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The 6th Pillar of Reading

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Presentation at ASHA Denver 2015 by Maryellen Rooney Moreau of MindWing Concepts, Inc.

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The 6th Pillar of Reading

  1. 1. The Sixth Pillar of Reading: Knowledge Development Through Discourse Strategies Presented by: Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP 1 ASHA DENVER 2015
  2. 2. Visit http://mindwingconcepts.com/pages/presentations For the full handout version of this presentation. 2
  3. 3. Disclosures Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP President & Founder, MindWing Concepts, Inc., Springfield, MA •Financial: Maryellen has ownership interest in MindWing Concepts, holds intellectual property rights and patents. Maryellen is employed as president of MindWing Concepts. In that capacity, she designed Story Grammar Marker® and Braidy the StoryBraid® along with many other books and materials. She runs this business as well as consults, trains and presents on MindWing Concepts’ methodology and for this, she receives a salary. MindWing Concepts, Inc. receives speaker fees, consulting fees and honoraria as well as reimbursement for travel costs. •Nonfinancial: No relevant nonfinancial relationships exist. 3
  4. 4. 4 Two of my ASHA presentations from the past couple of years…
  5. 5. How do we get there? Build Oral Language Competence and Allow Children to THINK and TALK! “Oral language development precedes and is the foundation for written language development; in other words, oral language is primary and written language builds on it. Children’s oral language competence is strongly predictive of their facility in learning to read and write: listening and speaking vocabulary and even mastery of syntax set boundaries as to what children can read and understand no matter how well they can decode.” — Catts, Adolf, & Weismer, 2006; Hart & Risley, 1995; Hoover & Gough, 1990: Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998 — 5
  6. 6. CONVERSATION NARRATIVE EXPOSITION The Oral-Literate Continuum The “Here and Now”………….The “There and Then” CONTEXTUALIZED………..DECONTECTUALIZED The Oral-Literate Continuum Westby, 1991 6
  7. 7. CCSS COLLEGE AND CAREER 7
  8. 8. Without Discourse There No Efficient Connection from Oral Language Development to Literacy CCSS COLLEGE AND CAREER 8
  9. 9. The Sixth Pillar of Reading KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT 9
  10. 10. 10 Tuscan Types of Architectural Pillars
  11. 11. National Reading Panel Report National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. NIH Publication No. 004769 Washington, DC. US Government Printing Office 11
  12. 12. Cervetti, G. & Hiebert, E. (2015). The sixth pillar of reading instruction: knowledge development. The Reading Teacher, 68, 7, 548-551. “One of the most significant changes of the CCSS/ELA is a focus on knowledge development as part of literacy development and focus on the acquisition of literacy skills specific to different disciplines. KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT The Sixth Pillar of Reading 12
  13. 13. The Sixth Pillar of Reading •Knowledge is a critical component of the reading process, which has a tremendous impact on what students understand and learn from reading. •Knowledge influences comprehension, especially inference •Prior knowledge (background knowledge) helps students fill in gaps in texts, easing comprehension. •Students with more knowledge about the content are better able to use the context of the text to make sense of new information and better able to make connections across different parts of the text. Gina Cervetti & Elfrieda Hiebert (2015). The Sixth Pillar of Reading instruction: Knowledge Development. The Reading Teacher, 68(7). International Literacy Association 13
  14. 14. • The Common Core (CCSS) “foregrounds” knowledge development as a focus of ELA instruction: Integration of knowledge and Ideas • Information Text is a focus of the CCSS • Focus is on the why and how questions to make connections across text and help students monitor their comprehension. • Students engage with texts for thinking through the development of knowledge through engagement with multiple related texts in order to delineate problems and construct arguments. • Deeper and more integrated understandings of texts are created through interaction with multiple related texts. 14 Gina Cervetti & Elfrieda Hiebert (2015). The Sixth Pillar of Reading instruction: Knowledge Development. The Reading Teacher, 68(7). International Literacy Association
  15. 15. 15 CCSS Anchor Standard Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.1 CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
  16. 16. “CCSS/ELA calls for increases in the proportion of informational texts at all grade levels and indicate that “by reading texts in history/social studies, science, and other disciplines, students build a foundation of knowledge in these fields that will also give them the background to be better readers in all content areas.” Cervetti, G. & Hiebert, E. (2015). The sixth pillar of reading instruction: Knowledge development. The Reading Teacher, 68(7), 548-551. 16 Foundation of Knowledge
