Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Impact of Metabolic Disorders and Mastitis on Reproduction

3,060 views

Published on

Amin Ahmadzadeh, University of Idaho

Impact of Metabolic Disorders and Mastitis on Reproduction

  1. 1. Impact of Metabolic Disorders and Mastitis on Reproduction Amin Ahmadzadeh*, Joseph C. Dalton Animal and Veterinary Science Department University of Idaho
  2. 2. Introduction Reproductive disorders such as dystocia, retained placenta, ovarian cysts and metritis can decrease reproductive performance of dairy cows The effects of other diseases, such as metabolic disorders and mastitis, on dairy cow fertility have not been quantified
  3. 3. Introduction The studies that have investigated the relationship between metabolic disorders, mastitis, and reproduction, have only established associations and were unable to infer causality  Milk Fever  Ketosis  Mastitis
  4. 4. Hypocalcemia 5.9% of U.S. Cows  Subclinically (NAHMS, 1996) present in up to 50- 65% of fresh cows Ketosis: 23.6 X   Smooth Muscle Dystocia: 3 to7 X function  Release of cortisol Retains: 4 X accompanies ( Mastitis: 5 to 8 X immune function)  K and Na alkalinize DA: 2 to 4 X blood and alter Ca Associate costs to producer ~$300
  5. 5. Milk Fever and ReproductionFourichon et al., (2000):Days to 1st Service ↑ 5 daysServices per Conception ↑ 0.3 servicesDays open & conception to AI No ChangeChebel et al., (2004):Risk of Conception ↓ 2.25 X
  6. 6. Mechanism(s) of Action Alteration in uterine muscle function Slower uterine involution Reduced blood flow to the ovaries Indirect effects:  dystocia  retained placenta  endometritis reviewed in Mulligan et al., (2006)
  7. 7. Plan of Action Feed a balanced ration, especially during the close-up period (3 to 4 weeks before calving) Feed a balanced ration balanced for dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) Feed dietary potassium at recommended levels Feeding anionic salts may be considered.
  8. 8. Ketosis Prevalence:  12 to 14% in North American dairy cows  7 to 32% worldwide (reviewed in Cook et al., 2001) Etiology:  marked glucose insufficiency  increased fat mobilization  Increase in blood ketone bodies
  9. 9. Decrease in feed intake (2 wks before and 3 wks after calving) Mobilization of body fat Increase in blood fatty acids 1) - EB & 2) Stress of calving Liver overload and inhibition of FA oxidationAccumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes Increased conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetate and -hydroxybutyrate
  10. 10. Ketosis and ReproductionFourichon et al., (2000): Days to 1st Service ↑ 2.5 days Days open ↑ 6 days Conception to 1st service ↓ ~ 4% Hazard ratio of conception (56 to 120 days postpartum) ↓ 13.5 % The effects of clinical ketosis on reproduction are limited and show large variation in different production systems.
  11. 11. Ketosis and Reproduction Cook et al., (2001):  Days open ↑ 54 days  Increased Culling rateWalsh et al., (2007): Increased BHBA ↓ 50% likelihood of pregnancy to(1st-2nd wk postpartum) 1st AI
  12. 12. Health Problems in the First 60 DIM and Pregnancy in Dairy Cows Pregnant, Health status Adjusted OR (95% CI) P % Healthy 51.4 1.00 Type of health problem Calving problem 40.3 0.75 (0.63 – 0.88) < 0.001 Metritis 37.8 0.66 (0.56 – 0.78) < 0.001 Clinical endometritis 38.7 0.62 (0.52 – 0.74) < 0.001 Fever postpartum 39.8 0.60 (0.48 – 0.65) < 0.001 Mastitis 39.4 0.84 (0.64 – 1.10) 0.20 Clinical ketosis 28.8 0.50 (0.36 – 0.68) < 0.001 Lameness 33.3 0.57 (0.41 – 0.78) < 0.001 Pneumonia 32.4 0.63 (0.32 – 1.27) 0.20 Digestive problem 36.7 0.78 (0.46 – 1.34) 0.385,719 postpartum dairy cows evaluated daily for health disorders in seven dairy farms in the US
  13. 13. Health Problems and Pregnancy Loss in the First 60 d of Gestation in Dairy Cows Health status Loss, % Adjusted OR (95% CI) P Healthy 8.9 1.00 --- Type of health problem Calving problem 15.9 1.67 (1.16 – 2.40) < 0.01 Metritis 11.3 1.01 (0.71 – 1.60) 0.76 Clinical endometritis 15.1 1.55 (1.04 – 2.32) 0.03 Fever postpartum 18.0 2.00 (1.24 – 3.14) < 0.01 Mastitis 19.8 2.62 (1.48 – 4.64) < 0.001 Clinical ketosis 14.6 1.64 (0.75 – 3.59) 0.22 Lameness 26.4 2.67 (1.38 – 5.12) < 0.01 Pneumonia 16.7 1.87 (0.40 – 8.69) 0.42 Digestive problem 15.8 1.81 (0.52 – 6.32) 0.355,719 postpartum dairy cows evaluated daily for health disorders in seven dairy farms in the US.
