. Do the book (and that cover image) offer anything more thana foetal position of reading in which we can escape the difficulty and fatality of real life withanimals? 27
  28. 28. Yann Martel stLife of Pi, [2001], 1 UK edition (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2002)Design by James Hutcheson, cover painting by Andy Bridge. 28
  29. 29. THE VANISHING COWStarting from 1934, the covers of The New Yorker began to portray images of melancholy animals looking atthe changes occurring in the American landscape at the time, endangering their presence in the modern way ofliving. The essay chronicles the story of the vanishing animal, a recurring theme of the magazine’s covers fromthe mid-thirties to the mid-sixties, as a visual counterpart to the advancement of progress and the effects it hadon the landscape, as well as on the utopian pastoral ideal that it purported to democratize among the middleclass. The thread linking these New Yorker covers therefore offers a modern rendition of an American ParadiseLost, and the artists’ illustrations become what Akira Mizuta Lippit calls ‘virtual shelters for displaced animals.’Among several popular magazines, The New Yorker was by far the greatest chronicler of this loss, despite itsurban focus, or perhaps thanks to it, as it allowed a sense of unbiased detachment and urbanecondescendence towards the suburbs and the country.Text by Andrea Vesentini What man has to do in order to transcend the animal, to transcend the mechanical within himself, and what his unique spirituality leads to, is often anguish. And so, by comparison and despite the model of the machine, the animals seem to him to enjoy a kind of innocence. The animal has been emptied of experience and secrets, and this new invented “innocence” begins to provoke in man a kind of nostalgia. For the first time, animals are placed in a receding past (i). O nce upon a time, there was a cow. If forefront of the picture, giving her back to Ilona Karasz’s illustration (fig. 1) for the the spectators as if they were also part of the cover of the May 19, 1934 scene, witnessing the change. A fence issue of The New Yorker could speak in visually separates the spot where the cow still fairy-tale language, this is how it would stands from the unrestrained human begin. A cow overlooks the changes in the development, out of which she is physically American landscape from the top of a hill, exiled. The composition of the image clearly the towering skyscrapers of the polluted city resembles that of the countless adverts that emerging from the horizon, enveloped in a envisioned the proximity of a bright future of cloud of smog, and the hilly countryside evolution and modernization, those utopian pointed with houses, the city sprawling along views where the American man stared in the country road taken over by cars and wonder at the advancement of progress as buses. And yet, the cow observes from a if he were contemplating a diorama at a distance, in the shade of a tree in the very world’s fair (ii). We are not allowed to see the 29
  30. 30. expression on the cow’s face, but we can The M elancholy Coweasily guess it would betray a certain degreeof melancholia; Karasz’s clear division of Dramatic changes were not foreign to thespaces gives the scene a nostalgic feel: the American landscape: the pristine nature ofgrayness of the sky starkly contrasting with the the continent had been exploited from theluminous colors of the large tree and the early days of colonization. Defining Karasz’scow’s white fur. The winding road ends right cow as a ‘vanishing’ animal intentionallyat the cow’s feet. She might still be in the evokes other subjects who were depicted inforefront of the picture, but the world of the process of disappearing in the previoustomorrow is rapidly advancing, pushing her century. The ‘vanishing Indian’ is a leitmotifto the side of the scene, and eventually out often found in nineteenth-century painting,of it. In spite of her positioning in the frame, especially in the Hudson River School (vii)the image tells us that the cow belongs to . Like The New Yorker cow, Thomaswhat Berger calls the “receding past” in the Cole’s Indian at Sunset (fig. 2) nostalgicallyopening quote. The trope of the contemplates the untamed wilderness of thedisappearing animal is by no means an land from above, in the shade of a statelyinvention of The New Yorker artist: already in tree, another romantic relic of the recedingthe nineteenth century, American landscape past. The common assumption that thepainters portrayed wild creatures retreating to country was to be a “garden of Edenthe realm of the mythic wilderness of the restored” for the new American Adam, ascontinent (iii). However, it was only with the Carolyn Merchant wrote, called for thedomination of the machine over nature, marginalization of its original inhabitants,when first the railway and then the car perceived as closer to the animal sphererevolutionized the landscape and turned the than the human (viii). Indians wereAmerican man into a nomadic commuter, progressively pushed to the darker corner ofthat the marginalization of the animal the picture, both historically and figuratively,became truly apparent (iv). The recurring most famously in John Gast’s Americantheme of the vanishing animal in The New Progress, or