Design of the disposal system of lahore. lab repor 2


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Design of the disposal system of lahore. lab repor 2

  1. 1. Wastewater Disposal and ReuseLab Report # 2Design of the Disposal System of Lahore Muhammad Imran Nawaz 2008-ENV-43 26/03/2012
  2. 2. Table of ContentsChapter 1 Introduction 2Chapter 2 Preparation o model for existing conditions 4 2.1 Given Data for existing conditions 4 2.2 Constants and Velocities Given 4 2.3 Procedure for Developing the Model 5 2.4 Equations and Formulas used 5 2.5 Representation of the Results for Existing Conditions 6Chapter 3 Treatment Options and Alternatives 8 3.1 Dilution 9 3.1.1 Applying Dilution to the Model 9 3.2 Treatment 11 3.3 Applying treatment options on the model 14 3.3.1 Trail 1: Using Primary Treatment 14 3.3.2 Trail 2: Applying 70 % DOT 16 3.3.3 Trail 3: Applying 80 % DOT 17Chapter 4 Recommendations 19 References 20 1
  3. 3. Chapter 1 IntroductionFor the section of the River Ravi from the entry point into Pakistan originating from India toRavi Siphon after Marala Ravi Link Canal joins, the river keeps a good water quality such as 2.8to 4.3 mg/L in BOD5, 4.8 to 11.5 mg/L in COD, and 20 to 40 mg/L in SS. (EPA. Punjab Report)Due to the discharge control at Thein Dam in India, the natural discharge from India is hardlyexpected in the River Ravi especially during the dry seasonLahore is located in the upstream most reach of the Ravi River and all the domestic, commercialand industrial wastewater generated in the almost entire Lahore with a population of 6.5 millionand 2,700 industries is discharged into the river without any treatment in 2008, whichsubstantially forms the biggest pollution source of its river basin.At present, the major downstream use of the River Ravi is for irrigation beyond theBallokiHeadworks. However, the population and economic activities in the immediate areasalong the river from Lahore to BallokiHeadworks (64 km) are affected in different degrees bypollution in the river. It is estimated that waste water (domestic and industrial) from Lahore willincrease significantly as a proportion of total flow in the river. In a one in twenty year minimummonthly flow, wastewater from Lahore accounted for about 47 percent of total flow in 1987,rising to about 68 percent in 2007.(Source: Environment Department, CDGL, “EnvironmentalProfile of Lahore (2007-08)”The wide variety of fish that once swam in the Ravi has vanished, as have the tiny minnows andcrabs children used to catch in the shallow waters along the banks. Even the reeds that used toline the river have gone. The river is virtually dead even when the normally dry bed carrieswater, such as after the rains.(Source: Environment Department, CDGL, “Environmental Profileof Lahore (2007-08)”)The Environmental Protection Department of the Punjab Provincial Government considers thatthe river is under a constant threat of indiscriminate disposal of untreated municipal sewage fromLahore / industrial sewage from Faisalabad through Maduana Drain and industrial effluent fromindustrial units of Kala Shah Kaku along G.T. Road, Sheikhupura Road, Township and GulbergIndustrial Estate located in Metropolitan of Lahore and untreated industrial wastewater ofDistrict Kasur.(Source: Letter from the Secretary of EPD to the Secretaries of HUD&PHED,Irrigation Department and Industrial Department, “Installation of Wastewater Treatment Plantsto Save River Ravi from Pollution”, dated 16/09/2009).Historically, the River Ravi has not been used as a major source of potable water. Mostcommunities in the area, including Lahore, are dependent on ground water as the major source ofdrinking water. In the rural areas of districts which border the river from Lahore to 2
