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  1. 1. Volume 4 Issue 5 Dec 2013 Winter Solstice – The Shortest day of the Year  Special points of interest:  Winter Solstice – The Shortest day of the Year  What do we mean by the shortest day?  Merry Christmas  S. Ramanujan  Depending on how the calendar falls, the December solstice occurs annually on a day between December 20 and 23. This year, the December solstice will occur at 05:30 UTC (12:30 a.m. EST) on December 22, 2011. While the southern hemisphere is experiencing the long days of summer, the northern hemisphere will have the “winter solstice” – often called the shortest day of the year. So, why do we call it the shortest day of the year for the winby old men in charge ter solstice and longof calendars and est day for the sol- times around the world? stice in the summer?  I always find the solDo we lose some stices to be magical time off the clock in times of year and winter, and in sumlook forward to eimer do we miracuther the longest or lously gain time on shortest days as they the clock in a bizarre are the bringers of cycle that is imposed seasons, darkness a nd l ig ht . What do we mean by the shortest day?  The shortest day, winter solstice and midwinter are the colloquial terms used to describe the 24 hours around an annual astronomical event which occurs around the 22nd December. The shortest day marks the point when the days start to get longer and the nights shorter, and has profound cultural meaning around the world and throughout history. The cultural significance varies, but generally refers to a time of rebirth and renewal and is celebrated with festivals and rituals.  ter solstice is the summer solstice and occurs around the 22nd June, and marks the point when the days are longest and nights shortest. The opposite of the win- Article by : Kanti Joshi & Sweta Patel
  2. 2. Page 2 Volume 4 Issue 5 Christmas (Old English: Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ and a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated generally on December 25 by millions of peoplearound the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it closes the Advent season and initiates thetwelve days of Christmastide, which ends after the twelfth night. Christmas is a civil holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians, and is an integral part of theChristmas and holiday season. While the birth year of Jesus is estimated among modern historians to have been between 7 and 2 BC, the exact month and day of his birth are unknown. His birth is mentioned in two of the four canonical gospels. By the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25, a date later adopted in the East, although some churches celebrate on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to January in the modernday Gregorian calendar. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after early Christians believed Jesus to have been conceived, or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse identifying Jesus as the "Sun of righteousness". The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of preChristian, Christian, and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, Christmas music andcaroling, an exchange of Christmas cards, church celebrations, a special meal, and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. Submitted by : Sweta Patel & Mona Gothi Submitted by : Vinod Suthar
  3. 3. Page 3 Volume 4 Issue 5 S.RAMANUJAN Born Died Residence Nationality Fields Alma mater Srinivasa Ramanujan FRS (pronunciation (help·info)) (22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician andautodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis,number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions. Living in India with no access to the larger mathematical community, which was centred in Europe at the time, Ramanujan developed his own mathematical research in isolation. As a result, he rediscovered known theorems in addition to producing new work. Ramanujan was said to be a natural genius by the English mathematician G. H. Hardy, in the same league as mathematicians such as Euler and Gauss. He died at the age of 32. Submitted by : Radhika Teraiya & Urvashi Chaudhri 22 December 1887 Erode, Madras Presidency (nowTamil Nadu) 26 April 1920 (aged 32) Chetput, Madras, Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu) Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu Indian Mathematics Government Arts College Pachaiyappa's College Academic advi- G. H. Hardy sors J. E. Littlewood Known for Landau–Ramanujan constant Mock theta functions Ramanujan conjecture Ramanujan prime Ramanujan–Soldner constant Ramanujan theta function Ramanujan's sum Rogers–Ramanujan identities Ramanujan's master theorem Influences G. H. Hardy Signature Ramanujan was born at Erode, Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu) in a Tamil Brahmin family of Thenkalai Iyengar sect.His introduction to formal mathematics began at age 10. He demonstrated a natural ability, and was given books on advancedtrigonometry written by S. L. Loney that he mastered by the age of 12; he even discovered theorems of his own, and re-discovered Euler's identity independently. He demonstrated unusual mathematical skills at school, winning accolades and awards. By 17, Ramanujan had conducted his own mathematical research on Bernoulli numbers and the Euler– Mascheroni constant.