Flora Palmer’s lithograph TheYorker covers from the mid-thirties to the Rocky Mountains: Emigrants Crossing themid-sixties worked as a visual counterpart to Plains, where cows still stand on the side ofthe advancement of progress and its effects progress, enabling the westwardon the landscape and the utopian pastoral advancement of the wagons (ix). But cowsideal that it purported to democratize and Indians were to find themselves on theamong the middle class. Although covers same side in the following century.featuring animals, especially cows, were by In August 1942, The New Yorker publishedno means exclusive to The New Yorker at a short story by Jonathan Harrington, ‘Cow inthe time, the magazine was the only one to Quicksand’, in which a group of nativeuse them as a critique of suburban Americans rescue a cow from quicksandexpansion, despite or perhaps thanks to its with the help of a white man on a visit to theurban focus that allowed a sense of wild West. Harrington portrays the whiteunbiased detachment and urbane narrator as an observer, helping in the effortcondescendence towards the new but mostly detached from the scene, whiledevelopments, as well as the country . Its (v) the cow and the Indians share the similar lotcover art still represents an icon of popular of standing on the unsteady ground thatculture and, most importantly, an enthralling swallows into oblivion whomever steps on it (x)continuum of powerful commentaries to the . As had been the case for the Indians,shifts in American history. As a cultural object, cows were entering what Lippit calls “a statethe covers work as a mirror in which for o f p e rp e tu a l va n ish in g ,” th e iralmost a hundred years the middle class has “spectral” presence looming as a nostalgiclooked at its own shortcomings, a venue of memento of a lost era in the modernhegemonic self-irony (vi). landscape (xi). Lippit explains this nostalgic attitude toward animals through the Freudian conception of melancholia: humans look at animals as their halves lost in the process of evolution, incapable to retrieve their “primal 30
  31. 31. Fig.1 Ilona Karasz thUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, Split, 19 May 1934, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast 31
  32. 32. identification” with them (xii). However, the The cow and the deer, respectively signifyingmelancholia that permeates Karasz’s cover the rural and the wild, faced a commonillustration as well, as the ones to follow, destiny before the bulldozer of postwarseems to be different in nature. The animals expansion. Theirs was, in fact, a tale ofare not only meant to be looked at changing fortunes. Although the ruralmelancholically. They look melancholic. In functioned as an instrument of civilization1957 The New Yorker published a poem by against the wild lands up until the lateR. P. Lister pondering on the intrinsic 1800s, The New Yorker turned cows intomelancholia of cows: romantic remnants of the vanishing past as the new frontier movement out of the city Man may think several thoughts a day began (xv). Robert F. Berkhofer notes that, in But seldom gives them full attention; nineteenth-century American arts, the His thoughts are mostly colored gray evanescent appearance of the Indian in the And few of them are fit to mention grandiose Western sceneries mirrored the ruins common to many European landscape A cow’s are pure, and colored green— paintings, which kindled a romantic Pleasant, maybe, but rarely jolly— impression of the past. (xvi) Mark David And that is why the rustic scene Spence sees in Cole’s depiction of Indians Is so suffused with melancholy (xiii). an attempt “to arouse a sense of nostalgia and pity in order to give romantic poignancyWhy is it so hard for Lister’s and Karasz’s cow to a scene,” portraying them as “a romanticto indulge in jolly thoughts when the bovine poet or a tragic and pensive figure fromlife seems quite peaceful and carefree? classical antiquity” who witnessed theCows had historically represented the slow- unspoiled beauty of the American landpaced nature of the rural world by virtue of giving in to the march of progress. (xvii)their quiet nature, endurance and sturdy Karasz’s cover shares with Cole’s Indian thepresence suggesting the unhurried rhythm same clear-cut division into two spaces, oneand steady character of country life, associated with the receding past and theattributes that are not necessarily other with the advancing future, a commonmelancholy. But once cows are placed trait of The New Yorker covers depictingbefore a novel background, the scene turns vanishing animals. Most of them reveal ainto one of melancholia. romantic taste in the choice of colors, The lost object that Freud deems as dramatic composition and treatment of thenecessary to trigger a melancholic state landscape that resonates with the classicappears to be the very landscape that the depiction of the vanishing Indian, the resilientcow is looking at, the disappearing rural and melancholy ruin of history.America. (xiv) The hidden gaze of the cow Karasz’s illustration was only the first ofbetrays the bittersweet awareness that, as many melancholy cows and animals foundthe quintessential rural animal, she is also in the covers of The New Yorker in the yearssoon bound to disappear. This awareness is to