Optimizing the Transition cow environment

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Presentation from dairy cattle reproduction council. Optimizing the Transition cow environment : Implication for behaviour and health.

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Optimizing the Transition cow environment

  1. 1. Optimizing the transition cowenvironment: implications for behavior and health Katy Proudfoot, MSc UBC Animal Welfare Program DCRC Conference, November, 2010
  2. 2. UBC Research Reports Want updates on UBC research? Check out the UBC Dairy Education and Research Centre Research Reports: http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/dairycentre/reports or email Katy to be sent new Research Reports monthly: Kproudy@gmail.com
  3. 3. The Plan1) Discuss the relationship between a transition cow’s behavior and her health2) Recommend transition cow environments that reduce disease risk
  4. 4. The problem with transition • ~ 30-50% of cows become ill during the transition period • Disease results in: –  milk production –  reproductive efficiency –  longevity –  involuntary culling –  Lost $$
  5. 5. The problem with transition Gröhn et al., 2003
  6. 6. The problem with transition Why do some cows get sick and others stay healthy? • Parturition • Lactation • New environment (heifers) • Diet change • Regrouping
  7. 7. How do we prevent disease? The steps: 1) Identify behaviors that are linked to disease 2) Determine which management practices affect these behaviors
  8. 8. How do we prevent disease? The steps: 1) Identify behaviors that are linked to disease 2) Determine which management practices affect these behaviors
  9. 9. Metritis DiagnosisMetritis VD=0 VD=1 VD=2 VD=3 VD=4 Less than More than 50% Red/brown Clear or no Blood or 50% pus pus watery with discharge flecks of pus and bad smell and bad smell putrid smell No Fever No Fever Fever Healthy Mild Metritis Severe Metritis
  10. 10. Metritis: feeding time 120Feeding time (min/d) 100 80 60 40 20 Healthy 0 -12 -9 -6 -3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Day Relative to Calving Urton et al. 2005 J. Dairy Sci. 88:2843-2849
  11. 11. Metritis: feeding time Cows with metritis spend less time eating 3 wk before disease diagnosis 120Feeding time (min/d) 100 80 60 40 Healthy 20 Clinical signs of Severe Metritis infection 0 -12 -9 -6 -3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Day Relative to Calving Urton et al. 2005 J. Dairy Sci. 88:2843-2849
  12. 12. Metritis: DMIDMI (kg/d) He althy Day from Calving Huzzey et al. 2007, J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-3233.
  13. 13. Metritis: DMI Sub-clinical cows show declines in the week before calvingDMI (kg/d) Clinical signs of infection He althy M ild ly M e tritic Day from Calving Huzzey et al. 2007, J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-3233
  14. 14. Metritis: DMI Clinically sick cows showed the greatest drops in DMI before calvingDMI (kg/d) He althy Clinical signs of M ild ly M e tritic infection S e ve re ly M e tritic Day from Calving Huzzey et al. 2007, J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-3233
  15. 15. Metritis: DMI 1.8 HealthyDMI at each hour (kg) 1.6 Mildly Metritic 1.4 Severely Metritic 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Feed delivery Feed delivery 0 0:00 4:00 8:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 Hour of day Huzzey et al. 2007, J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-3233
  16. 16. Metritis: DMI 1.8 HealthyDMI at each hour (kg) 1.6 Mildly Metritic 1.4 Severely Metritic 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 F.D. F.D. delivery Feed Feed delivery 0 0:00 4:00 8:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 Hour of day Huzzey et al. 2007, J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-3233
  17. 17. Metritis: DMI Sick cows eat less during peak feeding times 1.8 HealthyDMI at each hour (kg) 1.6 Mildly Metritic 1.4 Severely Metritic 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Feed delivery Feed delivery 0 0:00 4:00 8:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 Hour of day Huzzey et al. 2007, J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-3233
  18. 18. Metritis: social behavior
  19. 19. Metritis: social behavior Sick cows avoid the feed bunk and social interactions… 20 displaced another # Times a cow 15 10 5 0 Healthy Mildly Severely Metritic Metritic Huzzey et al. 2007, J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-3233
  20. 20. Metritis Metritis has a short-term effect on production (-18 lbs/d) 60Milk Production (kg/d) 50 40 30 20 Healthy 10 Mildly Metritic Severely Metritic 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 DIM
  21. 21. Metritis Metritis has a long-term effect on production… 60Milk Production (kg/d) Healthy 50 Metritis 40 30 20 10 0 2 8 14 20 26 32 38 44 Week of lactation Wittrock et al. under review with JDS
  22. 22. Metritis Cows with metritis are more likely to be culled… 60% 50% 40% 30% Culled 20% 10% 0% Healthy Metritis Wittrock et al. under review with JDS
  23. 23. Metritis Cows with metritis are more likely to be culled… 60% 50% 40% Culled 30% Not bred 20% 10% 0% Healthy Metritis Wittrock et al. under review with JDS
  24. 24. Sub-clinical ketosis 25 20 15 Healthy Healthy 10 Sub-clinical SCK+1 Ketosis 5 0 ‐14 ‐12 ‐10 ‐8 ‐6 ‐4 ‐2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Day relative to calving Goldhawk et al J. Dairy Sci. 92:4971-4977
  25. 25. Lameness A transition cow disease?