  14. 14. Plan of Action Provide adequate dietary energy Minimize the reduction of dry matter intake during the last 3 weeks prepartum Maximize dry matter intake after calving Avoid overcrowding cows, especially in fresh cow pen Feeding additives such as niacin, calcium propionate, propylene glycol, and rumen- protected fat or choline, may be considered
  15. 15. Milk Fever Ketosis Muscle Function Ovarian Blood GI Motility Flow Uterine Motility DMI and Ca2+ Absorption Dystocia Retained Placenta (−) BHBA Uterine Infection (−) [ Fatty Liver − EB Inflammation Cytokines (−) (−) (TNFα, IL’s., etc.) (−) Oocyte maturations, embryo (−) Fertility fertilization and developmentFigure 1. Potential mechanisms by which milk fever and ketosis affect fertility.
  16. 16. MastitisDefinition: Inflammation of the mammary gland • trauma and (or) injury to the udder, • infection due to microorganisms or chemical irritationSymptoms:• decreased milk production• alterations in milk composition and appearance• elevated body temperature• swelling, redness, heat in infected quarters and pain
  17. 17. Estimated Losses Due to Mastitis Once a Year Item Dollar Loss per CowReduced milk production $55 -121Early cow replacement cost $30 - 40Discarded milk $11- 35Extra labor $1- 3Drugs $7 - 12Veterinary service $2 - 3Total $106 - 214Source: Winning the Fight Against Mastitis Loss due to reproductive inefficiency
  18. 18. Percentage of cows by producer- identified health problemsHealth problem Incidence rate (% of cows)Clinical mastitis 16.5Lameness 14.0Retained placenta 7.8Dystocia, metritis 3.8Milk fever 4.9Displaced abomasum 3.5Ketosis* 3.7 NAHMS, 2007 *From Jordan and Fourdraine, 1993
  19. 19. Change in health problems 1996 to 2007 18 16 1996 14 2002 12Percentage 2007 10 8 6 4 2 0 Mastitis Lameness RP Dystocia Milk DA fever
  20. 20. Does mastitis affect other physiological functions? Thecost of mastitis reaches far beyond the associated milk loss, drug and veterinary costs, and labor Recent studies confirm that mastitis has detrimental effects on reproductive efficiency of dairy cows
  21. 21. Mastitis and Reproductive PerformanceMoore et al., (1991):  Negative correlation between clinical mastitis and reproduction caused by gram positive bacteria  Cows experiencing clinical mastitis were 1.6 times more likely to have an altered inter-estrus interval than healthy cows
  22. 22. Effects of Mastitis Type Before First Insemination on DFS, DO, and S/C Black : clinical; Gray : subclinical Striped: subclinical to clinical Hatched: uninfected Schrick et al. (2001)
  23. 23. Clinical Mastitis and AbortionRisco et al., (1999):  Infected cows within the first 45 days of gestation were at 2.7 times more risk of abortion as compared with uninfected cowsChebel et al., (2004):  Cows having clinical mastitis between AI and pregnancy confirmation were 2.8 times more likely to have an abortion than those not experiencing mastitis
