Applying the gold standards in calf raising

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Gary Neubauer : Applying the Gold Standards in Calf Raising

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Applying the gold standards in calf raising

  1. 1. Why set standards? Why set standards? Proactive industry leadership “Applying the Gold Standards Repeated questions from members and potential members in Calf Raising” Raising” Raise success level of entire industry Need was reinforced in 2008 industry survey Priority of DCHA board for many years Standards for dairy calves from birth to 6 months of age Research Objectives Research Objectives Attitudes and Usage Study Determine the reasons why some dairy producers raise their own calves Dairy Producers/Calf Raisers Profile dairy calf feeding practices August, 2008 Understand the challenges facing dairy operator and calf ranchers Final Report Gage likelihood of trying a new feeding program Study Sponsors: Measure concerns about animal health issues Dairy Calf and Heifer Association Pfizer Animal Health Determine the level of involvement of veterinarians and nutritionists Land O’Lakes Animal Milk Products Identify vaccines typically given to dairy calves and heifers Understand the factors considered in medication/treatment protocol decisions PRESENTED BY: Identify sources of information for operation improvement Explore perceptions of membership in the Dairy Calf and Heifer Association3 4 Number of Dairy Producers and Cow/Heifer Raisers Number of Dairy Producers and Cow/Heifer Raisers Areas of Operation Which Would Benefit from More Areas of Operation Which Would Benefit from More by State by State Information from Outside Sources Information from Outside Sources 76% 72% 7 4 2 80% 63% 17 1 40 15 1 60% 4 47% 44% 5 6 1 15 3 6 40% 6 6 3 2 4 7 4 17 3 2 4 20% 1 1 0% 1 2 2 Environmental Benchmarking Facility Upgrades Employee Financial Compliance Data on Heifer to Change Layout Training Planning 1 1 Information Raising of Operation 4 1 • Puerto Rico - 1 • Three out of four stated their operation would benefit from information North Central (123) about environmental compliance information (76%) and benchmarking data Large Herd (37) on heifer raising (72%) from an outside source. About two out of three Others (40) (63%) would benefit from information about financial planning, while just (n=200) under half would benefit from information on facility upgrades (47%) or employee training (44%).5 6 81
  2. 2. Reasons for Raising Own Calves Reasons for Raising Own Calves I. Mortality I. Mortality Dairy Producers Continued Dairy Operation Size Dairy Operation SizeReasons to Raise Own Calves Total 200 – 999 1,000+ Reasons to Raise Own Calves Total 200 – 999 1,000+ A. Given that some calves are born with a heartbeat(Base) (100) (75) (25) (Base) (100) (75) (25) and breathing, yet die not long after birth, the ageMore control 27.0% 28.0% 24.0% Bio Security 2.0 2.7 0 of 24 hours shall be used to distinguish betweenWe are able to do a better job 24.0 20.0 36.0 They freshen sooner 1.0 1.3 0 “dead on arrival” (stillbirth) and “calf mortality.”Cost effective 19.0 16.0 28.0 Controlled breeding 1.0 0 4.0Have the facilities and feed to do so 15.0 16.0 12.0 Like doing it 1.0 1.3 0Not available in our areaWe have the land 9.0 7.0 10.7 6.7 4.0 8.0 Refused 1.0 1.3 0 B. All newborn calves should be placed in anClosed herd 5.0 6.7 0 • When asked why they chose to raise their own dairy environment that will be safe from adult animalsBad past experiences 3.0 2.7 4.0 calves, the most frequent reasons included: • More control (27%) and adult animal diseases.Always have 3.0 2.7 4.0 • We are able to do a better job (24%)Easier 2.0 2.7 0 • Cost effective (19%) • Have the facilities and feed (15%)Disease control 2.0 2.7 0 • No significant differences by operation size.We use limited calf raising services 2.0 0 8.07 I. Mortality (cont.) I. Mortality (cont.) Maternity & Calving Management Maternity & Calving Management C. Every newborn calf should receive care to its navel to control infection. D. Target mortality rates are: 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: <5% 2. 61 to 120 days of age: <2% 3. 121-180 days of age: <1% Clean & dry environment Calving Management Calving Management Calving Assistance Calving Assistance Cleanliness - This is the every day standard for cleanliness at this dairy. Note that the calves are marked to confirm administration of 1 gallon of colostrum. Intervention - Clean equipment, and clothes. Wash and Sanitize the cow and use LOTS of Lubrication! 82