  4. 4. BallokiHeadworks, only 0.3 percent of households are dependent on open surface watercourses(river, springs and streams) for their drinking water. This represents about 1,700 households and10,600 people. There are no known plants to use the River Ravi as a major water supply source.(Source: Environment Department, CDGL, “Environmental Profile of Lahore (2007-08)”,City of Lahore is discharging its wastes into the Ravi River through various outfalls over a givenlength of the city which is polluting the river day by day which is a great threat for the aquaticlife and for the downstream uses of the river water. This report is aimed to construct amathematical model which will give the solution at different outfalls or which will give thebetter alternatives for the disposal of wastewater. This model will give us the values of BOD andthe DO concentrations at each outfall for the existing conditions and for the proposed alternativeswhich will be used to select the most appropriate method or the alternative for disposal. Thismodel is constructed to meet the DO requirements of 4 mg/l for the aquatic life. Fig 1: location of different outfalls along the Ravi River with distances. 3
  5. 5. Chapter 2 Preparation of model for existing conditions 2.1 Given Data for existing conditions:The data for flow, BOD and the DO is given below in the table for existing conditions along withthe distances of situation of outfalls. Flow (Q) is in m^3/S, BOD and COD in mg/L and thedistance is in meters. Table 2.1: Given data for flow Q, DOD and DO along with the distances Pumping Station Q (m^3/S) BOD (mg/L) DO(mg/L) Distance(Km) Ravi Syphen 11.05 3 8 0 N.E PS 13.5 285 0 26.1 Shahdra 3.7 230 0 27.9 Main outfall 13.4 340 0 34.1 Gulshan Ravi 9 250 0 35.5 Multan Road PS 4.5 225 0 45.3 Hudiara Drain 11.11 130 2 60.3 Deg Drain 91.4 198 5 63 QB link Canal 544 5 8 85 Balloki head works 98.7 2.2 Constants and Velocities Given:The value of constants like Ks, Kd and Kr and the velocities of the flow in the river are given inthe table below Table 2.2: value of constants and Velocities in the river Parameters m/s km/d U(velocity upto Hudiara Drain m/s) 0.06 5.184 U (velocity after Hudiara Drain m/s) 0.27 23.328 mean Depth (m) 1.02 DO saturation mg/l 8 Kr (per Day) 0.5 Kd (per Day) 0.3 Ka(upto Hudiara Drain per Day) 0.9273 Ka(after Hudiara Drain per Day) 1.9671 4
  6. 6. 2.3 Procedure for Developing the Model:All the given values and the given data is tabulated and arranged then BOD ultimate isdetermined and then the mass balance of BOD is made at each and every outfall station and afterevery 0.2 km distance. in the same way the mass balance of DO is made and the Deficit and theDO values are determined at each outfall and after every 0.2 km distance.After all this process the graph between the BOD and Distance and a graph between the DO andthe distance are plotted and which gives the proper representation of the existing conditions ofthe Ravi river at different outfalls. 2.4 Equations and Formulas used:For BOD model we use the general equation for 1st order reaction i.e.The following Equation is used for Finding BOD Ultimate from BOD5 in mg/L L = Lo(1 - 𝑒 −𝑘𝑡 ) ……………………………………2.4.1And the following equation is used to find BOD ultimate for the river conditions L = Lo 𝑒 −𝑘𝑡 ……………………………….………….2.4.2The Equation given below is used to make the BOD Mass Balance at any outfall: 𝑄𝑟 𝑥 𝐶𝑟 + 𝑄 𝑒 𝑥 𝐶𝑒 Concentration (mg / L) = ……………….………….2.4.3 𝑄𝑟 +𝑄𝑒andthe following Equation is used to find the Deficit for finding DO Concentration in river: 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝐾𝑑 𝐿𝑜 Dx = (𝑒 −𝐾𝑟 𝑈 -𝑒 −𝐾𝑎 𝑈 ) + Do (𝑒 −𝐾𝑎 𝑈 ) …………………..2.4.4 𝐾𝑎 −𝐾𝑟First of all the equation 2.4.1 is used to find out BODu from the given BOD5 then a massbalance is made using the equation 2.4.3 at the first outfall for BOD, after that point the equation2.4.2 is used to find out the BOD at different points from one outfall to the next with a distanceincrement of 0.2 km. the equation 2.4.4 is used to find out the deficit for determining the DOvalues. 5
