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Woolfolk Lecture M.R. Moreau Oct. 12, 2015

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Presentation from Maryellen Moreau, Monday October 12, 2015

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Woolfolk Lecture M.R. Moreau Oct. 12, 2015

  1. 1. Presenter: Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed., CCC-SLP Oral Language Development: The Foundation of Literacy Woolfolk Conference OLLU’s Department of Communication and Learning Disorders
  2. 2. Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP, President & Founder, MindWing Concepts, Inc., Springfield, MA – Financial: Maryellen has ownership interest in MindWing Concepts, holds intellectual property rights and patents. Maryellen is employed as president of MindWing Concepts. In that capacity, She designed Story Grammar Marker® and Braidy the StoryBraid® along with many other books and materials. She consults, trains and presents on these topics. – Nonfinancial: No relevant nonfinancial relationships exist. Disclosures 1
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  4. 4. Beginning Middle End Name:__________________________ Date:____________ Story Graphic Organizer 3
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  6. 6. Setting Solution Name:__________________________ Date:____________ Story Graphic Organizer Problem Character Events 5
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  8. 8. PERSONAL NARRATIVES: Also called AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EVENT NARRATIVES are the beginnings of narrative discourse. • “The Personal Narrative” is often a second grade English Language Arts State Standard. • Personal narratives expand children’s conversational abilities since they are the basis for exchange of information between and among children. 7
  9. 9. What is the Story Grammar Marker®? A hands on, multisensory tool that has colorful, meaningful icons that represent the organizational structure of a story. The tool itself is a complete episode, the basic unit of a plot. Character Setting Kick-off Feeling Plan Planned Attempts (Actions) Direct Consequence Resolution The Intersection of Research and Practice8
  10. 10. MindWing Concepts, Inc. Instructional Materials www.mindwingconcepts.com 9
  11. 11. Example of the need for Narrative Intervention for Social Communication (and Writing). Page 4.2 in It’s All About the Story This 5th grade student was diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome. This is his personal narrative in response to a writing prompt. PROMPT: Everyone has a day or an experience that they remember because they were special. Maybe you had a wonderful birthday party or a special person came to your home for a visit. Write about a day or experience that was special to you. Remember to write an exciting beginning and include details in your writing. 10
  12. 12. My radio came on! “Better get up!”my mother shouted from downstairs. “They called and said they would be coming 15 minutes early.” I jumped up, pulled on my sweats and bolted down the stairs. I had 45 minutes left and I had a lot to do. They came in their big SUV. We had a really good time. We drove home in the rain and I was really tired after all that walking. I kept thinking of that thing. I will tell him about it at school. Even though I was mad, I had a great time. 11
  13. 13. “Narratives offer opportunities to support language use, emotional expression and social cognition in an integrated social and academic context.” Carol Westby in Way, et. al. (2007). Understanding alexithymia and language skills in children: implications for assessment and intervention. LSHSS, 38, 128-139. 12
  14. 14. “We dream, remember, anticipate, hope, despair, love, hate, believe, doubt, plan, construct, gossip and learn in narrative.” Westby, C. (1985, 1991). Learning to talk, talking to learn: Oral-literate language differences. In C. Simon (Ed.), Communication skills and classroom success. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications, Inc. 13
  15. 15. We think in terms of stories. Not only do we understand the world in terms of stories we’ve heard, our interpretation of personal problems and relationships is influenced by stories of others who have experienced similar situations. In fact, we understand-and explain-just about everything in life through stories.” Schank, R. (1990). Tell me a story: A new look at real and artificial memory. NY: Macmillan. 14
  16. 16. A Focus on the Discourse Level of Language: It’s About Helping Students Develop “Communicative Competence” Referred to as the Oral Literate Continuum (Westby, 1985 in Simon, Communication skills and classroom success: Therapy methodologies for language learning disabled students. College Hill , San Diego, pp 182-213 15
  17. 17. COLLEGE AND CAREER CCSS How does “narrative” fit into language development? 16
  18. 18. Without Discourse There is Not an Efficient Connection between oral language and literacy! CCSS COLLEGE AND CAREER 17
  19. 19. We help children develop literate oral language by assisting them in progressing along the oral literate continuum (discourse). CONVERSATION NARRATION EXPOSITION The Oral-Literate Continuum The “Here and Now”………………………………….The “There and Then” 18
  20. 20. What is literate oral language? It is the combination of: Macro-structure The overall organization of a story or expository text selection & Micro-structure The linguistic complexity of sentences that make up the macro-structure Elements of micro-structure connect the elements of macro-structure. 19