  24. 24. The effect of mastitis on reproductive performance in dairy cowsSource Reproductive Parameters Mastitis UninfectedBarker et al. (1998a) Days open 114  10 92  4.6 S/C 1.6  0.3 1.7  0.1Barker et al. (1998b) Days open 136  11 92  4.6 S/C 2.9  0.3 1.7  0.1Schrick et al. (2001) Days open 110  6.9 85.4  5.8 S/C 2.1  0.2 1.6  0.2 Conception rate 48% 63%Kelton et al. (2001) Conception rate 38% 46%Santos et al. (2003a) Days open 165  5.7 140  3.7 S/C 2.6  0.1 2.6  0.1 Conception rate at 1st AI 22% 29%Santos et al. (2003b) Days open 189  7.2 140  3.7 S/C 3  0.2 2.6  0.1 Conception rate at 1st AI 10% 29%
  25. 25. The effect of mastitis on reproductive performance in dairy cowsSource Reproductive Mastitis Uninfected ParametersNava-Trujillo et al.(2010 c) Days open 187  8.6 144  7.5 S/C 2.35  0.2 2.21  0.2 Conception rate at 1st AI 49% 56%Hertle et al. (2010) Gram negative infection: 80% reduction in probability of conception, if infection occurred in the week after AI Probability of conception Gram positive infection: 47% reduction in probability of conception, if infection occurred in the week after AIc. dual purpose breed under tropical condition
  26. 26. The Effect Of Mastitis on Reproductive Performance in Dairy CowsReproductive Mastitis UninfectedParametersDays open 160 days 126 daysS/C 2.4 2.1Conception rate 10 – 49 % 29 – 63 %
  27. 27. Health Problems in the First 60 DIM and Pregnancy in Dairy Cows Pregnant, Health status Adjusted OR (95% CI) P % Healthy 51.4 1.00 Type of health problem Calving problem 40.3 0.75 (0.63 – 0.88) < 0.001 Metritis 37.8 0.66 (0.56 – 0.78) < 0.001 Clinical endometritis 38.7 0.62 (0.52 – 0.74) < 0.001 Fever postpartum 39.8 0.60 (0.48 – 0.65) < 0.001 Mastitis 39.4 0.84 (0.64 – 1.10) 0.20 Clinical ketosis 28.8 0.50 (0.36 – 0.68) < 0.001 Lameness 33.3 0.57 (0.41 – 0.78) < 0.001 Pneumonia 32.4 0.63 (0.32 – 1.27) 0.20 Digestive problem 36.7 0.78 (0.46 – 1.34) 0.385,719 postpartum dairy cows evaluated daily for health disorders in seven dairy farms in the US
  28. 28. Health Problems and Pregnancy Loss in the First 60 d of Gestation in Dairy Cows Health status Loss, % Adjusted OR (95% CI) P Healthy 8.9 1.00 --- Type of health problem Calving problem 15.9 1.67 (1.16 – 2.40) < 0.01 Metritis 11.3 1.01 (0.71 – 1.60) 0.76 Clinical endometritis 15.1 1.55 (1.04 – 2.32) 0.03 Fever postpartum 18.0 2.00 (1.24 – 3.14) < 0.01 Mastitis 19.8 2.62 (1.48 – 4.64) < 0.001 Clinical ketosis 14.6 1.64 (0.75 – 3.59) 0.22 Lameness 26.4 2.67 (1.38 – 5.12) < 0.01 Pneumonia 16.7 1.87 (0.40 – 8.69) 0.42 Digestive problem 15.8 1.81 (0.52 – 6.32) 0.355,719 postpartum dairy cows evaluated daily for health disorders in seven dairy farms in the US.
  29. 29. LimitationsPrevious field trial: None of the mentioned studies provides information on whether cows with mastitis also experienced other diseases Meta-analyses showed problems such as RP, ovarian cysts, and metabolic disorders negatively affected reproduction, but mastitis had no effect on reproductive performance Fourichon et al., (2000).
