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Staten Island New York City Dept. of Education, Oct. 2015 Presentation

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Staten Island New York City Dept. of Education, Oct. 2015 Presentation

  1. 1. Presenter: Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed., CCC-SLP President and Founder of MindWing Concepts, Inc. Narrative & Expository Text Development and Data Collection with Story Grammar Marker® & ThemeMaker® Staten Island October 2015 1
  2. 2. Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP, President & Founder, MindWing Concepts, Inc., Springfield, MA • Financial: Maryellen has ownership interest in MindWing Concepts, holds intellectual property rights and patents. Maryellen is employed as president of MindWing Concepts. In that capacity, she designed Story Grammar Marker® and Braidy the StoryBraid® along with many other books and materials. She runs this business as well as consults, trains and presents on MindWing Concepts’ methodology and for this, she receives a salary. MindWing Concepts, Inc. receives speaker fees, consulting fees and honoraria as well as reimbursement for travel costs. • Nonfinancial: No relevant nonfinancial relationships exist. • This presentation will focus exclusively on Story Grammar Marker® and will not include information on other similar or related products. Disclosures 2
  3. 3. https://www.facebook.com/groups/StoryGrammarMarker/ Please join the OFFICIAL Story Grammar Marker® Professional Learning Community on FaceBook 3
  4. 4. 1. Focuses on critical, functional skills. 2. Uses explicit teaching 3. Is carefully sequenced 4. Emphasizes the use of conspicuous strategies 5. Uses scaffolding to promote student success 6. Utilizes prior knowledge 7. Provides regular opportunities for practice. (McIntosh, 2010) Quality Instruction Includes: 4
  5. 5. • How do our assessment practices need to change with the Common Core State Standards? • Changes in how we need to “examine the data” • “Standardized assessments may fail to assess the dynamic demands of the classroom” • “We need to examine functional aspects of language through narrative-based assessments, student work samples and the like” 5
  6. 6. How… • Know the Common Core…how do our assessments fit with them. • Read educational publications “to keep up with standards-related developments, state and federal.” • Include narrative-based assessment: – “Narrative skills play a critical role in accessing standards.” – “Narrative-based assessment options give insight into a student’s ability to use complex sentences in a variety of contexts.” – “Standardized measures (TNL, Gillam; SALT) and informal measures such as eliciting personal narratives… and retellings • Recognize vocabulary demands: understand the role different types of vocabulary play – (PPVT; Montgomery Assessment of Vocabulary Acquisition; Tiers of vocabulary; Academic Vocabulary). 6
  7. 7. • Gain insight into a student’s pragmatic skills (Bellini, Autism Social Skills Profile) Also, Brinton and Fujiki; Social Thinking®, Mindwing Concepts etc…) • Include student work samples in your assessment (writing samples; children’s oral discourse/presentations) • Familiarize yourself with Common Core Formal Assessments (Smarter Balance;….). Does the language of the test questions pose problems for your students? “Allow yourself to admit we are all still just learning as we go, which can be unsettling for many of us. The important part is to remain flexible and keep tweaking our current practices until we get the formula just right for each student.” (Dodd, 2014) 7
  8. 8. Speaking and Listening Standards K-5 Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas #4 1 Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly. K Describe familiar people, places, things and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail. 2 Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. 3 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. 4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. 5 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. Please note: If a child cannot take perspective in the narrative, then he/she will have difficulty using evidence to argue a point or present an opinion. 8
  9. 9. Just heard last Monday: • “What about topic development? She can’t develop a topic.” Others: • “He has trouble expressing himself.” • “She can answer questions about topics if I am there to encourage her to say more.” • “She tells everything out of order…” • “Her writing, no matter what the topic is, is a list, but I guess everything is essentially a list until you elaborate.” • “All I hear from him are really short sentences.” • “She keeps stopping and rewording in peer groups or “turn and talk”. I think she is nervous. She needs to look at something to help her.” • “Her stories are disorganized and sound like “and then and then and then”. • “He goes off track and leaves out important details when talking about a topic…we want the facts from the text.” Teacher comments about discourse expression 9
  10. 10. Student Engagement Indicators 10 1. The ability to question, contribute, and/or collaborate throughout the lesson. 2. The ability to actively listen, rephrase, agree/disagree and offer rationales in order to understand each other. 3. The ability to sustain interaction, often in small groups in order to complete academic tasks that include speaking, listening, reading and writing or other means of expression. 4. The ability to cite and use evidence and/or data to analyze, interpret, synthesize or evaluate information.