  3. 3. Care After the Delivery Care After the Delivery Care After Calving Care After Calving After Delivery - Offer the cow all the warm water she wants to drink. They are usually very dehydrated following calving. Stimulate the calf to breath Don’t hang it upside down Instead, use cold water on the face Or rotate your finger or a piece of straw in the nostril Remove calf from its dam Dry off with a towel Dip umbilical cord with 7% tincture of iodine Feed high quality colostrum After Delivery - Separate the calf and administer 1 gallon of colostrum within the 1st two hours of birth. Care After the Delivery -- Breathing Care After the Delivery Breathing II. Morbidity II. Morbidity A. Defining scours as a case of diarrhea which requires any intervention for more than 24 hours, target morbidity rates are: 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: <25% 2. 60 to 120 days of age: < 2% Once delivered, your first concern is that the calf 3. 121-180 days of age: < 1% is breathing. Position it on it’s chest to allow full lung expansion and tickle the interior of the nostril with a piece of straw to stimulate a gasp.DO NOT hang the calf by the back legs. This only compresses the lung field and makes it more difficult to breath The Drost Project – University of Florida Vaccination Guidelines Vaccination Guidelines Management can prevent scours! Management can prevent scours! Sound dry cow management Vaccinate Dam if possible for nutrition & vaccinations maximum protection! Maternity management Colostrum management is clean, dry & assist critical & the BEST vaccine Colostrum management one can give! ! Quality * Quantity * Timing * Contamination Environmental management individualize, hutches, bedding 83
  4. 4. Where is the Source of Infection? Where is the Source of Infection? II. Morbidity (cont.) II. Morbidity (cont.) B. Defining pneumonia as a case of respiratory disease which requires individual-animal treatment with an antibiotic (does not include use of feed- grade medication fed with a regular ration), target morbidity rates are: 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: <10% 2. 60 to 120 days of age: <15% 3. 121-180 days of age: < 2% Diarrhea < 5 days Diarrhea > 7 days Maternity Pen Calf HousingCommunal Drying/Warming Slide: courtesy of Dr. Sheila McGuirk Pneumonia Pneumonia Respiratory Disease Control Respiratory Disease Control Ventilation Vaccination Early detection & diagnosis Treatment with effective antibiotic Correct dosage & duration of antibiotic Key Factors for decreasing endemic Key Factors for decreasing endemic respiratory infections respiratory infections 1. Solid panels between calves (P<0.003) 2. Nesting in deep bedding (P<0.002) 3. Low airborne bacteria counts (P<0.003) UW Research – Dr. Ken Nordlund, et al 84
  5. 5. Lowering airborne bacteria counts Lowering airborne bacteria counts Slide: courtesy of Dr. Sheila McGuirk Slide: courtesy of Dr. Sheila McGuirk USDA is Referee for Vaccines USDA is Referee for Vaccines The Five USDA Label Claims The Five USDA Label Claims Prevents all colonization or replication of challenge organism Stringent labeling guidelines are granted and enforced by the USDA. In 2002 CVB issued new guidelines Highly effective in preventing clinical disease Veterinary Services Memorandum No. 800.202 outlines requirements for approval, DOI, onset claims, etc. Aids in preventing disease by a clinically significant amount five possible label claims can be issued. Knowing the facts about labels can help Aids in reduction of disease severity, duration or onset you choose the best option for your operation. Products with beneficial effects other than direct disease control Utilization of UW’s --Dr. Sheila McGuirk Utilization of UW’s Dr. Sheila McGuirk Respiratory Scorecard Respiratory Scorecard III. Growth Rate III. Growth RateTwice weekly from 3 weeks to weaning A. Target growth rate standards for Holstein calves are:After treating the calf for 5 to 6 days 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: Double birthBefore they go to a group pen weight 2. 60 to 120 days of age: 2.2 lbs. ADG 3. 121-180 days of age: 2.0 lbs. ADG 85