  26. 26. Lameness 8 to 15 wk High incidence of claw horn lesions Transition -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Week Relative to CalvingRecorded standing behavior Recorded claw horn lesions
  27. 27. Lameness: standing behavior Standing Time (min/d) 1000 800 600 400 200 Healthy 0 wk -2 +24 h wk 1 wk 2 Period relative to calving Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  28. 28. Lameness: standing behavior Cows diagnosed with lesions stood longer during transition Standing Time (min/d) 1000 800 600 400 Healthy 200 Lesion 0 wk -2 +24 h wk 1 wk 2 Period relative to calving Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  29. 29. Lameness: standing behavior Cows diagnosed with lesions stood longer during transition Standing Time (min/d) 1000 800 600 400 What are they doing? Healthy 200 Lesion 0 wk -2 +24 h wk 1 wk 2 Period relative to calving Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  30. 30. Lameness: standing behavior 900Standing Time (min/d) 800 700 600 500 400 Feeding 300 200 100 0 Healthy Lesion Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  31. 31. Lameness: standing behavior 900 800Standing Time (min/d) 700 600 500 Feed Alley 400 300 Feeding 200 100 0 Healthy Lesion Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  32. 32. Lameness: standing behavior 900 800Standing Time (min/d) 700 600 Alley 500 400 Feed Alley 300 Feeding 200 100 0 Healthy Lesion Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  33. 33. Lameness: standing behavior 900 800Standing Time (min/d) 700 600 4 Feet in Stall 500 Alley 400 Feed Alley 300 200 Feeding 100 0 Healthy Lesion Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  34. 34. Lameness: standing behavior 900Standing Time (min/d) 800 700 600 500 400 2 Feet in Stall 300 4 Feet in Stall 200 Alley 100 Feed Alley 0 Feeding Healthy Lesion Proudfoot et al., 2010, JDS 93(9):3970-3978
  35. 35. How do we prevent disease? Metritis, Ketosis Lameness Low pre-partum feed High pre-partum intake standing time FEED BUNK LYING STALLS REGROUPING
  36. 36. How do we prevent disease? The steps: 1) Identify behaviors that are linked to the diseases 2) Determine which management practices affect these behaviors
  37. 37. The feed bunk Stocking density Feeding frequency
  38. 38. Feed bunk: stocking density 100 Fresh Feed 32 in/cow 24 in/cow Fresh Feed 16 in/cow 80% of cows feeding 8 in/cow Milking 60 Push Up Push Up 40 Push Up Milking 20 0 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 Time of day Huzzey et al., 2006. J. Dairy Sci. 89:126-133
  39. 39. Feed bunk: stocking density Healthy cows that have to compete for feed eat less before calving 20 18 16 14DMI (kg/d) 12 10 8 6 Non-competitive (1:1) 4 Competitive (2:1) 2 0 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Day relative to calving Proudfoot et al., 2009 JDS
  40. 40. Feed bunk: stocking density Displacements increase by 65% when cows are overstocked Non-competitive 28 Displacements/day 24 Competitive 20 16 12 8 4 0 Primiparous Multiparous Proudfoot et al., 2009 JDS
  41. 41. Feed bunk: stocking density Overstocked cows stand 3 h/d longer in the week after calving Competitive Non-competitive 15 13 Standing time (h/d) 11 9 7 5 3 1 - 2 wk 1 wk 2-3 wk Period relative to calving Proudfoot et al., 2009 JDS
  42. 42. The lying stalls Stocking Neckrail density Bedding