  11. 11. 5. The ability to express thoughts through demonstration, discussion, debate and multimedia in order to share their ideas and defend their positions. 6. The ability to formulate questions, make predictions, and perform strategies with increased confidence. 7. The ability to assess their own performance and set appropriate goals for what they need to do to meet lesson objectives or move to the next level of proficiency. 11
  12. 12. Cervetti, G. & Hiebert, E. (2015). The sixth pillar of reading instruction: knowledge development. The Reading Teacher, 68, 7, 548-551. “One of the most significant changes of the CCSS/ELA is a focus on knowledge development as part of literacy development and focus on the acquisition of literacy skills specific to different disciplines. In highlighting these connections between ELA and knowledge as part of literacy, the CCSS/ELA provide an opportunity for teachers to emphasize what research has validated for decades: that knowledge is a critical component of the reading process. In this column, we describe why knowledge development should be viewed as the sixth pillar of reading instruction and how teachers can increase their students’ knowledge building through reading.” KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT The Sixth Pillar of Reading 12
  13. 13. Mind taking flight = thought & knowledge development 13
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  15. 15. Language Provides the Building Blocks to Literacy 15
  16. 16. Without Discourse There No Efficient Connection from Oral Language Development to Literacy CCSS COLLEGE AND CAREER 16
  17. 17. DISCOURSE Spoken and Written Communication CONVERSATION NARRATION EXPOSITION The “Here and Now”………………………………….The “There and Then” D I S C O U R S E Carol Westby (1985) The Oral-Literate Continuum 17
  18. 18. What is the Story Grammar Marker®? A hands on, multisensory narrative development tool that has colorful, meaningful icons that represent the organizational structure of a story. The tool itself is a complete episode, the basic unit of a plot. Character Setting Kick-off Feeling Plan Planned Attempts (Actions) Direct Consequence Resolution http://mindwingconcepts.com/collections/story-grammar-marker 18
  19. 19. The Critical Thinking Triangle®: It’s what is missing from traditional graphic organizers! 19
  20. 20. Macrostructure: Narrative Structure and Organization Microstructure: Syntax and Morphology “A growing body of literature substantiates the efficacy of narrative intervention, including: • parent training, • explicit teaching of narrative structure interactively and meaning based and • use of narratives as a context for addressing both linguistic and narrative skills.” Boudreau, D. (2008). Topics in Language Disorders 28(2) Narrative Based Language Intervention 20
  21. 21. A narrative is a story. It involves the telling or re-telling of events and experiences orally and in writing. A story can be true or fictitious and takes into account one or more points of view. Narrative Defined… 21
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  24. 24. http://tinyurl.com/eggbertmovietrailer *** “Movie Trailer” *** 24
  25. 25. Materials Used in activities 25
  26. 26. https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF- 8#q=pocket+chart+red+yellow+green&tbm=shop&spd=12175336825629874342 Pocket Chart 26
  27. 27. http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/cohesive-tie-jar-gon-kit MindWing’s Cohesive Tie JAR-gon 27
  28. 28. http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/universal-magnet-set MindWing’s Universal Magnet Set 28
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  32. 32. Micro-structure: Gluing the Sentences Together 1. Micro-structure, as defined by Justice (2004), is the internal linguistic organization of the narrative. 2. Micro-structure is commonly referred to as “story sparkle” (Westby). It focuses on vocabulary and sentence development as well as cohesive ties (see page 39-40 of SGM® manual.) 3. Micro-structure is the elaboration and cohesion that makes a story (narrative) meaningful. (SGM® manual page 39-44.) 4. Micro-structure’s literate language features: • Elaborated noun phrases (ex. The big, scary fish…) • Verb phrases (tense use & adverb use, ex. The big, scary fish swam slowly.) • Mental State verbs (the character may: remember, know, think, realize, etc.) • Linguistic verbs (whispered, yelled, asked, etc.) • Conjunctions (and, but, so, because, first, then, next, finally, etc.) 32
  33. 33. • Elaborated noun phrases: a hard fall on the sidewalk; beautiful little lights; • Verb phrase & -ly adverbs: sadly, luckily (See sentence exemplars below) • Conjunctions: Then, but, and, just when, finally • Mental State Verbs: thought, knew, thinking, notice, realized, notice • Communication (linguistic) verbs: whispered; ordered • Figurative language: caught his eye; if the truth be told; Split!; Voila!, Scramble!, hunched • Exemplar Sentences to demonstrate cohesion and the complexity of mental state verbs: • He hunched his shoulders, what little shoulders he had, and pressed his shell together, so that the crack almost disappeared. • All the drawers had labels, but none of them was right for Eggbert. • But just as Eggbert was thinking he’d found the perfect place, a potato plant happened to notice his crack. • He realized that no matter how he painted himself, he could not hide who he was. Microstructure Examples and Literate Language Features from Eggbert 33