  21. 21. “The dynamic synchronicity between language, thoughts and world experience - which provides the basis for students to tell the events of their life while also learning to understand other’s experiences - is best described as using narrative language. At times lacking in coherence, demonstrating an over focus on detail, failing to sequence events in a manner that makes sense to the reader and/or exhibiting a weakness in conveying an emotional voice, may be some of the elements weak or missing in the narrative of our students.” ~ Michelle Garcia Winner, Foreward, It’s All About the Story & Making Connections, MindWing Concepts (2010) 20
  22. 22. Strands of Language Pragmatics Phonology Semantics Syntax & Morphology Discourse Metalinguistics 21
  23. 23. PRAGMATICS Social Uses of Language 22
  24. 24. PHONOLOGY The Sound System 23
  25. 25. SEMANTICS Meaning 24
  26. 26. SYNTAX and MORPHOLOGY From Simple to Complex Sentences 25
  27. 27. DISCOURSE Spoken and Written Communication 26
  28. 28. METALINGUISTICS The Conscious Awareness of Language 27
  29. 29. Two broad classes of language skills have been identified as important for later reading performance (literacy): Code related skills: • Phonological Awareness, • Letter naming, • Decoding, • Emergent writing… Oral language processes: • The skill sets of vocabulary (receptive and expressive); • Syntactic knowledge • Semantic (schema/script) knowledge, and • Narrative discourse processes (memory, comprehension and storytelling). NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2005). Pathways to Reading: The Role of Oral Language in the Transition to Reading. Developmental Psychology, 41,2. 28
  30. 30. We help children develop literate oral language by assisting them in progressing along the oral literate continuum (discourse). CONVERSATION NARRATION EXPOSITION The Oral-Literate Continuum The “Here and Now”………………………………….The “There and Then” 29
  31. 31. “Broad Oral Language Skills should be an integral part of reading instruction beginning in preschool and throughout elementary school.” “If comprehensive language skills directly feed nascent reading, then interventions and assessments that focus only on phonemic awareness and vocabulary development will prove too narrow to support later academic achievement…” Storch, S. & Whitehurst, G. (2002). Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 934-947. 30
  32. 32. Narrative retelling is a useful task for predicting which children may be at risk for later literacy problems. Based on the results of this study, narrative macro-structure appears to play an especially important role in the development of later literacy skills…Language intervention involving oral narratives may boost children’s reading comprehension as well as carry over to later written language skills. Wellman, et. al. (20011). Narrative ability of children with speech sound disorders and the prediction of later literacy skills. LSHSS, 42, 561-579. 31
  33. 33. This 5th grade student is diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome. This is his personal narrative in response to a writing prompt. PROMPT: Everyone has a day or an experience that they remember because they were special. Maybe you had a wonderful birthday party or a special person came to your home for a visit. Write about a day or experience that was special to you. Remember to write an exciting beginning and include details in your writing. My radio came on! “Better get up!”my mother shouted from downstairs. “They called and said they would be coming 15 minutes early.” I jumped up, pulled on my sweats and bolted down the stairs. I had 45 minutes left and I had a lot to do. They came in their big SUV. We had a really good time. We drove home in the rain and I was really tired after all that walking. I kept thinking of that thing. I will tell him about it at school. Even though I was mad, I had a great time. Example of the need for Narrative Intervention (and its impact on writing and communication)…. Page 4.2 in It’s All About the Story 32
  34. 34. “How do we know whether a person has comprehended a text? Sadly, more often than not, at least in school, the answer is that the person can complete short-answer questions about the text that he or she has read. It was true before the last three decades of research and remains true today (Pressley et al 1998): Comprehension gets tested more than students get taught how to comprehend!” Cathy Collins Block, Linda Gambrell & Michael Pressley (Eds.) (2002). Improving Comprehension Instruction: Rethinking research, Theory, and Classroom Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Written Expression and Comprehension: How literacy progress is monitored and how achievement is measured in the classroom 33
  35. 35. • Internalizing the Structure Of Stories • Understanding Characters’ Motives • Identifying Themes Struggling Comprehenders have problems: Improving Comprehension Instruction: Rethinking Research, Theory, And Classroom Practice Edited By: Cathy Collins Block, Linda B. Gambrell And Michael Pressley ISBN: 0-87207-458-7 34
  36. 36. Deep Comprehension The reader needs to: • construct a global meaning that integrates multiple sentences. • take perspectives and infer, thus combining the individual sentence meanings across the text into a coherent structure. • to fill in “missing information and build a coherent mental model that incorporates all the information in the text. Deep comprehension requires more than the mere interpretation of individual sentences. Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Reading comprehension’s new look: Influences of theory and technology on practice. Topics in language Disorders, 25, 2. 35
