Forensic linguistics


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Forensic linguistics

  1. 1. <ul><li>Ani Amirah bt Mohd Zin (0716248) </li></ul><ul><li>Dian Sira Mohamad (0718190) </li></ul><ul><li>Faezah Senin (0712246) </li></ul><ul><li>Hanis Fauzana Sulaiman (0714058) </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Taking linguistic knowledge, methods and insights, and applying these to the forensic context of law, investigation, trial, punishment and rehabilitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific method in forensic linguistics requires hypothesis testing and a litigation-independent testing of the method for its accuracy. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Voice identification/ forensic phonetics </li></ul><ul><li>- Analyzes the acoustic qualities of the voice </li></ul><ul><li>Author identification/ forensic stylistic </li></ul><ul><li>- determining who wrote a particular text by comparing it to known writing samples of a suspect. </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Structure of writing or spoken utterance </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectology </li></ul><ul><li>- determining which dialect of a language a person speaks </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Language of the law </li></ul><ul><li>the nature of the complexity of legal language and also whether anything can be done about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Language in the judicial process </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial process: point of arrest, interview, charge, trial and sentencing </li></ul><ul><li>the language of lawyers and witnesses and the effectiveness of linguistic strategies in examination-in-chief and cross-examination. </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark disputes, authorship, forensic phonetics </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Language of the judicial process </li></ul><ul><li>Trial </li></ul><ul><li>IR: Did you see this woman? Did you talk to her? </li></ul><ul><li>IE: Yes </li></ul><ul><li>IR: How long did it last? </li></ul><ul><li>IE: Seconds. I was passing by her, my hand touched her, I apologize </li></ul><ul><li>(Taken from the journal article “A New Approach to Identify Crimes in Iranian Society: Forensic Linguistic”. A case of a boy who committed sexual assault on a woman who was his grandfather’s tenant) </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency call </li></ul><ul><li>Ransom demands or other threat communication </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide letters </li></ul>
  6. 6. The last blog entry of Alviss Kong , a 22 year old who committed suicide.
  7. 7. <ul><li>To use the scientific analysis of language to advance the cause of justice in the application of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>To promote the study of forensic linguistics. </li></ul><ul><li>It can solve cases - it can help corporations understand what their employees are saying, sometimes anonymously, and it can solve language related crimes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>First Study: </li></ul><ul><li>The Majestic Documents: A forensic Linguistic Report by Michael S. Heiser, PhD (June 2007) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Majestic Documents : thousands of pages of purportedly classified government documents that prove the existence of a Top secret group of scientist and military personnel called Majestic 12, and charged with investigating crashed extraterrestrial spacecraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of the research : to determine whether the Majestic documents that carry a signature were indeed written by the people to whom authorship is attributed. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopting the computational, stylometric methods of authorship attribution – ALIAS by Dr. Carol Chaski </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>In testing the documents, four steps were taken. </li></ul><ul><li>First step : taking the KNOWN documents of a chart, undisputedly authored by the person whose authorship is attributed to them, and combining them together to get a “stylistic pool” of data for each author. </li></ul><ul><li>Second step : to run computational stylistic comparisons between each UNVERIFIED document to its corresponding set of KNOWN documents (its “KNOWN document pool”). </li></ul><ul><li>Third step : compare each KNOWN document pool to all the other KNOWN document pools for similarity scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth step : rank all of the resulting similarity scores. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to understand that only those matches in the top slot are to be considered as likely authentic. </li></ul><ul><li>In this particular study, the results show that, of the seventeen Majestic documents tested, only one shows a strong likelihood of being authored by the author whose name they bear. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Second Study: </li></ul><ul><li>A New Approach To Identify Crimes In Iranian Society: Forensic Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Report by Ferdows Aghagolzadeh, Negar Momeni,Mostafa Asi, &Mohamad Farajiha </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Aim : to show how linguistic tools can help the juries and judges in Iranian courts, especially when there are no clear and typical available proofs and documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis : Linguistic factors including morphology, phonetics, semantics, pragmatics and discourse can be used to prove a crime such as identifying perjury, threatening and etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations : Most lawyers in Iran did not know anything about forensic linguistic. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Methodology : </li></ul><ul><li>50 court cases, police reports and the Iranian judicial system reports were gathered . For example, perjury, fraud, bribery, threats. </li></ul><ul><li>The cases were analyzed to see whether the crime was committed through lingual techniques such as topic shift, cognitive meanings and presupposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological evidences </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology and word-formation are too much used in coinage of new words. One of the issues for which word-formation is important seems to be in commerce. When one product enters the consumption market, their producers try to choose a good brand (commercial name) for it. McSleep v.s.McDonald. </li></ul><ul><li>In another trade name case, Oyanadel and Samaniego (1999) gave evidence concerning brands of baby cream. An old established brand was “ Hipoglos ”, a name derived from a technical term for fish oil. A new brand came onto the market called “ Fasaglos ” FASA being an acronym for the company name. Oyanadel and Samaniego were able to testify that “-glos” is not a productive morpheme in Spanish; in other words, it is not used generally as the last part of words to make new words-it had been taken directly from “Hipoglos”. The evidence was accepted, and the tradename “Fasaglos” was rejected.” </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic tools (syntactic, semantic, phonetics and cognitive) can help interrogation improve or can identify the lies when the defendant resorts to lying, even if the defendant does not admit to lying. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>