follow. Although John Berger couples thequickly interiorized by the viewer, who shares marginalization of the animal in Westernthe same point of view as the animal. The societies with the advent of capitalism,booming postwar world looks different when between the nineteenth century and theseen through the eyes of the cow. Her twentieth century, the pictures we will see inmelancholia becomes the melancholia of these pages challenge this clear-cutthe viewer. The human gaze that first expansionism rather than freezing it at acoincided with the animal gaze shifts with historical divide to show how this rupture wasthe understanding that, by looking at the only one step in a longer process ofchanging landscape, the animal is in fact America’s dominance over its landscape,interrogating the viewer, who is exposed to from the eradication of the wilderness, toman’s disruptive power. This final self- postwar suburbanization. (xviii) Either inrealization brings the viewer to the opposite commuter trains, private cars or spaceside, that of being the object of the shuttles, the American frontier kept movingvanishing animal’s gaze, the cause of its long after Frederick Jackson Turner declaredimpending disappearance. it closed in 1893, perpetuating a history of 32
  33. 33. Fig.2 Thomas ColeIndian at Sunset, 1845-1847, Oil on canvas, 36x44 cm, private collectionof expansionism rather than freezing it at a to the forefront was soon to cause anotherspecific point in time. (xix) Taken as a body of disappearance. Although many viewimages rather than isolated works, this motif suburbanization, and all the changes itin The New Yorker covers thus becomes a entailed in terms of car usage and lifestyle,narrative: Seen one after the other, the still solely as a product of postwar policies, it wasscenes are set into motion, telling a visual actually the New Deal reforms that made itstory of animals turning from a vanishing into possible. A month after Karasz’s cover, ona vanished object. June 28, and only ten days after the enactment of the Indian Reorganization Act,The Suburban Cow the Congress passed the National Housing Act of 1934, leading to the creation of theThe fact that the melancholy animal first Federal Housing Administration that wouldappeared in 1934 is a peculiar coincidence. simplify the system of mortgage loans and1934 was the year when the Indian enable the rise of suburbia in the years afterReorganization Act tried to counter the the war. The May 15, 1954 cover (fig. 3)devastating effects of the marginalizing showed that the land once used forpolicies toward Native Americans, who by pasturing and agriculture was ready to bethat time had been confined to Western subdivided for the growing needs of themythology and inhospitable lands unfit for postwar baby-boom. Where the cows are stillagriculture. The same ‘New Deal’ that grazing, a young couple envisions their futureattempted to bring the vanished Indian back modernist house, starkly overlapping the rural 33
  34. 34. Fig.3 Constantin AlajalovUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 15 May 1954, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast. landscape. The suburbs, the highway system 34
  35. 35. that was implemented in 1956, the As the covers show, the restorationunrelenting spread of the automobile, all of and modernization of Eden turned out to bethose changes were to recolonize the the ultimate capitulation of Eden asvanishing Eden. nineteenth-century romantics knew it. In fact, Despite its claim to return to the it managed to achieve quite the opposite ofpastoral idyll commodified for the masses, the pastoral ideal that it claimed to reinstatethe suburban revolution severed America’s after decades of wild urbanism and industriallong-term relationship with the land (xx), growth. The illustration of a 1962 cover byending the agrarian myth envisaged by Charles E. Martin (fig. 4) celebrates the arrivalThomas Jefferson and other forefathers of of spring by showing the new Eden revisitedthe nation depicted in Victor Bobritsky’s 1938 through consumer culture (xxvii). A stag and acover: the cows found in his typical New doe give a skeptical look at the newEngland village are the only ones that seem shopping mall, dropped in the wild woodsto be aware of the train looming in the where they still manage to find shelter frombackground of the apparently peaceful the invasion of cars and shoppers. Forcedscene, once again conveying a sense of behind the bush that once again creates amelancholia (xxi). The inherent contradictions spatial barrier between the realm of menof the suburban model led to the birth of and the endangered wilderness, thisambiguous terminology such as “rural alternative American family stands on the farsuburb” (xxii), shedding light on America’s side of the shopping-crazed hoards ofclashing need to picture itself both as a rural another familial model, the baby-boomand modern country, a legacy of Jefferson’s family (xxviii). Less bewilderment and greaterrepublicanism lying behind the nostalgic nostalgia is found in the pensive gaze of theportrayal of the progressive suburbanization peasant featured in Perry Barlow’s 1947of the landscape (xiii). American politics was cover (xxix). The man peers at a new car-moving on, abandoning the rural ideal, save invaded building, presumably