  17. 17. Rather than inspiring children to think more expansively about the texts they are reading, prompts for “text evidence” often require only literal recall, and children resort to plucking words, phrases, or sentences from texts to satisfy the prompt. Example: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which points. CCSS: RI.4.8; RI.5.8 Stahl, K. (2014). What counts as evidence? The Reading Teacher, 68(2), 103-106. 17 Think more expansively
  18. 18. • Evidence is not static or tangible. • Evidence is created by people in their efforts to create knowledge claims about the world. Evidence changes as knowledge is created. • The objective is how students might use their minds to think and communicate about the topic. Kirch, S. (2015). Teaching and learning the purpose of evidence for knowledge and knowing. The Reading Teacher, 69(2), 163-167. 18 Think and Communicate
  19. 19. Learning is a consequence of thinking. Retention, understanding, and the active use of knowledge can be brought about only by learning experiences in which learners think about and think with what they are learning… 19 Knowledge Comes from Thinking Far from thinking coming after knowledge, knowledge comes on the coattails of thinking. As we think about and with the content that we are learning we truly learn it. Perkins, D. (1992). Smart Schools: From training memories to educating minds. NY: FreePress
  20. 20. Certain kinds of thinking are essential in aiding our understanding: •Observing closely and describing what’s there. •Building explanations and interpretations •Reasoning with evidence •Making Connections between “new” and “known” •Considering different view points and perspectives •Capturing the heart and forming conclusions •Wondering and asking questions •Uncovering complexity and going below the surface of things Ritchhart, R. et al (2011) Making thinking visible: How to promote engagement, understanding and independence for all learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 20 Thinking Aiding Our Understanding
  21. 21. Learning is a mediated activity (external scaffolds) The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. Iddings, A. et al (2009). When you don’t speak their language: Guiding English-language learners through conversations about text. The Reading Teacher 63(1), 52-61. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press 21 Learning is Mediated
  22. 22. Classroom techniques teachers use… • Think pair share • Turn and Talk • Think Write, Pair Compare 22 • Fishbowl • Jigsaw • Inside-Outside Circle • Mix-Freeze-Group
  23. 23. What is student engagement? – How do I feel? – Am I interested? – Is this important? –Can I do this? - Marzano, R. (2011). The highly engaged classroom 23 Definition of Student Engagement: “Willingness to participate in routine school activities.” - Newman and Davies, 2005
  24. 24. Student Engagement Indicators 24 1. The ability to question, contribute, and/or collaborate throughout the lesson. 2. The ability to actively listen, rephrase, agree/disagree and offer rationales in order to understand each other. 3. The ability to sustain interaction, often in small groups in order to complete academic tasks that include speaking, listening, reading and writing or other means of expression. 4. The ability to cite and use evidence and/or data to analyze, interpret, synthesize or evaluate information.
  25. 25. 5. The ability to express thoughts through demonstration, discussion, debate and multimedia in order to share their ideas and defend their positions. 6. The ability to formulate questions, make predictions, and perform strategies with increased confidence. 7. The ability to assess their own performance and set appropriate goals for what they need to do to meet lesson objectives or move to the next level of proficiency. 25
  26. 26. If we are trying to understand something, we have to notice its parts and features, being able to describe it fully and in detail. Identifying and breaking something down into its parts and features is also a key aspect of analysis. The process of understanding is integrally linked to our building explanations and interpretations. Ritchhart, R. et al (2011) Making thinking visible: How to promote engagement, understanding and independence for all learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 26 Noticing Details
  27. 27. Methodology and Tools 27
  28. 28. What is the Story Grammar Marker®? A hands on, multisensory tool that has colorful, meaningful icons that represent the organizational structure of a story. The tool itself is a complete episode, the basic unit of a plot. Character Setting Kick-off Feeling Plan Planned Attempts (Actions) Direct 28
  29. 29. Copyright © 2015 • www.mindwingconcepts.com The Critical Thinking Triangle®: It’s what is missing from traditional graphic organizers!