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  47. 47. http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/cohesive-tie-jar-gon-kit MindWing’s Cohesive Tie JAR-gon 47
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  56. 56. Sequence for the Character Mapping & Paragraph Writing This actual lesson was done as a whole group in grade 1. Steps were: 1. Teacher filled out the character map on chart paper eliciting student input. A large Character Icon Magnet can be used on a white board or a Character Image can be used on a Smartboard 2. Teacher put the map on a student Character Map and made a copy for each student. 3. Teacher reviewed the map together with the students and had them number the categories 1-4. 56
  57. 57. 4. Teacher then wrote the sentences on chart paper with student input using each item from the map and checking off the item on the map as each item was used. 5. Teacher then read the paragraph with students from the chart paper. 6. Teacher copied the paragraph for each student so the next day each child received the completed class paragraph. 7. As a group, the paragraph was reread and then each child underlined with the teacher modeling, each item from the map. 57
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  64. 64. Outcome Students were able to visually see taking a list and turning it into sentences, development of a paragraph and thus…a description of our character! 64
  65. 65. Older Student Mapping/Writing Example 65
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  69. 69. 3 Choices for ART PROJECTS The art projects were done with the students of various ages and abilities – use your discretion. There are several opportunities for conversational discourse. 69
  70. 70. 1.) Provide a paper with 2 large ovals. Eggbert can be drawn showing happy and sad. 70
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  72. 72. 2.) Eggbert is created showing a gradual build up of an expository sequence using google eyes, a beret cut out from red felt and the arms and legs. All were prepared ahead of time. See the steps. 72
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  79. 79. 3.) Eggbert cut-outs with Setting Map drawn portraying Eggbert in a creative setting. If the child is able, he/she can draw a picture and write a sentence. 79
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  83. 83. Expository Text 83
  84. 84. ThemeMaker Kit – Expository Text http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/the-thememaker-kit 84
  85. 85. Expository or informational text is found in text books such as history, geography, social studies, science and technology. Expository text is particularly important for organizing and comprehending information in: news articles, textbook chapters, science experiments, research papers, advertisements, content area texts, the Internet and even in everyday life. The basic expository or informational text structures are: description, list, sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, compare/contrast and persuasion. (Rooney Moreau & Fidrych, 2008, p. 18). Expository Defined… 85
  86. 86. As the curriculum becomes more complex… EXPOSITORY TEXT IS INTRODUCED AND BECOMES MORE PREVALENT. IT IS: TECHNICAL ABSTRACT DENSE COMPLEX ALIENATING Technical Vocabulary Embedded Clauses Fang, Z., and Schlippegrell, M. (2010). Disciplinary Literacies Across Content Areas: Supporting Secondary Reading Through Functional Language Analysis. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 53(7). International Reading Association. 86
  87. 87. Examples of Expository Text… 87
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  90. 90. http://mindwingconcepts.com/products/discourse-and-thought-development-chart-wheel 90
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  97. 97. Companion Expository Text Lesson: EGGS 97
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  99. 99. Sea Turtle Eggs/Nesting/Hatching 99
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  102. 102. http://tinyurl.com/seaturtlesTM 102
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  104. 104. Sea Turtle Article (handout) Sea turtles are interesting and mysterious animals. They live in both warm and cool climates around the world. Sea turtles look like other land turtles but they cannot pull their legs, or flippers, under their shells for protection. The female sea turtle lays eggs. She returns to the same sandy beach, where she, herself, was born. How she remembers where to go is a mystery since sea turtles travel hundreds of miles in their lifetimes. Their traveling is always in water unless it is time to lay their ping pong ball shaped eggs. When it is time to lay eggs, the female sea turtle travels back to her birthplace and crawls up on the beach past the high water mark to dry, sandy soil using her large flippers as legs. Then, she has to take a rest since walking on land makes her extremely tired. Soon she begins to lay her eggs. 104