  7. 7. 2.5 Representation of the Results for Existing Conditions: After making the mass balance and all of the above calculations the findings of the results are made which includes the representation of whole of the data. Below is the table which represents the results of the model for present or existing conditions. Table 2.3: Results generated the model for EXISTING CONDITIONS: DO Pumping accumulative mass Distance Stations Q Flow BOD (mg/L) DO Balance deficit (Km) Mass (m^3/S) (m^3/S) BOD5 BOD u Balance mg/L mg/LRavi Syphen 11.05 11.05 3 3.27 8 0N.E PS 13.5 24.55 285 310.49 172.21 0 3.60 4.40 26.1Shahdra 3.7 28.25 230 250.57 158.62 0 0 8 27.9Main outfall 13.4 41.65 340 370.40 178.33 0 0 8 34.1Gulshan Ravi 9 50.65 250 272.36 176.52 0 0 8 35.5Multan Rd PS 4.5 55.15 225 245.12 83.00 0 0 8 45.3Hudiara Drain 11.11 66.26 130 141.63 40.00 2 4.63 3.37 60.3Deg Drain 91.4 157.66 198 215.71 140.95 5 4.84 3.16 63QB link Canal 544 701.66 5 5.45 23.99 8 6.87 1.13 85Balloki Drain 98.7 The graphical representation of the above results is shown below in the form of BOD and DO at different outfalls Graph 2.1: BOD Profile for Existing Conditions 200 BOD Vs Distance 180 160 140 BOD(mg/L) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Distance (KM) 6
  8. 8. Graph 2.2: DO Profile for Existing Conditions 8 DO profile 7 6 5 DO (mg/l) 4 3 2 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Distance (KM)The existing condition shown in the above graphs gives very worst conditions. The BOD valuesare very high that are frequently more than the NEQS values that is 80 mg/L that represents theunacceptable conditions for the aquatic life and for the downstream use of river water.The DO values are also lower than the NEQS standard values for the aquatic life of 4 mg/L inmost of the places like from NE pumping station to the mid of the Multan Rd Pumping stationthe valves are below zero because the initial values of DO are also zero at these points, theeffluent DO is zero. These are also worst conditions for the aquatic life to survive in thisenvironment. These values should be greater than or equal to the NEQS of 4 mg/L otherwise theexistence of aquatic life will be impossible. These scenarios make the Ravi River as DEADRiver. 7
  9. 9. Chapter 3 Treatment Options and AlternativesTreatment or any other alternatives are required for the worst conditions of the River Rave for itsproper water use and to prevent aquatic life. A lot of work is done and also is being done on theRiver Rave to improve its existing conditions. A brief summary of these works is given below tohave an idea about the projects that are proposed for the River.WASA Lahore is responsible for maintaining the water supply sewerage and storm waterdrainage system for city of Lahore. The construction of piped water supply system started inLahore in 1870 in and around the Walled City of Lahore, whereas sewerage system wasintroduced in the central part of the city in 1936-37, mostly in the shape of brick sewers.Sewerage system in the Central areas of the Lahore started more than 70 years ago. Most of thesystem has outlived its life and need replacement. During this period there has been an immenseincrease in population, making the system in adequate and under sized.To address these problems Economic Affair Division (EAD), Government of Pakistan sentofficial request to the Government of Japan in July 2008 for loan assistance to(a) Lahore South East Sewerage Treatment Project and(b) Lahore Sewerage and Storm Drainage Improvement Project, and another official request was sent from EAD in September 2008 on technical assistance on(c) Study/ review of Comprehensive Sewerage and Drainage System in Lahore and(d) Study for Water Distribution System of Lahore City.Given the high priority of the Government of Pakistan on Water Supply, Sewerage and DrainageImprovement in Lahore, JICA(Japan International Cooperation Agency) decided to start “ThePreparatory Study on Lahore Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Improvement Project”, TheStudy aims to formulate the Project which may be financed by JICA’s loan assistance. The Studywas started in March 2009 and completed by July 2010. The Study aimed to formulate “theLahore Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Improvement Project” through basic study,review of vision and strategy on development and management of water supply, sewerage, anddrainage facilities in Lahore and based on this study, preparation of the project plan and of planfor implementation, operation and maintenance, confirmation of environment, socialconsiderations, thereby improving efficiency of water supply, improving sanitary environmentand water quality in public water bodies, alleviating flooding and improving managementcapacity.Meanwhile, a renewed official request with eight projects including this Project was submittedfrom EAD to the Government of Japan in September 2009. JICA’s Fact Finding Mission (“F/F 8