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  39. 39. Next 11 slides are from It’s All About the Story (one of the 3 books in MindWing’s Autism Collection) 38
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  50. 50. PLANNED ATTEMPTS 49
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  52. 52. The Narrative Developmental Sequence: Where It All Comes Together! 51
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  54. 54. Copyright © 2007, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com 53
  55. 55. Copyright © 2007, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com 54
  56. 56. Lauren, Age 6, Kindergarten (June of 2008) Using Braidy™ as a manipulative to Scaffold the Stages of Narrative Development and using Braidy™ for Expository Text (listing) 55
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  58. 58. Narrative Development Correlated to the CCSS for Reading, Key Idea and Detail #3 Using Clifford’s Pals Clifford and his pals At the work site in the cement pit playing, jumping and barking. Clifford, a big, red dog and his furry pals At the work site in the cement pit playing, jumping and barking. The work crew starts to pour cement on Susie, Lenny & Nero. Clifford pushes the cement chute aside. Clifford, a big, red dog and his furry pals At the work site in the cement pit playing, jumping and barking. All of a sudden, Clifford sees the work crew start to pour cement on Susie, Lenny & Nero. So, Clifford pushes the cement chute aside. CCSS Kindergarten RL.K.3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. CCSS Grade 1 RL.1.3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. CCSS Grade 2 RL.2.3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. Narrative Development Stage 1: Descriptive Sequence Narrative Development Stage 2: Action Sequence Narrative Development Stage 3: Reactive Sequence 57
  59. 59. Clifford, a big, red dog and his furry pals At the work site in the cement pit playing, jumping and barking. All of a sudden, Clifford sees the work crew start to pour cement on Susie, Lenny & Nero. He is worried about his pals, because they could get hurt. Clifford knows that his pals will get hurt if the cement fills the pit, so decides to save them. Clifford pushes the cement chute aside. As a result, Clifford’s pals are safe. Clifford is relieved. Clifford, a big, red dog and his furry pals At the work site in the cement pit playing, jumping and barking. All of a sudden, Clifford sees the work crew start to pour cement on Susie, Lenny & Nero. He is worried about his pals, because they could get hurt. So, Clifford pushes the cement chute aside. Narrative Development Stage 4: Abbreviated Episode Narrative Development Stage 5: Complete Episode CCSS Grade 3 RL.3.3. Describe characters in a story (traits, motivations, feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. CCSS Grade 4 RL.4.3. Describe in depth a character, setting or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (character’s thoughts, words, actions). 58
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  61. 61. Narrative Development Correlated to the CCSS for Reading, Key Idea and Detail #3 Using Chapter 1 of Charlotte’s Web Fern, her parents, the Piglet In the kitchen at home and outside at the hog house, Fern is arguing with her parents about killing a runty piglet (exploration of the setting using questions and pictures in important) Fern, an eight year old, strong willed, caring girl, her parents, a thin, sickly Piglet In the kitchen at home and outside at the hog house, Fern is arguing with her parents about killing a runt pig Fern shrieks at her mother Fern struggles with her father to get the ax away from him Fern, an eight year old, strong willed, caring girl, her parents, a thin, sickly Piglet In the kitchen at home and outside at the hog house, Fern talks to her mother about the new litter of piglets All of a sudden, Fern notices her father has an ax and means to kill the runty Piglet So, Fern shrieks at her mother and struggles with her father to get the ax and argues with him to let the runty piglet live.CCSS Kindergarten RL.K.3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. CCSS Grade 1 RL.1.3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. CCSS Grade 2 RL.2.3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. Narrative Development Stage 1: Descriptive Sequence Narrative Development Stage 2: Action Sequence Narrative Development Stage 3: Reactive Sequence 60
  62. 62. Fern, an eight year old, strong willed, caring girl, her parents, a thin, sickly Piglet In the kitchen at home and outside at the hog house, Fern talks to her mother about the new litter of piglets All of a sudden, Fern notices her father has an ax and means to kill the runty Piglet! Fern is outraged and worried about the piglet. Fern KNOWS that the runt of litter is not valuable on a farm, she REALIZES that her father needs to kill the runt, she REMEMBERS that her father has empathy, she THINKS it is a case of injustice to kill a runty piglet just because it is born too small She intends to prevent her father from killing the piglet and to convince him to let it live. First, Charlotte shrieks at her mother Then, she struggles with her father to get the ax Finally, she argues with her father to convince him to let the runty piglet live. As a result, Charlotte’s father let’s her feed and care for the runty piglet as if it were a baby and she names it Wilbur. Fern was relieved that she had saved the piglet, thrilled to be able to care