anotherits mentioning in speeches and allegories, to shopping center. His horses are already halfspur the nostalgic soul of voters for political out of the picture, and the only boundarypurposes. What if this rural world actually between the hayfield and the suburbanizedmanifested itself during a political rally space is a feeble wooden fence that willthough? The attendants of a speech held by eventually come off — most suburbs were ina candidate for the Senate in a 1952 cover fact built on reconverted agricultural lands (xxx)look quite puzzled when a herd of cows .shows up at the gathering: references to The thread linking these Newpastoralism might work at a theoretical level, Yorker covers therefore offers a modernbut the actual presence of cattle is rather rendition of an American Paradise Lost (xxxi),outlandish (xxiv). and the artists’ illustrations become what On the other hand, the wilderness Lippit calls a “virtual shelters for displacedthat had been tamed by the end of the animals,” which are being gradually evictednineteenth century, usually portrayed by the from American everyday life to re-enter itinfrequent occurrence of deer in the through popular culture, either Disney filmsmagazine, was to be further marginalized. or The Discovery Channel (xxxii). Even theJohn Steinbeck’s The Pastures of literature published within the magazineHeaven opens on the chase of an unruly depicted rural life in an elegiac fashion. E.B.deer by a Spanish corporal in 1776 California White’s poem “The Red Cow is Dead,”leading to the casual discovery of an Eden- published in 1946, ironically mourned thelike valley, since then called the Pastures of death of a cow in the Isle of Wight (xxxiii). OnHeaven (xxv). It closes on the same valley May 4, 1963, the magazine published anostalgically contemplated as an playful and yet nostalgic elegy of the ruralendangered corner of pristine nature by a world by Jon Swan, “A Portable Gallery ofbus of tourists, one of whom farsightedly Pastoral Animals,” describing animals almostpredicts its imminent subdivisions into as fairytale archetypes and historicalbuilding lots — in fact, the book was characters, remnants of a much morepublished in 1932 when Southern California glorious past where horses fought in warwas about to be savagely urbanized (xxvi) . instead of being put aside by a tractor (xxxiv). 35
  36. 36. Fig.4 Charles E. Martin Fig.5 William SteigUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 26 May Untitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 26 Aug.1962, print, 20.3x27.9 cm 1961, print, 20.3x27.9 cm.© Courtesy of Condé Nast. © Courtesy of Condé Nast. But the new beast that replaced wartime cover by Peter Arno (xxxvii).horses and cattle for locomotion was the Speeding past the marginalizedautomobile. Alain’s 1951 cover highlights the wilderness, the cars in De Miskey’s 1959contrast between the fast-paced cover (fig. 6) are physically severing themodernization and the slowness of the landscape, the highway working as avanishing past (xxxv). In the rural Southwestern dramatic divider, cutting the woods in halfscene, the cows are confronted with the and keeping apart the two melancholy deerspeed of the new fetishized animal, they are that look into each other’s eyes wonderingphysically inapt for the frantic mobility of whether the drivers will ever slow downpostwar America. Ten years later, William enough to notice the faint warning signSteig’s cover (fig. 5) portrays the cows signaling their presence. Little could thecarelessly slowing down the road-trip of an powerless deer do against the new driver ofaffluent couple, whose garish red car does progress. The commuter train speedingnot blend with the pastel hues of the country. through the countryside in a 1942 cover byThe son of immigrant parents, William Steig Arno is just as well driven by the same fever (xxxviii)devoted most of his career at The New . The busy passengers are too self-Yorker to the depiction of the lower classes, absorbed in the rat race of modern life toand as such his art often addressed the pause their eyes on the rural scenery, whereendangerment of this world caused by the the tiny horse is soon to slip away from sight:expansion of the suburban middle class, of this time, what marks the boundary betweenwhich the car was the greatest epitome (xxxvi). the fast-advancing future and the recedingAmerica’s rush to modernization also past is the window.advanced at the speed of tanks, such asthose hampered by a herd of cows grazingin their way, as happened in a famous 36
  37. 37. Fig.6 Julian de MiskeyUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 23 May 1959, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast. 37
  38. 38. Fig.7 Peter ArnoUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 19 May 1956, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast. 38