  10. 10. Mission”) aimed to confirm the progress of the important institutional improvement actionagendas, which were agreed to be progressed by appraisal mission between Pakistani side(WASA, HUD&PHED, and P&D) and JICA agreed in the previous F/F Mission, and to carry outfact-finding for the Project. The Pakistani side and the JICA Mission agreed to take necessaryactions on the basis of the framework agreed in this Minutes of Discussion.A meeting was held between Pakistani Mission and JICA Mission on December 9, 2010 and inthis meeting the JICA Mission strongly requested the Pakistani side to get the PC-I approvalfrom CDWP by the timing of Pledge (Prior-notification) from Government of Japan toGovernment of Pakistan in the same way as past JICA-financed projects. Accordingly this PC-Ihas been prepared and submitted to government for approval.Treatment options and Alternatives:To maintain the river water in favorable conditions or to avoid the worst conditions like theexisting ones, two options can be done  Dilution  Treatment 1. DilutionDilution is a reduction in the concentration of the chemical or the waste loads in the river usuallyby adding or mixing with more liquid/water in the river flows. In this way the waste loads can bereduced to larger limits. In dilution we add water into the river flows allowing it to mix thewastes thoroughly which reduces their concentration.Dilution can be done from the initial point i.e. adding a maximum amount of water to the river orit can also be done at the different outfalls by adding water in larger quantities to reduce thewaste concentrations.Applying Dilution to the ModelNow we will apply the dilution to our model, for this we will require a larger amount of water todilute the river flow, for this we will also have to make dilution to each of the outfall forimproving the DO levels. We will consider a DO value of 3 mg/l at each of the outfall and aninitial dilution is made four times of the existing flow at Ravi Syphen and also adding a dilutionof 2 m^3/S at each outfall, we will have these results. 9
  11. 11. Table 3.1: Results generated the model for DILUTION Addition acc. DO mass Distance Pumping St. Q of Flow Flow BOD (mg/L) DO Balance deficit (Km) Mass m^3/s (m^3/S) (m^3/S) BOD5 BOD u Balance mg/L mg/L Ravi Syphen 45 2 47 3 3.27 8 0N.E PS 13.5 2 62.5 285 310.49 69.42 3 6.41 1.59 26.1Shahdra 3.7 2 68.2 230 250.57 67.07 3 2.084892 5.91511 27.9Main outfall 13.4 2 83.6 340 370.40 89.46 3 0.767053 7.23295 34.1Gulshan Ravi 9 2 94.6 250 272.36 94.98 3 0.285412 7.71459 35.5Multan Rd PS 4.5 2 101.1 225 245.12 45.45 3 1.146964 6.85304 45.3Hudiara Drain 11.11 2 114.21 130 141.63 23.24 3 5.85 2.15 60.3Deg Drain 91.4 2 207.61 198 215.71 107.06 5 5.43 2.57 63QB link Canal 544 751.61 5 5.45 22.40 8 6.92 1.08 85Balloki Drain 98.7 Graph 3.1: BOD Profile for DILUTION Conditions BOD Vs Distance 120 100 80 BOD 60 40 20 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Distance (KM) 10
  12. 12. Graph 3.2: DO Profile for DILUTION Conditions DO Profile 8 7 6 5 DO (mg/l) 4 3 2 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Distance (KM)Findings for Trail 1 of Dilution:For increasing the initial flow to four times of the existing and adding a flow of 2 m^3/S at eachoutfall in the river as dilution makes the river conditioned for BOD as satisfactory that is , theBOD is almost reached the NEQS of 80 mg/l at most of the outfalls,But for DO the results are still not acceptable even we have added the initial DO of 3 mg/l ateach outfall but the results are not meeting the NEQSNow we will have to install any treatment facility for the outfalls to reduce their BOD levels toacceptable limits, by installing the treatment facilities we will have better conditions for bothBOD and the DO even without increasing the flow or making any dilution. 2. TreatmentSewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminantsfrom wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includesphysical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biologicalcontaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (or treatedeffluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farmfertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinkingwater, although Singapore is the only country to implement such technology. 11
