Education in the Philippines duringthe Spanish period..
During the Spanish Colonial Period of the Philippines(1565-1898) most of the archipelago underwent a deepcultural, religious transformation from various nativeAsian cultures and traditions with Islamic or animistreligious practices, to a unique hybrid of Southeast Asiaand Western culture including the Catholic faith. Spanish education played a major role in thattransformation. The oldest universities, colleges,vocational schools and the first modern public educationsystem in Asia were created during the colonial period.
Education was still in the early stage ofdevelopment during the Spanish period. Evenby the late 19th century, the Spanish languagewas still unknown to a great majority. Theywere literate in their own native dialects. TheSpanish aristocracy tried to distinguishthemselves from the indios with the use oflanguage and level education.
The Jesuits in manila founded the first college forboys in 1589. It was originally called College ofManila (for scholastics), and later changed toCollege of San Ignacio. In 1621, it was elevated tothe rank of a university by Pope Gregory XV andwas named University of san Ignacio. However, thisschool was closed in 1768 when the Jesuits wereexpelled from the country. In 1601, the Colegio desan jose also under the Jesuits, was establishes.
In 1611, Fray Miguel de Benavides, the third archbishop ofManila established the Colegio de Nuestra Senora delSantissimo Rosario, later renamed universidad de Santo Tomas(in 1645 by Pope Innocent X). Universidad de Santo Tomas
The Dominican order that administered Colegio de SantoTomas also established the Colegio de San Juan de Letran totake care of orphaned Spanish boys. Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The girls were also given special education. Schools were oftwo kinds:•COLEGIO - a regular school for girls•BEATERIO – a combined school and nunneryThe first college for girls in the Philippines was the Collegeof Santa Potenciana (1594). After the school ceased itsoperations, the students transferred to College of Santa Isabel,now the oldest existing college for girls in the country. Theinstitution was originally built to care for orphaned Spanishgirls. Eventually, it became an exclusive school for thedaughters of affluent Spaniards.
In 1621, the Franciscan nuns established theReal Monasterio de Santa Clara (now St. ClaireConvent of Manila), the first nunnery in thePhilippines.
Primary education consisted of courses inreading, writing, arithmetic, religion;geography, the history of Spain, the Spanishlanguage, vocal music; and agriculture forboys and needle work for girls. The girlswere taught basic education, as well asreligion, needlework, painting and music.
Academic reforms were later on implemented, after theSpanish government conceded to its growing demand. TheEducational Decree, dated December 20, 1863 introduceda system of public education that opened opportunities toFilipinos for higher learning. It ordered the establishmentof an educational system consisting of elementary,secondary, and collegiate levels.
SPANISHMISSIONARIES-education was “religion centered”-education for the elite only-Spanish is compulsory-boys and girls school are separated-inadequate, suppressed and controlled