  6. 6. Number of Quarts of Milk or Milk Replacer Fed per Number of Quarts of Milk or Milk Replacer Fed per Weigh Heifers at Weaning Time by Market Segment Weigh Heifers at Weaning Time by Market Segment Feeding by Market Segment Feeding by Market Segment Market Segment Total Market Segment Total Dairy Calf/Heifer TotalCalf/H Producers Raisers Total Dairy eifer Number of Quarts of Milk or Milk Replacer Total (B) (C) Weigh Heifers at Producers Raisers (Base) (165) (95) (70) Weaning Time Total (B) (C) One or less 4.2% 5.3% 2.9% (Base) (165) (95) (70) 2 45.5 42.1 50.0 Yes 9.7% 12.6% 5.7 3 24.8 30.5B 17.1 No 90.3 87.4 94.3 4 10.3 9.5 11.4 Upper case letters indicate significance at the 95% level. Lower case letters indicate significance at the 90% level. 5+ 10.3 7.4 14.3 Don’t Know 4.8 5.3 4.3 Upper case letters indicate significance at the 95% level. Lower case letters indicate significance at the 90% level. • Just under half (45.5%) fed 2 quarts of milk or milk replacer per feeding. • Only one out of ten (10%) weighed heifers at weaning time. • A significantly larger percent of dairy producers fed 3 quarts of milk or milk replacer per feeding, compared to calf/heifer raisers. • This did not vary by market segment. 31 32 IV. Colostrum Management IV. Colostrum Management IV. Colostrum Management (cont.) IV. Colostrum Management (cont.) A. First feeding B. Colostrum quality 1. Colostrum equaling 10% of body weight should be fed in the first 4 1. Colostrum should be free of blood, debris and mastitis hours of life. [For example, a 90-lb. calf should receive 4 quarts of 2. Colostrum should be disease-free colostrum]. 3. Test for quality with a colostrum tester or IgG test 4. Target bacteria count (also known as standard plate count) is <100,000 CFU/mL 5. Target immunity level of animals at 2 to 7 days of age is: a. blood serum total protein of >5.2 g/dL for maternal-source- colostrum-fed calves; or b. serum IgG of >10.0 g/L Biggest Challenges Faced by Calf/Heifer Raisers in Biggest Challenges Faced by Calf/Heifer Raisers in Calves: Working With Dairy Clients Colostrum Management Working With Dairy Clients Survival and profit for the business They will not get over a bad start! Ranked First Ranked Second Ranked Third Ranked Fourth Ranked Fifth Challenge (n=200) (n=200) (n=200) (n=200) (n=200) Resist Costs 27.7% 13.8% 23.4% 19.1% 16.0% Clients Do Not Feed Adequate Colostrum 26.6 26.6 18.1 11.7 17.0 Clients Do Not Adequately Vaccinate Their Cows 23.4 26.6 21.3 14.9 13.8 Communicating Regularly with Dairy Clients 12.8 21.3 19.1 28.7 18.1 Managing Unreasonable Client Demands/ Expectations 9.6 11.7 18.1 25.5 35.1 • Calf and heifer raisers were asked to rank order the issues they faced in working with their dairy clients. The top three issues ranked first included: • Resist costs (27.7%) • Clients do not feed adequate colostrum (26.6%) • Clients do not adequately vaccinate their cows (23.4%)35 86