  30. 30. Study in Idaho ObjectivesTo evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis and(or) other diseases on reproductiveperformance, and to test the effect of time ofclinical mastitis occurrence on reproductiveperformance in Holstein cows
  31. 31. Materials and Methods Records from 963 lactating Holstein cows (commercial dairy farm in Southern Idaho)Groups:Group 1 (n=50): cows with clinical mastitis and diseasesGroup 2 (n=154): cows with clinical mastitis onlyGroup 3 (n=187): cows with diseases other than mastitisGroup 4 (n=572): healthy cows
  32. 32. Effect of Group on Days Open 180 a 160 a 140 155Days Open 120 140 b 100 b 80 97 88 60 40 20 0 Mastitis + Mastitis Diseases Healthy Diseases Groups a,b Bars with different letters differ (P < 0.05).
  33. 33. Effect of Group on Services/Conception a 3Services/Conception 2.9 b bc 2 c 2.1 1.9 1.6 1 0 Mastitis + Mastitis Diseases Healthy Diseases Groups a,b,c Bars with different letters differ (P ≤ 0.05).
  34. 34. Effect of Group on Days in Milk at 1st ServiceDays in Milk 1st Service 80 72 60 72 67 65 40 20 0 Mastitis + Mastitis Diseases Healthy Diseases Groups
  35. 35. Non-linear Regression for the Effect of Mastitis and Diseases on the Proportion of Non-pregnant Cows by 224 DIM 100 MD M 90 Predicted Proportion nonpregnant (%) D 80 C 70 60 50 Healthy vs. MD and M 40 *Slope = P < 0.01 30 Asymptote = P < 0.01 20 10 0 56 77 98 119 140 161 182 203 224 Days in Milk Mast vs. Mast & Dis Slope = P < 0.05 Asymptote = P > 0.5
  36. 36. Effect of Time of Clinical Mastitis Occurrence on Days Open 200 * 180 175 * 140 150 *Days Open 122 125 100 88 75 50 25 0 Mastitis < 60 d Mastitis 60-100 d Mastitis > 100 Healthy Days Post-partum * Different from healthy P < 0.01
  37. 37. Effect of Time of Clinical Mastitis Occurrence on Services/Conception *Services/Conception 3 * 3.0 † 2 2.4 1.9 1.6 1 0 Mastitis < 60 d Mastitis 60-100 d Mastitis > 100 d Healthy Days Post-partum † Different from healthy P = 0.06 * Different from healthy P < 0.01
  38. 38. Probability of Scenario Conception3rd lactation cow, winter, 21% after second AI gram+ mastitis1 wk 11% before 2nd AIgram-negative mastitis 5% in the wk after AI Hertle et al. (2010)
  39. 39.  The value of this difference in conception for a given situation can easily be weighed against the cost of resources including semen cost (especially if sexed semen is used) and labor as well as other management considerations including stage of lactation, milk yield, and number of AI.
  40. 40. How does mastitis affect reproductive performance on dairy cattle?
  41. 41. Mastitis Pathogens Fever Endotoxin PGE Cortisol Inflammation (−) FSH CytokinesEstradiol LH (TNFα, IL’s., etc.) (−)LHr Follicle (−) Fever PGF2 (−) Nitric Oxide CL (−) (−) (−) Progesterone Oocyte maturation, embryo fertilization and development Embryonic loss, AbortionFigure 3. Potential mechanisms by which mastitis affects fertility.
  42. 42. Bottom Line Clinical mastitis alone affects reproductive performance and these effects are more evident when cows experience both mastitis and diseases While producers should manage mastitis at all times, extra attention should be taken when clinical mastitis occurs during AI period and pregnancy establishment
  43. 43. Take Home Message The e disorders can increase the risk of other metabolic disorders as well as several reproductive maladies such as dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis Disease prevention is the key to success. Producers, veterinarians, nutritionists and farm consultants should not only focus on disease outcomes, but also review up-stream factors such as management practices, nutritional regimens and health status, especially during the transition period
  44. 44. Be Aggressive in Systematic Breeding Protocol Initiation of theSet up injection protocol 1st Breeding~ 50 days ~ 75 days in milk ~ 65 days, VWP in milk
  45. 45. Extra Attention to Completion of Milking and MastitisBreeding Protocol and AI Management Post-AI Until Pregnancy conformation (~ 45 days)

×