  39. 39. The Gazing Cow cinematic animal, the ones found in The New Yorker covers are frozen by the artist’sIncreasingly, wild and rural animals found pencil. Paralyzed and mute, their gaze is allthemselves on the other side of the that is left for us to look at. In most of thebarricade in visual representation. In his illustrations seen so far, the animal is eithercritique of John Berger’s seminal essay on looking at the man-shaped landscape oranimals, Jonathan Burt notes that Berger being looked at by a human observer. Adwells on “the traditional dividing line 1956 cover by Peter Arno (fig. 7) shows threewhereby man is a linguistic animal and cows peeking at a cocktail party fromanimals are not.” In this regard, The New behind a window. Despite the spatial divisionYorker illustrations bring to light a divide that of the composition, Arno places theis not so much linguistic, as it is spatial. The spectator on the side of the animal, creatingvanishing animal belongs to a landscape a complex set of crossing gazes. First, wethat is being usurped by suburban settlers find the gaze of the animals, the uninvitedwho are always depicted as newcomers onlookers of the action that is taking placeand strangers to this space. Even though with indoors; then, the gazes of the affluentthe opposite purpose, nineteenth-century attendants of the party who look at eachportrayals of the westward movement other without realizing that they are thestemmed from the same split between the object of the animal gaze. However, one of“new man” and the “old landscape” to draw them notices the presence of the animalstheir celebratory representation of the and gives them a startled look. Such a look,frontier. The New Yorker artists based their a mark of Arno’s art that he compared to theportrayal of the postwar vanishing animal on expression in the face of a personthis spatial dichotomy, man and animal photographed unexpectedly, is the look ofphysically kept apart by walls, hedges and someone who becomes aware of being thewindows (xxxix). Douglas Sirk’s All That Heaven object of a gaze, exactly as the character inAllows (1955), recounting the love story this illustration is. (xliii)between an upper-class widow and a By gazing at this startled look, viewersgardener whose only wish is to spend the rest find themselves in the ambivalent position ofof his life in the wild woods like a novel sharing both the animals’ perspective ofThoreau, ends with the famous scene of a onlookers, given their spatial location, butdeer frolicking out of the picture window of also that of the surprised man who findsthe man’s newly renovated mill house in the himself being looked at, because theyforest (xl). Jane Wyman’s character has finally belong to the human realm. The surprisesurrendered to his love, and Rock Hudson found in the man’s face is therefore thehas laid his weapons down and converted to surprise of the viewer, who becomes awarea semi-domestic way of life that reconciles of the presence of the vanishing animal andthe woods and a nicely decorated house. In of the change in the landscape, becausethis picture-perfect ending, the deer peers he can finally see it through the eyes of thethrough the glass, certainly to bless their animal. In Berger’s words, “when he is beingunion but also to remind us that, once seen by the animal, he is being seen as hisdomestic life steps in, the call of the wild is surroundings are seen by him.” (xliv)necessarily left out of the hearth (xli). In the The complex structure of Arno’svery last shot, the camera moves away from illustration exemplifies that, by looking at thethe two lovers to linger on the melancholy vanishing animal on The New Yorker cover,image of the deer, the sole protagonist of spectators experience “the point of view ofthe frame shown behind the bars of the the absolute other,” as Derrida calls thewindow before it walks out of the picture. The animal gaze (xlv). In fact, the 1956 work isEnd. designed after another cover illustration that Like the image of Jane Wyman Arno drew for a 1942 issue (fig. 8), where anlooking at the deer through the windowpane, MP soldier is the outsider left out of themost of The New Yorker covers are window, the uninvited witness of his fellowcentered on the idea of gaze, especially soldiers’ happiness. Historically, the Westernwhat Lippit calls “the speechless semiotic of world has come to view the animal as thethe animal look.” (xlii) Even more so than the emblem of otherness. A soulless and 39
  40. 40. Fig. 8 Peter ArnoUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 28 Feb 1942, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast. 40
  41. 41. reasonless creature, it was always excluded covers, the end of our story.from any greater plan grounded on eitherChristian or philosophical tradition (xlvi). But the The Ghost Cowmelancholy gaze of the vanishing animal isalso the gaze of the past being sacrificed on However, the disappearance of thethe altar of progress, which still manifests itself vanishing animal as a theme is by no meansin the form of spectral alterity: first Indians, the end of animals on The New Yorkerthen livestock and wildlife. Arno’s image covers. Wildlife became completely absent,evokes Donna Haraway’s description of the save the ordinary moose and reindeer in theanimal gaze in the dioramas at the Christmas issues, serving as a mark ofAmerican Museum of Natural History: consumerism rather than an expression of wilderness (l). In popular culture, cows Each diorama has at least one entered the preserve of advertising imagery. animal that catches the viewer’s Elsie the Cow, the mascot of Borden Dairy gaze and holds it in communion. Company since 1936, became a leading ... The moment seems fragile, the attraction at the 1964 New York World’s