  105. 105. She digs at least one deep hole in the sand and lays up to 150 eggs in it. Next, she covers the eggs with warm sand and walks back into the sea. The sand, covering this “nest”, protects the eggs until they hatch. The warmer the nest temperature, the more female turtles hatch. If the temperature is balanced, there will be a balanced number of males and females. In a few weeks, the sandy area where the nests are located begins to shake and hundreds of little black headed creatures scramble out of the sand. These two inch long creatures seem to know right away that they must go into the water. So begins a life journey for these baby sea turtles. The males will never return to the beach again but somehow the females will remember the place, when it is time to lay their eggs. 105
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  110. 110. Three 4th Grade Student Examples (Sequence Passage) TASK: 1. Teacher chunks the text 2. Talk as a group using MindWing’s magnets for Listing Sequencing and Cause/Effect (use Maps as guide) 3. Map the sequence on Sequence Map together 4. Teacher provides Maps (in handout) 5. Write Paragraph using the Sequence/Cause-Effect/List Cohesive Tie Words 6. Underline details 110
  111. 111. When it is time to lay eggs, the female sea turtle travels back to her birthplace and crawls up on the beach past the high water mark to dry, sandy soil using her large flippers as legs. Then, she has to take a rest since walking on land makes her extremely tired. Soon she begins to lay her eggs. She digs at least one deep hole in the sand and lays up to 150 eggs in it. Next, she covers the eggs with warm sand and walks back into the sea. 111
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  115. 115. AmazingEggs_rubric for webinar.pdf 115
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  117. 117. Deepening Narrative Thought 117
  118. 118. Focus: The Internal Response & Mental States Social emotions… • are abstract and most often must be inferred • must be thought about and analyzed • Rely on facial expressions and body language as well as real-life experience, motivation and words of characters within the social situation in order to identify specific social emotions • are emotions that depend on interaction with another person or group of people. 118
  119. 119. “Although there are emotions for all shades and degrees of joys, sadness and anger, it is problematic to create a universal facial expression for envy or pride (Nikolajeva, p.253).” Nikolajeva, M. (2014). Picturebooks and Emotional Literacy. The Reading Teacher, 67, 4, p. 249-254. 119
  120. 120. “Images play a significant role in representing social emotions and frequently carry the heaviest load, especially through body language and mutual position of characters on the page [or in real-life situations]. Social emotions are not directly connected to external manifestations and thus more difficult to express visually [and to interpret] (p. 253).” Nikolajeva, M. (2014). Picturebooks and Emotional Literacy. The Reading Teacher, 67, 4, p. 249-254. 120
  121. 121. Perspective Taking and Inference 121
  122. 122. What story are these characters from? How are they feeling? 122
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  124. 124. Expository Features FACTS: Elephants love water and can swim! As a rule, pigs don't like being in the rain for extended periods – they will hunt out some form of cover. 124
  125. 125. • How many emotions did you notice in Are You Ready to Play Outside? • What were they? • Were they tied to the kick off? • Were they tied to characters’ mental states and plans? • Was there perspective-taking involved? • What stage of Narrative Development is this book? 125
  126. 126. The Analysis 126
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  129. 129. http://education.nationalgeographic.com/encyclopedia/weather/ http://education.nationalgeographic.com/encyclopedia/rain/ 129
  130. 130. Islands and Peninsulas 130
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  136. 136. “Because expository texts are the primary means for acquiring academic and schooled knowledge, students’ failure to understand and learn from expository texts can create a cumulative knowledge deficit as children progress through schools.” Improving Comprehension Instruction: Rethinking Research, Theory, and Classroom Practice. Edited By: Cathy Collins Block, Linda B. Gambrell and Michael Pressley. ISBN: 0-87207-458-7 136
  137. 137. Our students will almost ALWAYS do better on multiple choice tests… than if they have to formulate the response on their own. Michelle Garcia Winner (2010). Social Thinking® Across the Home and School Day: The I LAUGH Model of Social Thinking 137
  138. 138. • Describe • List • Sequence • Find cause/effect • Identify Problem/Solution • Interpret and write persuasive text • Compare and Contrast • Predict • Summarize • Infer • Find the most important informational points/facts • Know the Author’s purpose • Find answers to “Wh” Questions within text • Find the main idea • Follow the pronoun referent • Know the organization of text • Self monitor • Process complex sentences & abstract vocabulary words The ThemeMaker® helps to comprehend and express information! Good Readers & Writers of Expository Text can: 138
  139. 139. English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grade 5 - Text Types and Purposes http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/writing/grade-5/ •W.5.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. •W.5.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially). • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. •W.5.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. • Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events. • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. 139