  13. 13. There are different methods, techniques and processes to treat the wastewate that are used nowdays. Some of them are listed and a brief description is given below that are mainly andfrequently used.  Activated sludge process  Aerated lagoons  Trickling Filters  Waste Stabilization Ponds  And many others I. Activated sludge processThe most common suspended growth process used for municipal wastewater treatment is theactivated sludge process.Activated sludge plant involves: 1. wastewater aeration in the presence of a microbial suspension, 2. solid-liquid separation following aeration, 3. discharge of clarified effluent, 4. wasting of excess biomass, and 5. return of remaining biomass to the aeration tank.In activated sludge process wastewater containing organic matter is aerated in an aeration basin inwhich micro-organisms metabolize the suspended and soluble organic matter. Part of organic matteris synthesized into new cells and part is oxidized to CO2 and water to derive energy. In activatedsludge systems the new cells formed in the reaction are removed from the liquid stream in the form ofa flocculent sludge in settling tanks. A part of this settled biomass, described as activated sludge isreturned to the aeration tank and the remaining forms waste or excess sludge. II. Aerated lagoonAerated lagoons are relatively shallow lagoons in which wastewater is added at a single pointeither at the edge or middle of the lagoon and the effluent is removed from another point. Theretention time is a function of the percent removal of BOD. The retention time may vary from 6to 18 days as the removal of BOD from domestic wastewater varies from 75 to 90 percent.Oxygen is supplied by means of surface aerators or by diffused aeration units. The action of theaerators also maintains the solids of the lagoon in suspension. Depending on the degree ofmixing, lagoons may be operated as either aerobic or as aerobic-anaerobic systems. 12
  14. 14. In aerobic lagoons all biological solids are in continual suspension and stabilization of therganics occurs under aerobic conditions. In the case of the aerobic-anaerobic lagoon a largeportion of the solids settles to the bottom of the lagoon. As the solids build up, a portion willundergo anaerobic decomposition. Therefore, stabilization in this case occurs partly underaerobic conditions and partially in anaerobic conditionsIII. Trickling filterA trickling filter consists of a fixed bed of rocks, lava, coke, gravel, slag, polyurethane foam,sphagnum peat moss, ceramic, or plastic media over which sewage or other wastewater flowsdownward and causes a layer of microbial slime (biofilm) to grow, covering the bed of media.Aerobic conditions are maintained by splashing, diffusion, and either by forced air flowingthrough the bed or natural convection of air if the filter medium is porous.The terms trickle filter, trickling biofilter, biofilter, biological filter and biological trickling filterare often used to refer to a trickling filter. These systems have also been described as roughingfilters, intermittent filters, packed media bed filters, alternative septic systems, percolating filters,attached growth processes, and fixed film processes.IV. Stabilization PondsA stabilization pond or "oxidation pond" as it is often called, is usually a shallow earthen basinof controlled shape, which is designed for treating wastewaters from small communities orindustrial plants. The ponds are usually 2 to 4 feet deep, although much deeper ponds have beenused quite successfully. Stabilization ponds have been applied singly as part of a treatmentscheme or as the sole process, providing complete treatment.The process involves two major steps in the decomposition of organic matter in wastewater. Thecarbonaceous matter is first oxidized by the aerobic microorganisms with the formation ofcarbon dioxide and the inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorous. These inorganic