for him, and triumphant that she had overcome an injustice. Fern, an eight year old, strong willed, caring girl, her parents, a thin, sickly Piglet In the kitchen at home and outside at the hog house, Fern talks to her mother about the new litter of piglets All of a sudden, Fern notices her father has an ax and means to kill the runty Piglet! Fern is outraged and worried about the piglet. So, Fern shrieks at her mother and struggles with her father to get the ax and finally convinces him to let the runty piglet live. Narrative Development Stage 4: Abbreviated Episode Narrative Development Stage 5: Complete Episode CCSS Grade 3 RL.3.3. Describe characters in a story (traits, motivations, feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. CCSS Grade 4 RL.4.3. Describe in depth a character, setting or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (character’s thoughts, words, actions). 61
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  66. 66. January Chinese New Year “In the Year of the Dog, 4645, there lived halfway across the world from New York, a girl called Sixth Cousin. Otherwise known as Bandit. Once winter morning, a letter arrived at the House of Wong from her father, who had been traveling the four seas. On the stamp sat an ugly, bald bird. The paper was blue. When Mother read it, she smiled. But the words made Grandmother cry and Grandfather angry. No one gave Sixth Cousin even the smallest hint of why.” 65
  67. 67. A letter arrived from Bandit’s father. A letter arrived from Bandit’s father. A letter arrived from Bandit’s father. Mother felt happy (smiled). Grandmother felt sad (cried). Grandfather felt angry. On the first page of In the Year of the Boar and Jackie Robinson, there is an initiating event that causes 4 different feelings in 4 different characters. Because of the “mental states” of each character, this “kick off” made each of them feel a certain way. Each character will have a different plan and different motivation based on these different feelings and mental states. This example makes it clear to see how important the foundation of narrative development is in perspective-taking when reading novels (and this is just page 1!!). A letter arrived from Bandit’s father. Bandit felt confused and concerned. 66
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  69. 69. Please Note: In Rosie’s Walk, Rosie’s perspective of the story is at Stage 2 – the Action Sequence. The Fox has a PLAN (to eat Rosie) so he makes many ATTEMPTS to catch her so that he can eat her. Therefore, from the Fox’s perspective this is a STAGE 5, The Complete Episode. 68
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  71. 71. What is literate oral language? It is the combination of: Macro-structure The overall organization of a story or expository text selection & Micro-structure The linguistic complexity of sentences that make up the macro-structure Elements of micro-structure connect the elements of macro-structure. 70
  72. 72. Narrative Macro-structure is… …the global organizational structure or “story grammar” of a narrative (story) – independent of content. 71
  73. 73. Micro-structure: Gluing the Sentences Together 1. Micro-structure, as defined by Justice (2004), is the internal linguistic organization of the narrative. 2. Micro-structure is commonly referred to as “story sparkle” (Westby). It focuses on vocabulary and sentence development as well as cohesive ties (see page 39-40 of SGM® manual.) 3. Micro-structure is the elaboration and cohesion that makes a story (narrative) meaningful. (SGM® manual page 39-44.) 4. Micro-structure’s literate language features: • Elaborated noun phrases (ex. The big, scary fish…) • Verb phrases (tense use & adverb use, ex. The big, scary fish swam slowly.) • Mental State verbs (the character may: remember, know, think, realize, etc.) • Linguistic verbs (whispered, yelled, asked, etc.) • Conjunctions (and, but, so, because, first, then, next, finally, etc.) 72
  74. 74. 73 Cohesive Tie Activity A Differentiated Instruction Activity Focused on Micro-Structure, Fluency and the Semantics, Syntax & Morphology Strands of Language Materials Needed: 1. Old Tie 2. Stick-on letters 3. Conjunction word cards from Our Friend Braidy™ Poster 4. Clothes pin (wooden or plastic) 5. Sentence Strips (optional) 6. 3 volunteers to participate C O H E S I V E #1 #2 #3
  75. 75. Large Group Activity: Analyzing Children’s Literature at Each Stage of Narrative Development 74
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  89. 89. The Boston Tea Party Story Grammar Marker® Style 
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  91. 91. The King was desperate. 91
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  96. 96. Expository or informational text is… • found in text books such as history, geography, social studies, science and technology. • the structure of college lectures, newspapers and weekly readers. • particularly important for organizing and comprehending information in: news articles, textbook chapters, research papers, advertisements, content area texts, the Internet • in everyday life; for example: in driving directions, recipes, to- do lists, current events, decisions to purchase products or services, work problems, home and property maintenance or local politics. 96
  97. 97. 97 “Using informational text to teach social studies [and science] is crucial in developing content area knowledge and reading comprehension skills in elementary students.” Pennington et al. (2014). Reading informational Texts: A Civic Transactional Perspective. The Reading Teacher, 63(7), 532..