  140. 140. TOPIC SENTENCE: CLINCHER: Paragraph Writing Template Details: 140
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  143. 143. Improving Comprehension Instruction: Rethinking Research, Theory, and Classroom Practice Edited By: Cathy Collins Block, Linda B. Gambrell and Michael Pressley ISBN: 0-87207-458-7 • Expository texts present additional comprehension obstacles for struggling comprehenders… …Because… • Expository genres are written to provide information versus to tell a story • The patterns in which authors organize their ideas and information differ depending on their purpose and the specific content area 143
  144. 144. Simply providing students with access to quality expository books is a necessary, but often insufficient condition for improving students’ ability to handle the more advanced expository texts. Students do not just “get used to” the seemingly “foreign language” of expository texts through exposure and Immersion. They need strategies for unpacking this languge and for developing a keen awareness of its unique Characteristics. Fang, Z. (2008). Going Beyond the Fab Five: Helping Students Cope with the Unique Linguistic Challenges of Expository Reading in Intermediate Grades. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 51:6. 144
  145. 145. OLDER STUDENTS NEED SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION AND PRACTICE WITH THE LANGUAGE DEMANDS OF EXPOSITORY TEXT: The problem of learning through science and other expository texts is fundamentally a problem of translating the patterns of written language into those of spoken language. Spoken language is the medium through which we reason ourselves and talk our way through problems to an answer. It is, for the most part, the medium in which we understand and comprehend. 145
  146. 146. EXPOSITORY TEXT IS OFTEN  TECHNICAL,  DENSE,  ABSTRACT, AND  IMPERSONAL ALL AT THE SAME TIME. SO…. STUDENTS NEED TO TALK IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE ABOUT THE TOPIC IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND AND BE ABLE TO EXPRESS WHAT THEY UNDERSTAND. Lemke, J. (1989). Making text talk. Theory Into Practice, 28, 136-141. 146
  147. 147. The language that is used to construct specialized knowledge (science, social studies, math) is different from the language that is used to construct the commonsensical knowledge of everyday ordinary life. (Ho-hum days!) EXPOSITORY TEXT VOCABULARY: • TECHNICALITY: Specific to the content area: ie., genome, liberty Common words used in uncommon ways in the text. • ABSTRACTION: Certain types of Nouns (or adjectives) derived from verbs: NOMINALIZATION Instruct: Instruction Begin: Beginning Discover: Discovery Significant: Significance (incredible significance) • DENSITY: Many content words per sentence (especially nouns and their modifiers; many clauses, subordinate and embedded, as well) 147
  148. 148. • Core knowledge • Use of higher level vocabulary • Advanced grammar and sentence structures • Text- level structures Cain, K., & Oakhill, J. (1998). Comprehension skill and inference-making ability: Issues and causality. In C. Hulme & R. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and spelling: Development and disorders. London: Erlbaum. With students having reading disabilities, it is reasonable to suspect that “matthew effects” will create further language problems for them as they struggle with learning to read. As these students with reading disabilities get older and continue to struggle with written language, they often wind up with deficits in: 148
  149. 149. It is not enough, however, to tell students about a strategy that would be helpful for them to use. It is important that teachers: • explain how to use the strategy • Model its use • Require students to use the strategy in relation to their content assignments. Ehren, B., Lenz, B., & Deshler, D. (2007). Enhancing literacy Proficiency with Adolescents and Young Adults. 149
  150. 150. Thinking out loud during a shared reading of a content area passage models for students how a proficient reader grapples with the problems of: • unfamiliar vocabulary, • new concepts, • text features and • expository text structures that can seem quite foreign- even after years of success with narrative reading. Lapp, D., Fisher, D., & Grant, M. (2008). You can read this text---I’ll show you how: Interactive comprehension instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 51(5).150
  151. 151. Many young and poor readers fail to identify and follow the organizational text structure and the explicit expository cues so that the following academic tasks become extremely difficult: – Identifying main ideas – Distinguishing important information/details – Noting inconsistencies – Recalling and summarizing information – Monitoring comprehension Improving Comprehension Instruction: Rethinking Research, Theory, and Classroom Practice Edited By: Cathy Collins Block, Linda B. Gambrell and Michael Pressley ISBN: 0-87207-458-7 151
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  153. 153. Using ThemeMaker™ Maps for Explicit Instruction of Academic Expository Text Selections 153