Fair, animals about to disappear, the where a real cow was picked for the role. communion about to break; the Already in 1933, John Thurber wrote a Hall threatens to dissolve into the sardonic account for the magazine on a chaos of the Age of Man. But it mechanical cow designed by Messmore & does not. The gaze holds, and Damon for the Chicago World’s Fair. The the wary animal heals those who piece chronicled in detail the whole will look. ... The glass front of the vanishing process, from when a live cow was diorama forbids the body’s entry, brought in to pose as a model for a clay but the gaze invites his visual copy, a plaster negative and then a papier- penetration. The animal is frozen mâché hollow replica to be filled with real in a moment of supreme life, and milk, a phonograph that mooed and several man is transfixed. ... The specular other mechanisms, to when the cow was commerce between man and slaughtered and replaced by her animal at the interface of two simulacrum (li). On the visual front, the new evolutionary ages is completed cover artists instead focused on the new (xlviii). obsession of the American middle class: the pet. Dogs and cats invaded the covers,Often is an exchange of gazes between a sometimes literally overshadowing theirstartled man and an animal found in the masters to signal their increasing power incover illustrations, long before Arno’s work. the dynamics of the American family (fig. 10)Sometimes it happens because men try to (lii) . But pets were not just replacing wild andtransform nature into a space of leisure, such rural animals in postwar America: they wereas swimming or golf, and several physical one of the causes of their disappearance.elements can act as interface, like The A. J. Liebling’s short story “The Mustangstonewalls or fences (xlix). In 1965, Peter Arno Buzzers,” published in the magazine in 1954,drew the last recorded cover of the satirized the decline of the frontier with thevanishing animal in the history of The New chronicle of the hunting of wild horses in aYorker (fig. 9): a fawn quietly sipping water Nevada reservation to provide for pet food.from the swimming pool of a suburban Cowboys still had a go in the wild lands ofhouse, completely unnoticed by the the West to make sure that all cats and dogsattendants of another cocktail party. A large were fed appropriately, mustang meathedge shields the animal from sight, acting being cheaper than that of reared horses.as a screen between the glittering colours of “And what will happen when the horses arethe party and the dark blue realm of the all gone?” asks a woman moved by thedeer, the realm of the water drunk by the melancholy sight of a captive mustang.animal (nature) and that of alcohol in the “Then them cats of yours will have to getback (artifice). In hindsight we might see that used to these ten-cent cows, Ma’am” replieshedge as a curtain falling on the lot of the the cowboy, pointing at the next animal thatdisappearing animal in the magazine’s was already on the verge of vanishing (liii). 41
  42. 42. Fig.9 Peter ArnoUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 21 Aug 1965, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast 42
  43. 43. Fig.10 Mark UlriksenUntitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 10 Mar 2003, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast 43
  44. 44. Despite wilderness being pushed out of thescene, the idea of pastoralism was harder tolet go. William Steig would keep up thetradition of drawing cows in his covers, thelast remnant of a past generation. His cows,however, are very different from the onesseen so far: they are now a vanished animal,blankly staring at the spectator from theenclosed space of a barn, or wistfully lookingat a singer who is probably reminiscingabout the good old days when the countrystill held a place in the Americanimagination. Or, they can ironically peep outbehind the personification of Americaproudly holding the Star-Spangled Banner tocelebrate Independence Day, a phantasmof the pastoral dreams that guided thesigners of the Declaration. These cows havebecome ghosts. As such, they can also befound in the realm of dreams and fantasy,completely unrelated to historical reality:symbolizing motherhood in a timelesswatercolor pasture that is typical of JenniOliver’s dreamy style, or gliding over themoon as in a cover by John O’Brien (liv). It should not come as a surprise that Fig.11 William Steigthe last cover featuring a cow as of today Untitled Cover Illustration, The New Yorker, 25 Nov(fig. 11) is by William Steig. Coincidentally, it is 2002, print, 20.3x27.9 cm © Courtesy of Condé Nast.also the last cover illustration he drew beforedying at age 95, less than a year later, aftera career spanning 72 years as an illustrator Bibliographyfor the magazine. The cover portrays amasquerade ball where all attendants are Berger, John. “Why Look at Animals?” About Lookingdressed as figures from a very distant, (London: Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative, 1980), 1-26.sometimes fantastic past: knights dancingwith fairies, angels and queens. In the Berkhofer, Robert F. The White Mans Indian: Images offorefront of this spectral gathering, one the American Indian from Columbus to the Presentdancer wears a cow costume, and right (New York, Vintage Books, 