forms arethen used by algae in their photosynthetic reactions. Photosynthesis is a natural process carriedon by green plants in the presence of light. One of the end products of photosynthesis is oxygenwhich becomes available to the aerobic microorganisms. As a result of the reactions in theponds, the organics in wastewater are partly oxidized and partly converted to algae cells. Algaehas been harvested in some of the locations and used for animal feed as a protein source.Therefore, treatment of wastewater with the production of a useful by-product is possible instabilization ponds.Most stabilization ponds are designed for loadings of one acre per 400 persons, 50 pounds ofBOD per acre per day or 15 pounds of BOD per acre foot per day with detention periodsgenerally greater than 30 days. The natural soil in which they are located should be fairly 13
  15. 15. impervious so that seepage will not materially affect the surface level of the wastewater in the pond. These ponds are low cost in construction and require a minimum of operation. The requirement that large, fairly isolated areas be provided limits their use to relatively small populations in areas where land is available. Using the model and applying treatment: Using any of the process for the outfalls the value of BOD is decreased to a maximum level and then the wastewater is disposed off into the river. Using these processes for treatment we will now use the reduced BOD values for our model and will predict the downstream concentration levels and we will later on use any of these options to treat the river water for acceptable values of the BOD and that of DO. Trail 1: Using Primary Treatment Using the trail 1 that is to treat the wastewater at each outfall to the primary level that is DOT degree of treatment is 40 % and maintaining the initial DO level to 5 mg/l at each outfall. Table 3.2: Results generated the model for PRIMARY TREATMENT (TRAIL 1) DO Pumping mass Distance Stations Q Acc Flow BOD (mg/L) DO Balance deficit (Km) Mass (m^3/S) (m^3/S) BOD5 BOD u Balance mg/L mg/l Ravi Syphen 11.05 11.05 3 3.27 8 0N.E PS 13.5 24.55 171 186.29 103.91 5 6.350 1.650 26.1Shahdra 3.7 28.25 138 150.34 95.60 5 0.655 7.345 27.9Main outfall 13.4 41.65 204 222.24 107.16 5 1.609 6.391 34.1Gulshan Ravi 9 50.65 150 163.41 106.03 5 0.888 7.112 35.5Multan Rd PS 4.5 55.15 135 147.07 49.84 5 0.903 7.097 45.3Hudiara Drain 11.11 66.26 78 84.98 24.01 5 5.949 2.051 60.3Deg Drain 91.4 157.66 118.8 129.42 84.57 5 5.398 2.602 63QB link Canal 544 701.66 5 5.45 16.08 8 7.254 0.746 85Balloki Drain 98.7 14
  16. 16. Graph 3.3: BOD Profile for PIMARY TREATMENT (TRAIL 1) 120 BOD Vs Distance 100 80 BOD(mg/L) 60 40 20 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Distance (KM) Graph 3.4: DO Profile for PIMARY TREATMENT (TRAIL 1) DO Profile 8 7 6 5 DO (mg/l) 4 3 2 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Distance (KM)The above results shows that applying the primary treatment with 40 % DOT the BOD removalis very much significant but the DO value are still not meeting the required standards of 4 mg/lalthough applying the initial DO values of 5 mg/l at each outfall.This trail is not acceptable for DO values so we will take another trail. 15
  17. 17. Trail 2: Applying 70 % DOTUsing the trail 2 that is to treat the wastewater at each outfall to the DOT degree of treatment of70 % and maintaining the initial DO level to 5 mg/l at each outfall. Table 3.3: Results generated the model for DOT OF 70 % (TRAIL 2) Pumping DO mass Distance Stations Q Acc Flow BOD (mg/L) DO Balance Deficit (Km) Mass (m^3/S) (m^3/S) BOD5 BOD u Balance mg/L mg/l Ravi Syphen 11.05 11.05 3 3.27 8 0 N.E PS 13.5 24.55 85.5 93.15 52.69 0 3.601 4.399 26.1 Shahdra 3.7 28.25 69 75.17 48.34 0 1.049 6.951 27.9 Main outfall 13.4 41.65 102 111.12 53.78 0 1.086 6.914 34.1 Gulshan Ravi 9 50.65 75 81.71 53.16 0 0.000 8.000 35.5 Multan Rd PS 4.5 55.15 67.5 73.54 24.97 0 3.206 4.794 45.3 Hudiara Drain 11.11 66.26 39 42.49 12.02 2 6.148 1.852 60.3 Deg Drain 91.4 157.66 59.4 64.71 42.29 5 5.516 2.484 63 QB link Canal 544 701.66 5 5.45 10.15 8 7.516 0.484 85 Balloki Drain 98.7 Graph 3.5: BOD Profile for DOT OF 70 % (TRAIL 2) 60 BOD Vs Distance 50 40 BOD(mg/L) 30 20 10 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Distance (KM) 16