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  168. 168. TERMS: TECHNICAL ABSTRACT DENSE COMPLEX ALIENATING Technical Vocabulary Embedded Clauses Fang, Z., and Schlippegrell, M. (2010). Disciplinary Literacies Across Content Areas: Supporting Secondary Reading Through Functional Language Analysis. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 53(7). International Reading Association. 168
  169. 169. DENSITY EXAMPLE: DNA: THE MOLECULE OF LIFE A time span of 50 years is insignificant compared to the billions of years that life has existed on Earth. But the 50 years between 1953-2003 are of incredible significance to biology because it was during that half of a century that many of the secrets of life were revealed. The trigger for these revelations was one of the great science feats of all time- the discovery of the structure of DNA, the material from which genes are made. Once DNA’s structure was known scientists were able to figure out how it provides a library of instructions that control the cells that make up our bodies and those of all other living things. At the beginning of this century the Human Genome Project made another great leap forward by completing the enormous task of reading the letters that make up the instructions contained in our DNA. This achievement marks the start of a process that one day will allow humans to understand completely how DNA makes us all human beings but also makes us unique individuals. (Page 25). Walker, R. (2003). Genes and DNA. NY: Kingfisher Fang, Z. (2008). Going Beyond the Fab Five: Helping Students Cope with the Unique Linguistic Challenges of Expository Reading in Intermediate Grades. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 51:6. 169
  170. 170. DENSE TEXT EXAMPLE: #1: TASK At the beginning of this century the human genome project made another great leap forward by completing the enormous task of reading the letters that make up the instructions contained in our dna. The task (determiner) The enormous task (determiner plus adjective) Task of reading the letters (modified by a prepositional phrase). Of reading the letters that make up the instructions contained in our DNA (embedded clause within the prepositional phrase). 170
  171. 171. DENSE TEXT (cont.) EXAMPLE: #2: LIBRARY (Uncommon use of the word) Once dna’s structure was known, scientists were able to figure out how it provides a library of instructions that control the cells that make up our bodies and those of all other living things. Prepositional Phrase: Embedded Clause: Embedded Clause: Walker, R. (2003) Genes and DNA. NY: Kingfisher Fang, Z. (2008). Going Beyond the Fab Five: Helping Students Cope with the Unique linguistic Challenges of Expository Reading in Intermediate Grades. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 51:6. 171
  172. 172. VOCABULARY ABSTRACT TECHNICAL MULTIPLE MEANINGS OTHER Discover- Discovery genome library feats Instruct-Instructions gene read Begin- beginning DNA Reveal- revelations biology Achieve-achievement Significant-significance 172
  173. 173. SYNTACTIC DENSITY WITHIN THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE TEXT: TEXT #1 It had already been known that DNA was the molecule of which genes are made when two young scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, took on the challenge of figuring out its structure. ANALYSIS: Passive Voice: It had already been known…. Subordinate Clauses: “been known that”… “been known when”… Embedded Clause: (within the subordinate clause): “molecule of which”… TEXT #2 In 1953 they constructed a model that showed that each DNA molecule consisted of two long chains that spiraled around each other in a twisted ladder shape - a double helix. ANALYSIS: Embedded Clause: “ a model that”… Subordinate Clause: “showed that”… Embedded Clause: “two long chains that”… 173
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  175. 175. Ice Cream Sundae Activity 175
  176. 176. MYSTERIOUS CREATURE ACTIVITY ?????????????????????? 176
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  185. 185. The Bear’s Toothache is used here in the workshop for assessing the stage of narrative development of children. MindWing’s Data Collection & Progress Monitoring Set contains extensive assessment and progress monitoring work with this book and the re-tellings. 185
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  188. 188. Text Types and Purposes Standards: Kindergarten: Draw/Dictate/Write topic or book name and state an opinion or preference about it; My favorite book is___________________. Grade 1: Write introduction to topic/book and state an opinion, supply a reason and closure. Grade 2: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about supply reasons to support opinion using “linking words” such as (because/also) to connect opinion/reasons. Provide concluding statement/section. Grade 3: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons: • Introduce topic or text, state an opinion, create an organizational structure that lists reasons. (List Expository Text Structure) • Provide reasons that support the opinion • Use linking words and phrases such as because/therefore/since/for example to connect opinion and reasons. • Provide concluding statement or section. ELA CCSS for Writing 188