  7. 7. Status U.S. Calf Health Colostrum Management Colostrum Management Status U.S. Calf Health Between 8.4 and 10.8% of calves die before weaning.1 62% of pre-weaning deaths occur in first three weeks of life.1 Scours accounts for 60% of pre-weaning disease.1 40% of dairy calves have failure of passive transfer.1 31% of dairy heifer deaths could be prevented through better colostrum management (Wells, Prev. Vet. Med, 1996 Vol. 29 Pgs. 9-19) Quality Quality Quantity Quantity Timing Timing 1 – NAHMS, 2002 Contamination Contamination Vaccination of Dam for Calf Protection Vaccination of Dam for Calf Protection Colostrogenesis Colostrogenesis First Time First Time IgG selectively transported to the mammary gland and Min 2wk Min 3wk Min 3wk concentrated by 5X1 100 Concentration of immunoglobins in mammary gland begins Serum IgG 90 Primary Secondary IgG Transfer 5 weeks prior to calving and peaks 2 weeks precalving2 To Colostrum 80 Response Response One study 2 weeks with a peak 48 hours precalving3 - 70 Colostrum IgG artificial induction of lactation 60 Cow systemic IgG antibodies may drop by up to 50% during this 50 period 40 Calf absorption of colostral antibodies will end up 30 approximating the precolostral titer of the cow 20 10 1 Klaus, et al. A quantitative study of the transfer of colostral immunoglobins in the newborn calf. Immunology 1969; 16:295-299. 0 2 Morrow. Current Therapy in Theriogenology. diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of reproductive diseases in animals.Theriogenology 1980, ISBN 07-216-65640. 0 2 4 6 8 10 3 Smith KL, et al. 1973. Hormone-induced lactation in the bovine: lactation performance following injection of 17– oestradiol and progesterone. J Dairy Sci 56:738-743. 1st 2nd Weeks Calving Vac. Vac.Clean and well attended maternity pen! Harvest Clean Colostrum Harvest Clean Colostrum 1. Udder preparation 2. Sanitize collection, storage, feeding equipment 3. Do not pool 4. Refrigerate by 2 hours (use in 3 days) or freeze Sample Colostrum Godden, S. 2007. Proc. PDHGA Conf. Harvest Clean Colostrum 87
  8. 8. Colostrum Culture Goals Colostrum Culture Goals Source of Colostrum Bacteria Source of Colostrum Bacteria Total Count < 100,000 CFU/mL Inadequate cow preparation Lactose positive coliforms Coliform lactose positive < 10,000 Fecal pathogens in this group Coliform lactose negative < 50,000 Sanitation of equipment and collection buckets Strep agalactiae 0 Lactose negative coliforms Strep non-agalactiae < 50,000 Environmental Staphs and Streps Coagulase positive Staph 0 Inadequate cooling/storage Coagulase negative Staph < 50,000 Environmental Staphs and Streps Other No Mycoplasma or Salmonella Amplification of any bacteria Mastitis McGuirk, Collins: Managing Collection and Storage of Colostrum; Vet Clin Food Anim 20 (2004) 593–603 Harvest Colostrum Quickly Harvest Colostrum Quickly Colostrum Timing Colostrum Timing Declining IgG in Colostrum Following Calving Effect of Calf’s Age at First Colostrum Feeding on Serum 13 cows/52 quarters 12 11.3 IgG Concentration Reason for effect? 11 -17% 1.6 -Not due to dilution 10 9.4 1.4 -27% Serum IgG, gm/dL (same volume from 1.2 G.L. Caldow, D.G. 9 8.2 -33% g m /d l White, M. Kelsey, all quarters at each A.R. Peters and K.J. 1 time point) 8 7.2 Solly, Relationship of 0.8 calf antibody status to disease and - Possibly due to 7 0.6 performance. Vet. Rec. 122 (1988), pp. reabsorption into 6 0.4 63–65 maternal 0.2 circulation 5 2 6 10 14 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 24 Hours Post-calving Time, Hours Moore, et al., 2005 JAVMA Vol.226 Issue 8 p:1375 – 1377 Colostrum Storage: Colostrum Storage: Colostrum Storage: Colostrum Storage:Prevent bacterial growth in stored colostrum: Refrigeration (24 - 48 hrs) Refrigeration + K-sorbate preservative Freezing Yes! No! 88
  9. 9. Heat Treating/Pasteurization Heat Treating/Pasteurization Estimating Colostrum Quality Estimating Colostrum Quality Research in a laboratory setting shows that heat treating colostrum at 60 °C (140 °F) for 60 minutes in a commercial Colostrometer batch pasteurization system destroys pathogens while Variations due to temperatures etc preserving colostral IgG. Palm Lab type products 18 pound rule negative relationship between antibodyMcMartin, S., S. concentration and volume of colostrumGodden, et al. (2006)."Heat treatment ofbovine colostrum. " J.Dairy Sci. 89(6): 2110-2118 Colostrometer Colostrometer Colostrum Quantity Colostrum Quantity Calibrated at 72 F or room temp - measures specific 4 quarts of first milking colostrum ASAP for holstein gravity 1.050= 50g/dl calves (3 quarts