Tell a personal narrative here – make sure to have a clear kick off, feeling and plan
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is an initiative developed in 2010 by two professional groups looking for the Core skills necessary for success in college and career. These two groups, National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers, sought the thoughts of employers and colleges backtracking the necessary skills in reading, writing, speaking/listening and language from grade 12 to kindergarten building competencies within each grade while leading to the next. The CCSS, adopted by 45 of the 50 states, calls for “robust and real-world” expectations in the areas of “higher order skills, increased content knowledge, and the ability to engage with complex texts” (CCSS). Reading, the focus of the past decade, is part of an integrated model intertwining with writing, speaking/listening and language.
The article entitled Core commitment, written by these seasoned professionals, provides a great overview of the CCSS. Asha Position Papers pertaining to the roles and responsibilities of the SLP relative to literacy are referenced and elaborated upon in the article.
For your convenience, the Asha Position Papers, referenced in the article by Ehren et al are referenced here. This workshop focuses on students in grades K-5. These students will need intensive and systematic instruction in the early grades in the interrelationship among reading, writing, speaking/listening and language in order to prepare them for the demands of the upper grade disciplines such as science and history. Please see a second article in the Asha Leader from May 5, 2009 entitled RtI: Slps as Linchpins in Secondary Schools. Articles such as these are important since students in grades 7-12 may demonstrate much difficulty dealing with higher order thought and knowledge of various disciplines, even though their word recognition and fluency are not problematic.
The CCSS (2010) is a clearly written group of expectations for general education classrooms. However, it is stated within the document in a section entitled: Application to Students with Disabilities that “These common standards provide an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous academic content standards for students with disabilities.” It calls for the supports and accomodations for students with disabilities such as Instructional Supports for Learning based on principles of Universal Design; Instructional Accomodations which do not change the standards but allow students to learn within the framework of the CCSS and Assistive Technology to provide multiple means of learning and opportunities to demonstrate knowledge put forth in the rigorous CCSS. For students with disabilities, the SLP is a vital service provider, coordinator of the relationships among reading, writing, speaking/listening and language as well as a collaborator in all tiers of RtI.RtI and the CCSS seem to be compatible for instruction and intervention. The CCSS provides a clear road map for general education. Time for collaboration among specialists (such as the SLP, reading specialist, school psychologist, special educator etc…) is vital for success with students with disabilities, learning challenges or those at risk or on IEPs.
This diagram shows the crux of the CCSS…increasing complexity of discourse. The standards themselves, in reading and writing elaborate upon and delineate the components of discourse: story grammar for narratives and text structures for exposition. We are asked to view these standards as a trajectory…from one grade to another to avoid “silos” in our thinking and to become more collaborative. In essence, discourse is separated into three areas: conversation, narration and exposition. Each of these has a vast amount of research and evidence as to its development, its importance to literacy and how teach children about it and through it (Think about read alouds). The CCSS has provided read-aloud suggestions at grades K-3 in order to emphasize the role oral language plays in literacy and achievement of the CCSS.
Note the omission o.f Discourse…There is not an efficient connection to literacy. If discourse skills are not modeled and taught early in life, the child is often dependent upon others to prod and ask questions to facilitate communication of stories, thoughts and information. It is vital to the success of the CCSS to explicitly teach discourse language in the oral mode.Oral language is the foundation for the development of other language skills. For most children, from the perspective of language development, oral language provides a literacy learning process which actually begins with speaking: talking about experiences, talking about themselves…The neglect of oral language in the classroom will destroy that foundation and severely hinder the development of other aspects of language.Zhang, H & Alex, N. (1995). Oral Language Development across the Curriculum, K-12. ERIC Digest.
Compare narrative to expository
Example of a Lesson Incorporating Technology
Example of Integrating
High Tech and Low
Tech Into a Lesson
Literacy Night: Interactive Lesson
Supporting Common Core State
Standards Using Children’s
Literature, Articles & Multimedia
Linda Lafontaine, M.A. CCC-SLP
Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP
Lesson Designed By: Sheila M. Moreau
Excerpt from Sir Winston
Churchill’s Speech of June
“We shall defend our island
whatever the cost may be; we
shall fight on beaches, landing
grounds, in fields, in streets and on
the hills. We shall never surrender
causes of Global
enable him to
Story Grammar Marker® Purpose
To help children develop literate
oral language by assisting them
in progressing along the oral
The Oral-Literate Continuum
The “Here and Now”………………………………….The “There and Then”
Best Bang for the Buck!
• Winston of Churchill is narrative picture book
containing informational text.
• Fictional character(s), set in a
scientific/historical place with a growing
conflict as the result of a problem that needs
to be solved.
• Winston of Churchill, the main character, has
many attributes paralleling the Great British
Statesman Winston Churchill.
• This picture book can be used to build a
deep understanding of several concepts
Common Core State
Standards set requirements not
only for English Language Arts (ELA)
but also for literacy in history/social
studies, science, and technical
“Developed out of need for students who
wish to be college and career ready, to
be proficient in reading complex
informational text independently in a
Common Core State
“Students who meet the standards can
undertake close, attentive reading complex
works … and perform the critical reading
necessary to pick carefully through the
staggering amount of information available
in print and digitally. “
“Student writing must reinforce three writing
capacities: writing to persuade, to
explain, and to convey real or imagined
Common Core State
Reading Standard for Literature 5.6
Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view
influences how events are described.
Reading Standard for Informational Text 5.3
Explain the relationships or interactions between two
or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in an
historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific
information in the text.
Common Core State
Standards for Informational Text 5.5
Compare and contrast the overall structure
(e.g. chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts,
or information in two or more texts.
Speaking and Listening Standard 5.4
Report on a topic or text or present an
opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using
appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive
details to support main ideas or themes/speak
clearly at an understandable pace.
Common Core State
Writing Standard 5.2
Write information/explanatory texts to
examine a topic and convey ideas and
(Winston of Churchill did this!!!)