  4. 4. Page 4 Volume 4 Issue 5 Ramanujan received a scholarship to study at Government College in Kumbakonam, which was later rescinded when he failed his non-mathematical coursework. He joined another college to pursue independent mathematical research, working as a clerk in the Accountant-General's office at the Madras Port Trust Office to support himself. In 1912–1913, he sent samples of his theorems to three academics at the University of Cambridge. G. H. Hardy, recognizing the brilliance of his work, invited Ramanujan to visit and work with him at Cambridge. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Ramanujan died of illness, malnutrition, and possibly liver infection in 1920 at the age of 32. Ramujan’s Home During his short lifetime, Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3900 results (mostly identities and equations). Nearly all his claims have now been proven correct, although a small number of these results were actually false and some were already known. He stated results that were both original and highly unconventional, such as the Ramanujan prime and the Ramanujan theta function, and these have inspired a vast amount of further research. However, the mathematical mainstream has been rather slow in absorbing some of his major discoveries. The Ramanujan Journal, an international publication, was launched to publish work in all areas of mathematics influenced by his work. In December 2011, in recognition of his contribution to mathematics, the Government of India declared that Ramanujan's birthday (22 December) should be celebrated every year as National Mathematics Day, and also declared 2012 the National Mathematics Year. Post Ticket Dr. Hardy
  5. 5. સી. ટી .ઈ. ની મિટટિંગ તારીખ ૧૯/૧૨/૨૦૧૩ના રોજ a [l.a[n.k[. ki[l[j ai[f a[jy&k[Sn, piTNni kiy<kmi[ (vS[ mi (ht) aip) ht) tYi j[. air. a[m.ni s>dB<mi> Si kiy<km krvi t[n) cci< kr) ht). ai s>dB<mi> D).E.ai[ni a(Bpiyi [n) pN cci< kr) ht). a>t[ s>AYin[ aigim) kiy<kmi[n[ vFir [ sjj bnivvi a>g[ ¼lin)>g krvimi> aiÄy& ht&>. ગાાંધીનગર કતે યોજાઇ હતી જેિાાં ડૉ. એસ. ઩ી. શિાા િેડિે tir)K 17/12/2013 ni ri[j s).T).E. a>tg<t m)T)>gn&> aiyi[jn krvimi> aiÄy& ht&> j[mi (jÃlini (D.e.ai[. hijr rHi hti. piTN, mh[siNi tYi kµCni (D.E.ai[. hijr hti. tmim (D.E.ai[a[ pi[tini (jÃlin) p(r(AY(t (vS[ cci< kr) ht). tYi B(vOymi> shkir aipvi a>g[ cci< kr) ht). tYi vir>vir m)T)>g kr) an[ stt (SxN tYi til)m) kiy<kmi[n) g&Nv_ii s&Firvi a>g[ cci< kr) ht). a[l.a[n.k[. ki[l[j ai[f a[jy&k[Sn, piTNni (vwiY)<ai[ tir)K 9/12/2013 Y) 14/12/2013 s&F) EºT<S)p kiy<kmmi> ji[Diyi hti. j[mi t[mn[ gim sv[<xN, S[r) sfiy, rmt gmtn) pvZ(tai [ (c#i ApFi< vktZRv ApFi< j[v) Ap<Fiai[ yi[J ht) tYi a>¹~¹Fi (nvirN kiy<km pyi[gi[ oiri smjiÄyi[ hti[. g(Nt (vPymi> (ndin tYi upciriRmk (SxN kiy< ky&< ht&>. aim k&l 27 gimi[mi> (SxNn) nv) p¹F(tni[ pcir psir kyi[< hti[. L.N.K.C.E. Welcomes Hon. NAAC Team Members