  18. 18. Graph 3.6: DO Profile for DOT OF 70 % (TRAIL 2) 9 DO Profile 8 7 6 DO (mg/l) 5 4 3 2 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Distance (KM) The above results shows that applying the secondary treatment with 70 % DOT the BOD concentration in the river is now in the standard values but the DO value are still not meeting the required standards of 4 mg/l in the start at starting outfalls, although applying the initial DO values of 5 mg/l at each outfall. This trail is not acceptable for DO, we will take another trail Trail 3: Applying 80 % DOT Using the trail 3 that is to treat the wastewater at each outfall to the DOT degree of treatment of 80 % and maintaining the initial DO level to 5 mg/l at each outfall. Table 3.4: Results generated the model for DOT OF 70 % (TRAIL 2) DO Pumping mass Distance Stations Q Acc Flow BOD (mg/L) DO Balance deficit (Km) (m^3/S) (m^3/S) BOD5 BOD u Mass Balance mg/L mg/l Ravi Syphen 11.5 11.5 3 3.27 8 0N.E PS 13.5 25 57 62.097 35.036 5 6.380 1.620 26.1Shahdra 3.7 28.7 46 50.114 32.116 5 4.503 3.497 27.9Main outfall 13.4 42.1 68 74.081 35.619 5 4.399 3.601 34.1Gulshan Ravi 9 51.1 50 54.471 35.233 5 3.448 4.552 35.5Multan Rd PS 4.5 55.6 45 49.024 16.551 5 5.130 2.870 45.3Hudiara Drain 11.11 66.71 26 28.325 7.964 5 6.956 1.044 60.3Deg Drain 91.4 158.11 39.6 43.141 28.117 5 5.840 2.160 63QB link Canal 544 702.11 5 5.447 8.172 8 7.630 0.370 85 17
  19. 19. Graph 3.7: BOD Profile for DOT OF 80 % (TRAIL 3) 40 BOD Vs Distance 35 30 25 BOD(mg/L) 20 15 10 5 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Distance (KM) Graph 3.8: DO Profile for DOT OF 80 % (TRAIL 3) DO Profile 9 8 7 6 DO (mg/l) 5 4 3 2 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Distance (KM)The trail 3 is somehow very reasonable trail also for the DO concentration that most of the timesmeet the standards and the BOD is completely within the standard. 18
  20. 20. Chapter 4: RecommendationsLahore is a main city of Pakistan and which is recognized internationally and it should have thebasic facilities of road infrastructure, sanitation, clean drinking water and sewerage. Thiscrowded city generates a huge amount of the waste produced daily now it is the need to properlydispose it off, for this different treatment plants at different outfalls are running in spite of thisthe Ravi river is going polluted day by day, because the condition of these treatment plants isworth seeing, and also due to the direct disposal of waste to the River without any treatment.Now the need is to properly handle the waste produced and dispose it off.At source treatment:We can control the worst conditions of the Ravi River by individual awareness; each and everyindividual citizen of the city can play its role,Every house of any community of a colony should have a septic tank instead of disposing thewaste directly to the sewers and they can also make dilution to the waste, this will reduce theBOD concentrations to a very low values so the treatment starts from the point of generation ofthe waste, this awareness should be created to the public so that the worst conditions of thedisposal of the wastewater in Lahore can be controlled.Making a collector Drain along the River:If a collector drain is made all along the Ravi River so that it will collect all of the wastewaterfrom all of the outfalls and will eventually dispose it to the end of the city at Baloki Head Workswhere a lot of dilution to the river is available, or at that point a treatment plant should beinstalled which will treat the wastewater before disposing it into the Ravi River.If this collector channel is made all along the River Ravi then the River water will be pure allalong the city and all the recreational facilities like fishing and boating can be made alive, andalso the aquatic life will sustain in that environment which will be an healthy activity. 19
  21. 21. References:  Environment Department, CDGL, “Environmental Profile of Lahore (2007-08)”  EPA. Punjab Report   KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%2024.htm  KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%2024.htm 20