for Jerseys) IF out of cow - add 15g/L calves left to nurse often do not get enough IF out of fridge - subtract 15g/L colostrum and often pick up other pathogens 2 quarts of colostrum is NOT adequate! Colostrum Study (Long Term Effects) Colostrum Study (Long Term Effects) Colostrum Feeding Colostrum Feeding 2 vs 4 quarts at birth 2 vs 4 quarts at birth Calves Fed Calves Fed 4 quarts immediately 2 quarts 4 quarts Veterinary Costs $24.51 $14.77 Per calf Average 1.76 2.27 Daily Gain •Multiple feedings in 1st Lactation Milk Yield (305-D) 19,739 21,845 the first 6 hours 2nd Lactation 21,261 24,903 Milk Yield (305-D) Faber, et al., Effects of Colostral Ingestion on Lactation Performance, The Professional Animal Scientist 21 (2005):420–425 Faber, et al., 2005. Prof. Animal Sci. 21:420 89
  10. 10. Colostrum Tube Feeding Colostrum Tube Feeding Monitor Colostrum Feeding Monitor Colostrum Feeding Refractometer measures index of refracted light • Close correlation between serum total protein (TP) and IgG • Inexpensive, fast Yes • Can be done on farm • Assumes normal hydration status But make Use in calves > 24 hrs – 7 day sure you > 5.5 g/dL : very successful correctly 5.0 - 5.5 g/dL : moderately successful tube feed! < 5 g/dL : FPT (IgG < 10.0 mg/mL) Interpretation of Serum Interpretation of Serum Why Worry About Colostrum Management? Why Worry About Colostrum Management? Total Protein Data Total Protein DataLess accurate for individual animals Reduced morbidity/mortality: 31% of all dairy heifer mortality during the first 21 days could be preventedShould test 12 or more calves to evaluate the program by improved colostrum management (SJ Wells, DA Dargatz, SL Ott - Factors associated with mortality to 21 days of life in dairyCut Points: heifers in the United States Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 1996 – Elsevier Pages 9-19) Reduced treatment costs, improved growth, improved No. of calves feed efficiency: Interpretation $23.00 advantage at 4 weeks (Fowler, M. 1999. What < 5.5 mg/dL is it worth to know a calf’s Ig level?. Proc. 3rd Annual PDHGA National Conference, pp. 31-38, March 26-28, Bloomington, MN. Professional Dairy Heifer Growers Association, Stratford,0 - 2 of 12 FPT is not a problem Iowa,) Improved growth to 180 days, reduced age at first3 - 4 of 12 Borderline problem calving (JE Nocek, DG Braund, RG Warner – Influence of Neonatal Colostrum Administration, Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 67, No. 2, 1984 Page 4)5 or more of 12 FPT is a problem Associated (direct? indirect?) with an increase in first lactation milk production (SK DeNise, JD Robison, GH Stott, DV Armstrong – Effects of Passive Immunity on Subsequent Lactations in Dairy Heifers, Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 72 No. 2 552-554, 1989 ) SM McGuirk, M Collins - Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 2004 - Elsevier Pages 593-603 Value of Colostrum Value of Colostrum V. Nutrition V. Nutrition4.6 More Calves Weaned per 100 calves 4.6 Calves X $400 Calf / 100 Calves x 40% = $7.40 A. Structure your nutrition program to achieve health2 lb More Milk /day for two Lactations. and growth standards defined in II and III, and IOF of $0.09 /lb X 2 lb X 660 days = $118 monitor performance regularly. Consult yourReduced Calf Health Care veterinarian and nutritionist routinely. $9.74 B. Clean water and starter grain should be offered to170 more lbs of Heifer – 170 lbs more cull cow calves with continuous availability by 3 days of age, 170 lbs X $0.45/lb = $76.50 and refreshed or replenished daily.Total $211.64 / 2 qt = $423.22 per gallon 90
  11. 11. VI. Housing VI. Housing VI. Housing (cont.) VI. Housing (cont.)A. Target housing standards for calves 24 hours to 60 B. Target housing standards for calves 61 to 120 days of days of age are: age are: Clean Clean Dry Dry Draft-free Draft-free Good air quality Good air quality Sized so calf can turn around Minimum of 34 square feet per animal of resting space Adequate feeding space for all animals to eat at the same time VI. Housing (cont.) VI. Housing (cont.)C. Target housing standards for calves 121 to 180 days of age are: “Applying the Gold Standards Clean Dry in Calf Raising” Raising” Draft-free Good air quality Minimum of 40 square feet per animal of resting space in bedded-pack housing If animals are in free-stall housing, there should be one stall per animal Adequate feeding space for all animals to eat at the same time 91