  189. 189. Grade 4: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. (Multiple Expository Text Structures) • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases such as for instance/in order to/ in addition. • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. Grade 5: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. (Tenents of Argument) • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases and clauses such as consequently/specifically • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. BIG CHANGES in 6th Grade………. Grade 6: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence • Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly • Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. • Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claims and reasons • Establish and maintain a formal style • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. 189
  190. 190. What is argument? ar·gu·ment (noun) ˈär-gyə-mənt • a statement or series of statements for or against something • a discussion in which people express different opinions about something • an angry disagreement 190
  191. 191. “They’re so much cooler that way” is Calvin’s opinion. As a six-year-old, his version of a “debate” or “argument” is really an opinion. The purpose of argument: • To change the readers’ point of view through logic • To bring about some action on the part of the reader • To convince the reader to accept the explanation or evaluation of a concept, issue or problem 191
  192. 192. • In life, all humans have likes and dislikes. (See our SGM® Character Map). These give rise to opinions. Think about Vanilla/Chocolate, McDonald’s/Burger King, Buying/Renting, or Democrat/Republican! Everybody has an opinion about something. • Opinions are thoughts we have about things, people’s behavior, ideas or situations that we like or dislike and agree or disagree with in our lives. Let’s start from the beginning: From the Character Map to Argument - The Process! 192
  193. 193. • Opinions ( as in The Important Book by Margaret Wise Brown) may be stated. “The important thing about a daisy is that it is white.” Other things about daisies are listed here, as descriptive elements, but the author has chosen one to be the “important thing” (IHO). • Opinions may be backed by listing reasons: I like daisies. Daisies are yellow in the middle. Yellow makes me feel happy. • Opinions, supported by listed reasons, are written using more advanced syntax incorporating cohesive ties: I like daisies because daisies are yellow in the middle and that makes me feel joyful. C O H E S I V E 193
  194. 194. Another person (or people) may have an opinion that is different from your opinion. This is their “point of view” or perspective. Perspective-taking is the ability to see a point of view in addition to one’s own. Look at the photo to the right… • What do you see? • What is the point of view of the couple? • What might another perspective reveal? Opinion and Perspective-Taking/Point of View 194
  195. 195. Persuasion… • Requires agreement with you/your perspective on a particular topic • Blends emotion and facts in attempt to convince (relies heavily on opinion) • single-minded goal based on a personal conviction • Intention is to gain another “vote” so it is more personal, more passionate, more emotional Argument… • Requires acknowledge that your claim is valid and deserves more consideration than another perspective. • Includes relevant reasons, credible facts, and sufficient evidence • Acknowledgement that counter-claims exist and refute these views tactfully • Take into account multiple perspectives • Intention is to share a conviction and prove it is worth consideration using reasons and evidence The Difference Between PERSUASION and ARGUMENT The CCSS distinguishes “argument” as the skill to be developed. 195
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  198. 198. There is big box supercenter that wants to build a location in the city; there are many people for or against this project. • I know the location is zoned for business development • I think that encouraging competition is tantamount to a thriving economy, • I remember from other businesses coming into town that this will increase the business tax base and alleviate the tax burden of homeowners. • I know that this area cannot accommodate the traffic and it is too close to a residential neighborhood. • I think it will destroy local businesses. • I remember reading many articles about the fact that jobs offered are low paying and do not offer full time employment with benefits. I feel anxious about a supercenter being built in my city, but I want my city to thrive. Others feel excited about a supercenter being built in my city and they want the city to thrive. I intend to outline reasons and evidence that prove that this supercenter is detrimental to the city. Planning an Argument using the Critical Thinking Triangle® 198
  199. 199. There is big box supercenter that wants to build a location in the city; there are many people for or against this project. A big box supercenter in the city will be beneficial to the residents of the city. The location is zoned for business development, encouraging competition is tantamount to a thriving economy, residents will have more options and better prices for common goods, a supercenter will increase the business tax base and alleviate the tax burden of homeowners, this type of store will offer convenience of a variety of products under one roof. The plan is to demonstrate reasons and evidence that show the negative impact that a big box supercenter would present to the city. Having a big box supercenter in the city will be detrimental to the residents of the city, although there are people in favor of such an endeavor. 199
