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Theory in Education


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Theory in Education

  1. 1. Mina Badiei (GS31016) Theory in Education Curriculum Theory EDU5356 Dr. NOR HAYATI BT ALWI
  2. 2. Definition of Terms Oxford: -a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained. Business Dictionary: -A set of assumptions, propositions, or accepted facts that attempts to provide a reasonable or rational explanation of cause-and-effect (causal) relationships among a group of observed phenomenon.
  3. 3. Definition of Terms Logan and Olmstead(1955):  Statements about sets of events differ greatly in complexity. Rudner(1966):  A systematically related set of statements, including some law like generalizations, that is empirically testable. Kerlinger(1973):  A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining the phenomena.
  4. 4. Definition of Terms  Statements of a theory may be expressed in such forms as statements of facts, definitions, propositions, hypothesis, assumptions, generalizations, laws , or theorems. is a phenomenon known by observation. is a formal statement of meaning or signification. is a formal statement affirming or denying something about a subject. consists of one or more propositions designed to explain a set of events. are also special cases of the propositions.
  5. 5. Definition of Terms Oxford: -The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university. education is the delivery of knowledge, skills, and information from teachers to students. -According to Pestalozzi, "Education is the natural, harmonious and progressive development of man's innate powers."
  6. 6. Definition of Terms  John Dewey stated, "Education is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities”.  According to John Adams, "Education is conscious and deliberate process in which one personality acts upon another in order to modify the development of that other by the communication and manipulation of knowledge"
  7. 7. Theory In Education  Figure1 in page 5 Theories in Social Sciences Theories in Education Curriculum Theories Theory in school Administratio n Instructional Theory
  8. 8. Theory In Education  Traditionally, the word “theory” has been employed in education without definition. - The dimensions of educational theory had not been defined. - There was no sufficient research on the subject.  Recently theory in education has been a topic of serious discussion.  So the definition is that Educational theory is speculative educational thought that guides, explains, or describes educational practice.
  9. 9. Theory In Education  Notice: The educational theory will grow, but it will grow first from the sub-theories now being developed within the broad field of education.
  10. 10. Approaches to Educational Theory  Theory and Practice  Theory by its very nature is impractical.  The world of practicality is built around cluster of specific events.  The world of theory derives from generalizations, laws, and theorems which are explaining specific events and the relationships among them.  Meaningful relationships may be established between the work of theorists and the work of practitioners, but theory and practice are not the same.
  11. 11. Approaches to Educational Theory  Theory may direct practice or it may explain the nature of practice.  In another way, It is the job of educational theory to guide educational practices.  According to John Dewey “We may propose to use practice work as an instrument in making real and vital theoretical instruction; the knowledge of subject-matter and of principles of education”.
  12. 12. Approaches to Educational Theory  Theory and Philosophy - Individuals frequently have used the name of philosophies of education and theories of education interchangeably.  Philosophy is the investigation of the nature, causes, and principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.  Dimensions of philosophy have much to contribute to educational theorizing.
  13. 13. Theory and Philosophy in Education Types of Theory Descriptive Theory Prescriptive Theory
  14. 14. Theory and Philosophy in Education  Descriptive theories consists of a set of propositions that are logically interrelated from which relationships may be demonstrated and new information derived by deductive processes.  Prescriptive theories consist of a set of proposals for action or a set of propositions about related problems. Here the techniques of philosophy relates to theory.(page37)  There were various philosophies have been posed as theories of education such as realism, idealism, pragmatism, reconstructionism, etc.
  15. 15. Theory and Philosophy in Education  Philosophy has a close relationship to theory development in education: A good philosophy must encompass a theory of knowledge. A philosophy of education should lead to formulation of a theory of method. Value and ethics, in the preview of philosophy, play a significant role in education.
  16. 16. Theory and Philosophy in Education  Theories must be developed within general area of philosophy to account for the many dimensions of education.  Among all educational theories, Black(1952) labeled four theories: Traditionalists, Progressive, Learning- Product theory, and Learning-Process theory.  These four theory show four aspect of education: 1. Education as transmission of social heritage 2. Education as individual development 3. Education as product 4. Education as process
  17. 17. Theory and Philosophy in Education  We should also note the role of philosopher is theoretical work in education in two points of view; 1- Main function of philosopher is to clarify the language ( a tool for educational theorizing) used to talk about problems. 2- The skill of correctly use of language and the building of more adequate logic.
  18. 18. Other Approaches  The problem for educational theory is to explain all dimensions of education , and to explain all aspects of education or even schooling as a limited domain of education, both prescriptive and descriptive theory are needed.  One approach in developing educational theory was voiced by Broudy who called for unifying principles to be used in the resolution of conflict associated with innovations in school practices.
  19. 19. Other Approaches A much different approach to educational theory was taken by Brauner(1964), who analyzed six major traditions in American Education. 1)Monitorial Method , 2)Object-Teaching 3)Herbatianism , 4)Child study 5)Experimentalism , 6)Current Academic Emphasis  A growing theme in educational theorizing is the conception of education as a discipline.  Education is the application of many disciplines; a discipline develops its own way of study and behaving.
  20. 20. Theory in School Administration  An excellent example of educational theorizing is the field of school administration.  Professors of school administration, are actually building a sub-theory of educational theory.  Individuals working on these projects used theory development as their route to improvement.  The theorists in administration have disciplined themselves to use basic rules for theorizing from social and behavioral sciences.
  21. 21. Theory in School Administration Griffiths (1978) presented a paradigm for theory development: presumptions Observation Resulting in Descriptions Sensitizing Concepts Integrating Concepts Theory : A set of assumptions from which are derived laws
  22. 22. Theory in School Administration  During recent years theoretical work in administration has shifted to management, organizational theory, and system development.  Theoretical models are being developed that may apply to the solution of administrative problems with respect to organization and functions in various environments.  There is a conflict between theoreticians and the practitioners in educational administration because administrators are very practical people and they truly been leaders in this activity.
  23. 23. Instructional Theory  Another sub-theory to educational theory is the rapid growth of thinking and research relating to instruction.  There are articles on pedagogy that lead toward theories of instruction.  Bruner in his book “The Process of Education” proposed four aspects of a theory of instruction:
  24. 24. Instructional Theory 1. Theory of instruction should concern with the factors that influence a child to learn effectively. 2. It should concern with optimal structuring of knowledge. 3. It should concern with the ideal sequence that is required for learning. 4. It should concern with the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments and the success and failures.
  25. 25. Instructional Theory  James Macdonald(1963) suggested that it should be a valid distinction between curriculum, instruction, and teaching.  Having singled out the instruction as a unique concept, he discussed the needs for research and theories about models of instruction and identification and description of principle variables.
  26. 26. Instructional Theory  The concept “teaching” appears more broadly than concept “ instruction” on research.  Broudy(1972), distinguished 3 types of teaching : - Didactics : imparting and reinforcing of skill and knowledge. - Heuristics: efforts to promote discoveries by pupils. - Phyletic: behaviors associated with love.  This classification is for study the effects of teaching process on learning outcomes.
  27. 27. Conclusion  It is significant that the domain of theories of instruction is being differentiated from other potential areas of education such as administration and curriculum.  The Demand for bringing together the theoretical work done in sub-theories such as curriculum, instruction, and administration into total educational
  28. 28. THANK YOU.