  30. 30. 30 A narrative is a story. It involves the telling or re-telling of events and experiences orally and in writing. A story can be true or fictitious and takes into account one or more points of view. Narrative Defined…
  31. 31. “We dream, remember, anticipate, hope, despair, love, hate, believe, doubt, plan, construct, gossip and learn in narrative.” Westby, C. (1985, 1991). Learning to talk, talking to learn: Oral-literate language differences. In C. Simon (Ed.), Communication skills and classroom success. 31
  32. 32. Today’s Workshop! 32
  33. 33. 33 Expository or informational text is found in text books such as history, geography, social studies, science and technology. Expository text is particularly important for organizing and comprehending information in: news articles, textbook chapters, science experiments, research papers, advertisements, content area texts, the Internet and even in everyday life. The basic expository or informational text structures are: description, list, sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, compare/contrast and persuasion. (Rooney Moreau & Fidrych, 2008, p. 18). Expository Defined…
  34. 34. 34 As the curriculum becomes more complex… EXPOSITORY TEXT IS INTRODUCED AND BECOMES MORE PREVALENT. IT IS: TECHNICAL ABSTRACT DENSE COMPLEX ALIENATING Technical Vocabulary Embedded Clauses Fang, Z., and Schlippegrell, M. (2010). Disciplinary Literacies Across Content Areas: Supporting Secondary Reading Through Functional Language Analysis. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 53(7). International Reading Association.
  35. 35. 35 Several investigations have demonstrated that successful expository writing depends on sensitivity to informational text structures and an ability to predict or organize ideas on the basis of one’s knowledge of the topic. Ward-Lonergan, J. (2010). Expository discourse in school-age children and adolescents with language disorders: Nature of the Problem. In M. Nippold & C. Scott. Expository Discourse in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Development and Disorders
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Persuasion 37
  38. 38. Deepening of Thought and Knowledge 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40 Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DoK) was “employed to analyze the cognitive expectation demanded by standards, curricular activities and assessment tasks” (Webb, 1997). Ultimately the DoK level describes the kind of thinking required by a task, not whether or not the task is “difficult.” (Webb, 2009). Webb’s Depth of Knowledge
  41. 41. 41 Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Levels are: LEVEL 1: Recall & Reproduction LEVEL 2: Working with Skills & Concepts LEVEL 3: Short-Term Strategic Thinking LEVEL 4: Extended Strategic Thinking Reference: Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DoK) Guide: Career and Technical Education Definitions, 2009, based upon Webb’s DoK was “employed to analyze the cognitive expectation demanded by standards, curricular activities and assessment tasks” (Webb, 1997).
  42. 42. 42 Bloom’s Taxonomy: •Remember •Understand •Apply •Analyze •Evaluate •Create
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44 A Narrative To Illustrate Discourse and Thought Development Grandma Jeremy Antonio Guidance Counselor
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46 Jeremy’s Perspective
  47. 47. 47 Grandma’s Perspective
  48. 48. 48 Jeremy’s Perspective
  49. 49. 49 Antonio’s Perspective
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 55 1 Tuscan
  56. 56. 56 Quadrant #1 of the Discourse and Thought Development Chart Recognition of the General Situation In order to describe, order, label and recall, one needs to be aware of basic situations in life and the world (characters/settings) and the routine actions/procedures that occur. Think about: recalling, routines, descriptions.