1978).behind him we see the Indian, who had long Burt, Jonathan. “John Bergers ‘Why Look at Animals?’: Aentered the realm of ghosts and mythology. Close Reading”. Worldviews 9, no. 2 (2005): 203-The vanished cow and the vanished Indian 218.finally meet in this hereafter of popularimagery, dancing their pasts away. And this Derrida, Jacques. The Animal That Therefore I Am, trans. David Wills (New York: Fordham Universityis, truly, the end of our story. Press, 2008). Faulkner, William. “Delta Autumn,” Go Down, Moses (New York: Vintage, 1991), 317-348. Freud, Sigmund. “Mourning and Melancholia,” On Murder, Mourning and Melancholia, trans. Shaun Whiteside (London: Penguin Books, 2005), 203-218 Gemünden, Gerd. Framed Visions: Popular Culture, Americanization, and the Contemporary German and Austrian Imagination (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998). 44
  45. 45. Haraway, Donna. Primate Visions: Gender, Race and Swan, Jon. “A Portable Gallery of Pastoral Animals.” The Nature in the World of Modern Science (New York, New Yorker (4 May 1963): 44. London: Routledge, 1989). Thurber, James, Charles Cooke (unsigned). “Talk of theHarrington, Jonathan. “Cow in Quicksand”. The New Town: the Cow.” The New Yorker (11 Feb. 1933): Yorker (22 Aug. 1942): 46-50. 12-13.Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform (New York: Topliss, Iain. The Comic Worlds of Peter Arno, William Vintage, 1960). Steig, Charles Addams, and Saul Steinberg (Baltimore, London: The John HopkinsJackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The University Press, 2005). Suburbanization of the United States (New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987). Turner, Frederick Jackson. “The Significance of the Frontier in American History.” Rereading FrederickKuzniar, Alice. Melancholia’s Dog. Chicago, London: Jackson Turner: ‘The Significance of the Frontier in The University of Chicago Press, 2006. American History” and Other Essays. Ed. John Mack Faragher. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.Liebling, A. J. “The Mustang Buzzers.” The New 31-60. Yorker (3-10 Apr. 1954): 35-50, 81-91. White, E.B. “The Red Cow is Dead.” The New Yorker (1Lippit, Akira Mizuta. Electric Animal: Toward a Rhetoric Jun. 1946): 30. of Wildlife (Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota Press, 2000). Wilson, Alexander. The Culture of Nature: North American Landscape from Disney to the ExxonLister, R. P. “The Patterned Fields.” The New Yorker (14 Valdez (Toronto: Between the Lines, 1991). Sep. 1957): 133. Worster, Donald. The Wealth of Nature: EnvironmentalMarx, Leo, The Machine in the Garden: Technology History and the Ecological Imagination (New York: and the Pastoral Idea in America (Oxford, New Oxford University Press, 1993). York: Oxford University Press, 2000). EndnotesMarchand, Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940 (Berkeley, (i). Berger, John. “Why Look at Animals?” in About Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, Looking, London, Writers and Readers Publishing 1985). Cooperative, 1980, 10.Merchant, Carolyn. American Environmental History: (ii). Marchand highlights that, in the language of an Introduction (New York: Columbia University advertising, the visual cliché of characters “gazing off Press, 2007). into the distance with their backs turned directly or obliquely toward the reader” symbolized that “theyMerchant, Carolyn. Reinventing Eden: The Fate of were looking into the future.” In fact, he links this visual Nature in Western Culture (New York, London: trope with “the hallowed image of the American Routledge, 2003). frontiersman, first glimpsing the westward course of the empire from the apex of a mountain pass.” Marchand,Mullin, Molly H. “Mirrors and Windows: Sociocultural Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way Studies of Human-Animal Relationships,” Annual for Modernity, 1920-1940, Berkeley, University of review of Anthropology 28 (1999): 201-224. California Press, 1985, 255.Ritvo, Harriet. “The Animal Connection,” The Boundaries (iii). Berger, “Why Look at Animals?,” 15. of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines, ed. James J. Sheehan et al. (Berkeley, Los Angeles, (iv). Berger, “Why Look at Animals?,” 10-11. Oxford: University of California Press, 1991), 68-84. (v). A good example of cows appearing in anotherAll That Heaven Allows. Dir. by Douglas Sirk. Universal magazine cover is the herd giving a disgruntled look at International Pictures, The Criterion Collection, 2001. a surveyor in Amos Sewell’s Untitled Cover Illustration, The Saturday Evening Post (28 Jul. 1956). However,Spence, Mark David. Dispossessing the Wilderness: Sewell’s cover is an exception in the history of TheIndian Removal and the Making of National Parks. Saturday Evening Post, which tended to still idealize the(New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999). agrarian myth, especially Norman Rockwell’s famous cover illustrations, perhaps because of its MidwesternSteinbeck, John. The Pastures of Heaven (London: origin. Penguin Books, 1995). (vi). As Topliss highlights, the New Yorker “offers itself as aStoll, Steven. “Farm Against Forest.” American site of peculiar richness for an exploration of the Wilderness: a New History. Ed. Michael Lewis. contradictory, sometimes rebellious self-aware and (Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2007): 55- inner history of the middle-class subject.” And its ability 72. to promote, but also sharply criticize the idiosyncrasies 45