  200. 200. Traffic reports show that the road is already congested with a mall and other shopping centers and is only two lanes. The lot is adjacent to heavily populated public housing and a quiet residential neighborhood. Even though it is zoned for business, this location cannot accommodate a supercenter type of store. This supercenter will destroy small businesses in the local economy. A study of small towns in Iowa showed lost sales for local businesses amounting to a total dollar loss of $2.46 BILLION over a 13-year period resulting from a supercenter being built. The job offerings are low paying and not full time with benefits. Tens of thousands of supercenter employees and their children are enrolled in Medicaid and are dependent on the government for healthcare. Due to supercenters ordering from China, the United States has actually lost an average of about 50,000 good paying manufacturing jobs PER MONTH since 2001. Having a big box supercenter in the city will be detrimental to the city due to several reasons and facts. The area cannot accommodate the traffic, it is too close to a residential neighborhood, it will destroy local businesses and many of the jobs are low paying and do not offer full time employment with benefits. There is big box supercenter that wants to build a location in the city; there are many people for or against this project. Some resident claim that a big box supercenter in the city will be detrimental to the residents of the city, although there are also residents in favor of such an endeavor. 200
  201. 201. Argument Against Construction of a Supercenter A big box supercenter wants to build a location in the city and there are many people for or against this project. Some residents claim that a big box supercenter in the city will be detrimental to the residents of the city, although there are also residents in favor of such an endeavor. The residents that support the construction of a big box supercenter in the city think that the supercenter will be beneficial to the residents. They cite several reasons, including: the location is zoned for business development, encouraging competition is tantamount to a thriving economy, residents will have more options and better prices for common goods, a supercenter will increase the business tax base and alleviate the tax burden of homeowners, this type of store will offer convenience of a variety of products under one roof. Despite these purported benefits, there are many reasons and evidence that will outline the negative impact that a big box supercenter would present to the city. There are many reasons that a supercenter will be detrimental to the city. First, even though it is zoned for business, this location cannot accommodate a supercenter type of store. Traffic reports show that the road is already congested with a mall and other shopping centers and is only two lanes. In addition, the lot is adjacent to heavily populated public housing and a quiet residential neighborhood. Next, this supercenter will destroy small businesses in the local economy. According to a study of small towns in Iowa, the lost sales for local businesses amounted to a total dollar loss of $2.46 BILLION over a 13-year period as a result of a supercenter being built there. Finally, although the supercenter promises local jobs, these job offerings are low paying, not full time and do not carry benefits. In fact, tens of thousands of supercenter employees and their children are enrolled in Medicaid and are dependent on the government for healthcare. Further, due to supercenters ordering products from China, the United States has actually lost an average of about 50,000 good paying manufacturing jobs PER MONTH since 2001. Having a big box supercenter in the city will be harmful to the city due to several reasons and facts related to traffic concerns, congestion, employment issues and the destruction of local small businesses. Therefore, despite the perceived benefits of this type of store, citizens should recognize the overwhelming evidence against construction of the supercenter. 201
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  204. 204. NYC Discount! Use Code NYC10 to receive 10% Off all materials through November 15, 2015. Visit http://mindwingconcepts.com/collections/all to start shopping! Don’t forget to visit our BLOG and RESOURCES on our website for free lessons and downloads! SGM® iPad App Sale During ASHA November 11-15! $14.99 (regular $24.99) Get $10 off of the SGM iPad App when you visit the App Store and purchase the SGM® App! Get a FREE MindWing Concepts DVD mailed to you! Click here: http://mindwingconcepts.com/pages/free-dvd 1 2 3 4 FREE STUFF AND DISCOUNTS!!! 204
  205. 205. Connect with us! • Join our EMAIL list: http://mindwingconcepts.com/contactus.htm • Follow us on Twitter @mindwingconcept • LIKE us on Facebook! https://www.facebook.com/mindwingconcepts • Join our Official SGM® Professional Learning Community on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StoryGrammarMarker/ • Follow us on Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/sheils200/official-story- grammar-marker/ • Connect with Maryellen Rooney Moreau on LinkedIn 205
  206. 206. How to reach Maryellen: Call her (toll free): 888.228.9746 Email her: mrmoreau@mindwingconcepts.com 206

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