  57. 57. 57 *Boelts, Maribeth. Those Shoes. Somerville, MA: Candlewick Press, 2009. *Chesanow, Neil. Where Do I Live? New York: Garron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1995. Lamia, Mary. Understanding Myself. Washington: Magination Press, 2011. Ritchie, Scot. Follow That Map! A First Book of Mapping Skills. New York: Kids Can Press Ltd., 2009. *Sterling, Kristin. Living in Rural Communities. Minneapolis: Lerner Publication Group, Inc., 2008. *Sterling, Kristin. Living in Suburban Communities. Minneapolis: Lerner Publication Group, Inc., 2008. *Sterling, Kristin. Living in Urban Communities. Minneapolis: Lerner Publication Group, Inc., 2008. Woodson, Jacqueline. The Other Side. New York: G.P. The Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 2001. Woodson, Jacqueline. This Is the Rope. New York: The Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 2013. Quadrant #1 - REFERENCES
  58. 58. 58 2 Doric
  59. 59. 59 Quadrant #2 of the Discourse and Thought Development Chart –Identification of the Causal Chain Cause/Effect is the hallmark of these narrative stages: physical and psychological. It is important for students to know that many causes are psychological, in one’s mind, memories or background knowledge. The formation of the causal chain enables students to begin to infer using their own unique background. For example, if we know the kick-off and the reaction (action/feeling) we are more able to use the elements of the narrative episode to go beyond a prediction and infer. This is a building block toward our ability to problem solve, form opinions, persuade and argue with evidence. Think about: Major narrative events, patterns,
  60. 60. 60 *Boelts, Maribeth. Those Shoes. Massachusetts: Candlewich Press, 2009. Havill, Juanita. Jamaica’s Blue Marker. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995. *Hord, Colleen. Need It Or Want It? Minnesota: Rourke Publishing, Inc., 2012. Jackson, Ellen. It’s Back to School We Go! First Day Stories from Around the World. Minneapolis: Millbrook Press, 2003. *Larson, Jennifer. Do I Need It? Or Do I Want it? Minnesota: Lerner Publishing Group, Inc., 2010. Sember, Brette McWhorter. The Everything Kids’ Money Book. Massachusetts: Adams Media, 2008. Williams, Vera. A Chair For My Mother. New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1982. Woodson, J. & Lewis, E.B. (2012). Each Kindness NY: Nancy Paulsen Books Reference: Unicef Canada. Rights, Wants & Needs. globalclassroom@unicef.ca, 2001. Quadrant #2 - REFERENCES
  61. 61. 61 3 Ionic
  62. 62. 62 Quadrant #3 of the Discourse and Thought Development Chart Problem Identification/Solving …As students gain experience with the problem solving process, they will be able to see multiple characters’ motivations for their actions in terms of emotion, mental states (thought processes) and plan making. Such training enables students to prepare for argument/persuasion from the point of view of the opposition: strong and convincing arguments are made if the arguer knows the opposition/s point of view as well as his/her own. Theory of Mind building of the gestalt and development of a Situation Model are important. Think about: Evidence, vocal register, issues,
  63. 63. 63 *Boelts, Maribeth. Those Shoes. Massachusetts: Candlewich Press, 2009. Chinn, Karen. Sam And The Lucky Money. New York: Lee & Low Books Inc., 1995. *DeBell, Susan. How do I stand in your shoes? South Carolina: YouthLight, Inc., 2012. *McBrier, Page. Beatrice’s Goat. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 2004. Pransky, Jack and Amy Kahofer. What is a Thought? (A Thought is a Lot). California: Social Thinking Publishing, 2012. *Sornson, Bob. Stand in My Shoes. Michigan: Nelson Publishing & Marketing, 2013. Williams, Karen Lynn and Mohammed, Khadra. Four Feet, Two Sandals. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007. Reference: Canadian Teachers’ Federation. Poverty, What Is It? Immagineaction www.imagine-action.ca, 2014. Quadrant #3 - REFERENCES
  64. 64. 64 Corinthian 4
  65. 65. 65 Quadrant #4 of the Discourse and Thought Development Chart Synthesis of Problem Solving & Development of Argument In the Interactive Episodic Structure, there is another active character who is receiving the effects of another’s plan as a kick-off for him/her. This is an advanced causal chain in that changes of emotion are noted. He or she may think about the motivations of the other character and the plans the other has made. He or she may form an opinion, point of view, or perspective that will facilitate the ability to argue based on evidence. Think about: analysis and synthesis from multiple sources, common themes.
  66. 66. 66 *Boelts, Maribeth. Those Shoes. Massachusetts: Candlewich Press, 2009. Choose one of these, or your preference, to begin: Hunsicker, Kelley. Chinese Immigrants in America, An Interactive History Adventure. Minnesota: Capstone Press, 2008. Miller, Kirby and Miller, Patricia Mulholland. Journey of Hope, The Story of Irish Immigration to America. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2001. Otfinoski, Steven. The Child Labor Reform Movement, An Interactive History Adventure. Minnesota: Capstone Press, 2014. Raum, Elizabeth. Irish Immigrants in America, An Interactive History Adventure. Minnesota: Capstone Press, 2008. Williams, Mary. Brothers In Hope, The Story of the Lost Boys of Sudan. New York: Lee & Low Books Inc., 2005. Quadrant #4 - REFERENCES
  67. 67. 67 Oral Discourse Strategies Kit Language, Thinking and Oral Discourse Strategies
  68. 68. 68 “A strategy is a deliberate attempt to use the knowledge and skills we have effectively. For example, deciding to summarize a passage we read in order to remember its content is a reading comprehension strategy… Practicing learning strategies with curriculum related material is an important role of the speech/language pathologist.” - Ehren (2002) A Strategy Is A Plan.