  12. 12. Dairy Calf & Heifer Association Gold Standards Production and performance standards established for Holstein calves, from birth to 6 months of age, across the United States.I. Mortality A. Given that some calves are born with a heartbeat and breathing, yet die not long after birth, the age of 24 hours shall be used to distinguish between “dead-on-arrival” (stillbirth) and “calf mortality.” B. All newborn calves should be placed in an environment that will be safe from adult animals and adult animal diseases. C. Every newborn calf should receive care to its navel to control infection. D. Target mortality rates are: 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: < 5% 2. 61 to 120 days of age: < 2% 3. 121-180 days of age: < 1%II. Morbidity A. Defining scours as a case of diarrhea which requires any intervention for more than 24 hours, target morbidity rates are: 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: < 25% 2. 61 to 120 days of age: < 2% 3. 121 to 180 days of age: < 1% B. Defining pneumonia as a case of respiratory disease which requires individual animal treatment with an antibiotic (does not include use of feed-grade medication fed with regular ration), target morbidity rates are: 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: < 10% 2. 61 to 120 days of age: < 15% 3. 121 to 180 days of age: < 2%III. Growth Rate A. Target growth rate standards for Holstein calves are: 1. 24 hours to 60 days of age: Double birth weight 2. 61 to 120 days of age: 2.2 lbs. average daily gain 3. 121 to 180 days of age: 2.0 lbs. average daily gain continued ® 16020 Swingley Ridge Road Suite 300 • Chesterfield, MO 63017 Toll-free 1-877-HEIFERS Fax: (636) 449-5051 • info@calfandheifer.org • www.calfandheifer.org 92
  13. 13. DCHA Gold Standards (continued)IV. Colostrum Management A. First feeding Colostrum equaling 10% of body weight should be fed in the first 4 hours of life. [For example, a 90-lb. calf should receive 4 quarts of colostrum.] B. Colostrum quality 1. Colostrum should be free of blood, debris and mastitis 2. Colostrum should be disease-free 3. Test for quality with a colostrum tester or IgG test 4. Target bacteria count (also known as standard plate count) is <100,000 CFU/mL 5. Target immunity level of animals at 2 to 7 days of age is: a. blood serum total protein of >5.2 g/dL for maternal-source-colostrum-fed calves; or b. serum IgG of >10.0 g/LV. Nutrition A. Structure your nutrition program to achieve health and growth standards defined in II and III, and monitor performance regularly. Consult your veterinarian and nutritionist routinely. B. Clean water and starter grain should be offered to calves with continuous availability by 3 days of age, and refreshed or replenished daily.VI. Housing A. Target housing standards for calves 24 hours to 60 days of age: I Clean I Dry I Draft-free I Good air quality I Sized so calf can turn around B. Target housing standards for calves 61 to 120 days of age: I Clean I Dry I Draft-free I Good air quality I Minimum of 34 square feet per animal of resting space I Adequate feeding space for all animals to eat at the same time C. Target housing standards for calves 121 to 180 days of age: I Clean I Dry I Draft-free I Good air quality I Minimum of 40 square feet per animal of resting space in bedded-pack housing I If animals are in free stall housing, there should be one stall per animal I Adequate feeding space for all animals to eat at the same time 16020 Swingley Ridge Road Suite 300 • Chesterfield, MO 63017 Toll-free 1-877-HEIFERS Fax: (636) 449-5051 • info@calfandheifer.org • www.calfandheifer.org 93

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