  46. 46. of a highly influential portion of the society turns it into (xxi). Victor Bobritsky, Untitled Cover Illustration, The Newan “almost embarrassingly hegemonic document.” Yorker (28 May 1938).Topliss, Iain. The Comic Worlds of Peter Arno, WilliamSteig, Charles Addams, and Saul Steinberg, Baltimore, (xxii). Wilson, The Culture of Nature, 202.London, The John Hopkins University Press, 2005, 5-6. (xxiii). Hofstadter is the first to call this trope of America’s(vii). Merchant, Carolyn. American Environmental self-representation “the agrarian myth,” and traces itsHistory: an Introduction, New York, Columbia University roots in the country’s early agricultural origins. “ThePress, 2007, 80. more rapidly the farmers’ sons moved into the towns,” he points out, “the more nostalgic the whole culture (viii). Merchant, Carolyn. Reinventing Eden: The Fate of became about its rural past.” Hofstadter, Richard. TheNature in Western Culture, New York, London, Age of Reform, New York, Vintage, 1960, 24. Leo MarxRoutledge, 2003, 149; Worster, Donald. The Wealth of notes that “the soft veil of nostalgia that hangs over ourNature: Environmental History and the Ecological urbanized landscape is largely a vestige of the onceImagination, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, 9. dominant image of an undefiled, green republic, a quiet land of forests, villages, and farms dedicated to(ix). John Gast, American Progress, 1872, oil on canvas, the pursuit of happiness.” Marx, Leo. The Machine inMuseum of the American West, Autry National Center; the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Idea inFlora Palmer, The Rocky Mountains: Emigrants Crossing America, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press,the Plains, 1866, color lithograph, Currier & Ives. 2000, 6.(x). Harrington, Jonathan. “Cow in Quicksand.” The New (xxiv). Leonard Dove, Untitled Cover Illustration, The NewYorker, 22 Aug. 1942, 46-50. Yorker (23 Aug. 1952).(xi). Lippit, Akira Mizuta. Electric Animal: Toward a (xxv). Steinbeck, John. The Pastures of Heaven, London,Rhetoric of Wildlife, Minneapolis, London, University of Penguin Books, 1995, 3-4.Minnesota Press, 2000, 1. (xxvi). Steinbeck, The Pastures of Heaven, 199-200.(xii). Lippit, Electric Animal, 18. (xxvii). Carolyn Merchant reads the shopping mall as(xiii). Lister, R. P. “The Patterned Fields,” The New Yorker, “the modern version of the Garden of Eden,” where14 Sep. 1957, 133. architectural elements try to recreate a sense of outdoors and pastoral nature in the enclosed, indoor(xiv). Freud, Sigmund. “Mourning and Melancholia,” On environment. Merchant, Reinventing Eden, 167-168.Murder, Mourning and Melancholia, trans. ShaunWhiteside, London, Penguin Books, 2005, 205. (xxviii). According to Mullin, wild animals are now perceived as “a refuge from consumer capitalism,”(xv). Steven Stoll chronicles the clash between the rural deriving perhaps from consumer’s culture need forand the wild in the American frontier in “Farm Against atonement to relieve the sense of responsibility for theirForest,” American Wilderness: A New History, ed. marginalization and extinction. Mullin, Molly H. “MirrorsMichael Lewis, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, and Windows: Sociocultural Studies of Human-Animal2007, 55-72. Relationships,” Annual Review of Anthropology 28, 1999, 216.(xvi). Berkhofer, Robert F. The White Mans Indian:Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the (xxix). Perry Barlow, Untitled Cover Illustration, The NewPresent, New York, Vintage Books, 1978, 86-87. Yorker (17 May 1947).(xvii). Spence, Mark David. Dispossessing the (xxx). Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: TheWilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of National Suburbanization of the Unites States, New York, Oxford,Parks, New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999, Oxford University Press, 1987, 239.12. (xxxi). Merchant points out that “for many Americans,(xviii). For a critique of John Berger’s too definite humanity’s loss of the perfect Garden of Eden isapproach to chronology in the recount of the among the most powerful of all stories.” Merchant,marginalization of the animal, see Burt, Jonathan. Reinventing Eden, 3.“John Bergers ‘Why Look at Animals?:’ A CloseReading,” Worldviews 9, no. 2, 2005, 203-218. (xxxii). Lippit, Electric Animal, 187.(xix). Turner, Frederick Jackson. “The Significance of the (xxxiii). White, E.B. “The Red Cow is Dead,” The NewFrontier in American History,” Rereading Frederick Yorker, 1 Jun. 1946, 30.Jackson Turner: “The Significance of the Frontier inAmerican History” and Other Essays, ed. John Mack (xxxiv). Swan, Jon. “A Portable Gallery of PastoralFaragher, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1998, 31- Animals,” The New Yorker, 4 May 1963, 44.60.(xx). Wilson, Alexander. The Culture of Nature: North (xxxv). Alain (Daniel Brustlein), Untitled Cover Illustration,American Landscape from Disney to the Exxon Valdez, The New Yorker (27 Jan. 1951).Toronto, Between the Lines, 1991, 14. 46

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