  98. 98. Improving Comprehension Instruction: Rethinking Research, Theory, and Classroom Practice Edited By: Cathy Collins Block, Linda B. Gambrell and Michael Pressley ISBN: 0-87207-458-7 • Expository texts present additional comprehension obstacles for struggling comprehenders… …Because… • Expository genres are written to provide information versus to tell a story • The patterns in which authors organize their ideas and information differ depending on their purpose and the specific content area 98
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  108. 108. There is big box supercenter that wants to build a location in the city; there are many people for or against this project. A big box supercenter in the city will be beneficial to the residents of the city. The location is zoned for business development, encouraging competition is tantamount to a thriving economy, residents will have more options and better prices for common goods, a supercenter will increase the business tax base and alleviate the tax burden of homeowners, this type of store will offer convenience of a variety of products under one roof. The plan is to demonstrate reasons and evidence that show the negative impact that a big box supercenter would present to the city. Having a big box supercenter in the city will be detrimental to the residents of the city, although there are people in favor of such an endeavor. 108
  109. 109. Traffic reports show that the road is already congested with a mall and other shopping centers and is only two lanes. The lot is adjacent to heavily populated public housing and a quiet residential neighborhood. Even though it is zoned for business, this location cannot accommodate a supercenter type of store. This supercenter will destroy small businesses in the local economy. A study of small towns in Iowa showed lost sales for local businesses amounting to a total dollar loss of $2.46 BILLION over a 13-year period resulting from a supercenter being built. The job offerings are low paying and not full time with benefits. Tens of thousands of supercenter employees and their children are enrolled in Medicaid and are dependent on the government for healthcare. Due to supercenters ordering from China, the United States has actually lost an average of about 50,000 good paying manufacturing jobs PER MONTH since 2001. Having a big box supercenter in the city will be detrimental to the city due to several reasons and facts. The area cannot accommodate the traffic, it is too close to a residential neighborhood, it will destroy local businesses and many of the jobs are low paying and do not offer full time employment with benefits. There is big box supercenter that wants to build a location in the city; there are many people for or against this project. Some resident claim that a big box supercenter in the city will be detrimental to the residents of the city, although there are also residents in favor of such an endeavor. 109
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  111. 111. Connect with us! • Follow us on Twitter @mindwingconcept • LIKE us on Facebook! https://www.facebook.com/mindwingconcepts • And our NEW Facebook virtual Official Story Grammar Marker® Professional Learning Community https://www.facebook.com/groups/StoryGrammarMarker/ • Join our EMAIL list: http://mindwingconcepts.com/contactus.htm • Connect with Maryellen Rooney Moreau on LinkedIn 111
  112. 112. Use discount code WF10 for 10% OFF all MindWing Concepts products! Order at this conference, get FREE shipping and handling, too (another 10% savings)! Order after the conference, and still get 10% off by using this code WF10 on www.mindwingconcepts.com (discount code good through November 10, 2015). 112
  113. 113. How to reach Maryellen: Call her (toll free): 888.228.9746 Email her: mrmoreau@mindwingconcepts.com 113

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