  43. 43. Lying stalls: stocking density Increased stocking density at the lying stalls = shorter lying times 14 Lying time (h/d) 13 12 11 8 9 10 11 12 Number of stalls per group of 12 cows Fregonesi et al., 2007 J. Dairy Sci. 90:3349-3354
  44. 44. Lying stalls: stocking density Cows like to lie down at the same time, regardless of stocking density 100 100.0% Stocking level 90.0% 150 % stocking 150% 100% 80.0% 100 % stocking % Cows lying 70.0% r r 60.0% co l i 5050.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0 09:10 0.0% 00:00 00:50 01:40 02:30 03:20 04:10 05:00 05:50 06:40 07:30 08:20 10:00 10:50 11:40 12:30 13:20 14:10 15:00 15:50 16:40 17:30 18:20 19:10 20:00 20:50 21:40 22:30 23:20 0 12 Time 24 Time (h) Fregonesi et al., 2007 J. Dairy Sci. 90:3349-3354
  45. 45. Lying stalls: bedding More bedding improves lying times…Lying time (h/d) Tucker & Weary, 2004, J. Dairy Sci. 87: 2889-2895
  46. 46. Lying stalls: bedding Preference test: What would they choose? All stalls have wet sawdust Force phase All stalls have kiln dried sawdust Choice phase 1/2 stalls wet sawdust + 1/2 stalls kiln dried
  47. 47. Lying stalls: bedding Force phase: Dry bedding improves lying time… Lying time (h/d) Fregonesi et al., 2009. JDS
  48. 48. QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  49. 49. Lying stall: neckrail No neckrail Neckrail
  50. 50. Lying stall: neckrail Moving the neck-rail farther from the curb can decrease perching behavior 1.2 Neck rail No neck rail 0.8 0.4 0 Two Four Number of hooves in stall Bernardi et al., 2009. J. Dairy Sci.
  51. 51. Lying stalls : neckrail 5 4.5 Neckrail No neckrail 4 3.5 3 Gait score 2.5 2 No neckrail Neckrail 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Week Bernardi et al., 2009. J. Dairy Sci.
  52. 52. Lying stalls : neckrail Stall and udder cleanliness?
  53. 53. Lying stall: neckrail Without the neckrail, cows and stalls are dirtier 4 4 Udder cleanliness Without neck rail Stall cleanliness 3 3 With neck rail Score 2 Score 2 1 1 0 0 Treatment Treatment Bernardi et al., 2009. J. Dairy Sci.
  54. 54. Lying stall: neckrail New cases of disease Neckrail No neckrail Lameness 11 2 Mastitis 0 0 SCC>100,000 cells/ml 2 1 “Neckrail paradox” Bernardi et al., 2009. J. Dairy Sci.
  55. 55. Regrouping Cows moved to a new group take 2 days to adapt, reduce feeding time and lose 8 lbs of milk on the first day! 30 Reactor Actor Displacements 20 10 0 -1 0 1 2 3 Day von Keyserlingk et al. 2008. J. Dairy Sci.
  56. 56. Regrouping Social disruption Weekly entries into pen Slide courtesy of Dr. Nigel Cook, University of Wisconsin, Madison
  57. 57. Regrouping Social disruption etc…. Daily entries into pen Slide courtesy of Dr. Nigel Cook, University of Wisconsin, Madison
  58. 58. Summary Metritis, Ketosis Lameness Low pre-partum feed High pre-partum intake standing time • Overstocking the lying stalls • Overstocking the feedbunk • Aggressive neckrail position • Regrouping often • Poor bedding
  59. 59. Take home messages  We can use this research to design optimal environments that reduce the risk of disease  An optimal environment means: - Don’t overstock the feed bunk or lying stalls - Keep transition cows in well bedded, dry stalls with non-aggressive or no neckrails - Minimize regroupings and social turmoil
  60. 60. Thanks!Natural Sciences and Engineering Council, Dairy Farmers of Canada, BCDairy Foundation, Pfizer, Westgen, Beef Industry Development Council, BCMilk Producers, Alberta Milk and many others listed atwww.landfood.ubc.ca/animalwelfare/

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