  69. 69. 69 A Macro-strategy Is A Collection of Strategies. -Marzano (2012)
  70. 70. 70Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  71. 71. 71 “Focus on Text Structures as a starting point: Text structures serve as mental flags to help students organize and therefore predict incoming information.” HOW DO WE DO THIS?
  72. 72. 72Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  73. 73. 73Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  74. 74. 74Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  75. 75. 75Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  76. 76. 76Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  77. 77. 77Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  78. 78. 78Taken From MindWing’s Oral Discourse Strategies Kit http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/oral-discourse-strategies-kit
  79. 79. 79 The Colorado State Capitol in Denver was designed by Elijah E. Myers‘ whose "Corinthian" proposal was selected in 1886. It took another twenty-three years to complete the building. While the "guts" of the building were modern, the exterior used ancient ideas. As Myers stated in 1886, "The great temples of the most advanced nations of antiquity - Egypt, Greece, Persia and Rome - all these were built in the classic style of architecture… of which Corinthian was the latest and most perfect and beautiful." The Goal of the Sixth Pillar is Knowledge at the “Corinthian Pillar” Level
  80. 80. Bibliography of Children’s Books* Related to the Discourse and Thought Development Chart Moreau, M. (2015) * Narrative & expository books to “get started” 80
  81. 81. 81 Selected References Beers, K. & Probst, R. (2013). Notice & note: Strategies for close reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Cervetti, G. & Hiebert, E. (2015). The sixth pillar of reading instruction: Knowledge development. The Reading Teacher, 68(7), 548-551. Hess, K. (2004). Applying Webb’s DoK levels in reading. Available online: http://www.nciea.org/publications/DoKreading_KH08.pdf Iddings, A. et al (2009). When you don’t speak their language: Guiding English-language learners through conversations about text. The Reading Teacher 63(1), 52-61. Kirch, S. (2015). Teaching and learning the purpose of evidence for knowledge and knowing. The Reading Teacher, 69(2), 163-167. National Reading Panel Report. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. NIH Publication No. 004769. Washington, DC. US Government Printing Office
  82. 82. 82 Pennington, et al. (2014). Reading informational texts: A civic transactional perspective. The Reading Teacher, 63(7), 532. Perkins, D. (1992). Smart Schools: From training memories to educating minds. NY: FreePress Ritchhart, R. et al (2011). Making thinking visible: How to promote engagement, understanding and independence for all learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Roth, F., and Spekman, N. (1989). Higher-order language processes and reading disabilities: In A. Kamhi and H. Catts (Eds). Reading disabilities: A developmental language perspective. Boston, MA: College-Hill. Stahl, K. (2014). What counts as evidence? The Reading Teacher, 68(2), 103-106. Stein, N. & Glenn, C. (1979). An analysis of story comprehension in elementary school children. In R. Freedle (Ed.). New directions in discourse processing (2), Norwood, NY: Ablex Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press Westby, C. (1991). Learning to talk-talking to learn: Oral-literate language differences. In C. S. Simon (Ed.). Communication Skills and Classroom Success. San Diego: College-Hill Press
  83. 83. Call her (toll free): 888.228.9746 Email her: mrmoreau@mindwingconcepts.com More… 83 VISIT BOOT H 943 How to reach Maryellen:
  84. 84. Connect with Maryellen: • Join our EMAIL list: http://mindwingconcepts.com/contactus.htm • Follow us on Twitter @mindwingconcept • LIKE us on Facebook! https://www.facebook.com/mindwingconcepts • Join our Official SGM® Professional Learning Community on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StoryGrammarMarker/ • Follow us on Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/sheils200/official-story- grammar-marker/ • Connect with Maryellen Rooney Moreau on LinkedIn 84

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