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  1. 1. Республика Федерального России – Russian Federation __________________________________ Russia Санкт-Петербург – Saint Petersburg Санкт-Петербург – São Petersburgo ___________________ Saint Petersburg Founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 27, 1703, it was capital of the Russian Empire St. Petersburg was founded by Tsar Peter I, the Great, in 1703. In 1721 the same tsar - coming for more than two hundred years. Ceased being the capital in 1918 after the Russian from the Romanov House - proclaimed the Russian Empire, which became known as Russia and Revolution of 1917. St. Petersburg was its capital for more than two hundred years. The city also had the names of The city's other names were:and after the 1917 revolution, Leningrad (1924-1991). Petrograd (1914-1924) Petrograd (1914–1924) and Leningrad (1924–1991)
  2. 2. Peterhof Palace - the summer palace - in fact consisted of a series of palaces and gardens, and was intended to house the founder of the city - Tsar Peter the Great.
  3. 3. Peterhof Palace – Built between 1714 and 1725, the magnificent palace had its construction planned since 1705, two years after the founding of St. Petersburg, the "City of Saint Peter."
  4. 4. Peterhof Palace – “Samson” , one of the many garden’s fountains, and the canal overlooking the Gulf of Finland - an arm of the Baltic Sea.
  5. 5. Peterhof Palace - The Blue Drawing Room
  6. 6. Peterhof Palace - a sleeping room
  7. 7. Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography the oldest museum in Russia - 1727
  8. 8. The Catherine Palace, rococo style, with over 300m facade, was the summer residence of Russian tsars, located in the district of Tsarskove Selo (now Pushkin). The great Catherine Palace was named for Catherine I, the wife of Peter the Great - 1718.
  9. 9. Catherine Palace in Pushkin - amber room
  10. 10. Catherine Palace - banquet hall. The Palace is located in the city which was later renamed Pushkin, in honor of the great Russian poet.
  11. 11. Statue of Alexander Pushkin in front of the Academy of Fine Arts ( 1757) - the poet whose vast knowledge of Russian language and richness in its use influenced authors such as Gogol, Lermontov and Turgueniev .
  12. 12. Winter Palace built and continuously changed since the late 1730s until 1837, was the official residence of Russian monarchs from 1732 to 1917. Conceived with the intention of reflecting the strength and power of Imperial Russia - not only by the immense area as well as by the magnificence of its 30m high, it was from here that the Tsar ruled 22,400,000 km2 (almost one sixth of Earth’s lands) and more than 125 million individuals by late nineteenth century 176.4 million at its apogee.
  13. 13. The Winter Palace has a 250m long facade, 46,516m2 built area, with 1,057 rooms, 1,786 ​ doors, 1,945 windows, 1,500 rooms and 117 staircases.
  14. 14. Hermitage Museum as seen from the Neva River. Founded in 1764 and inaugurated in 1852, the Museum occupies five adjoining palaces, the largest being the former Winter Palace - official residence of the tsars. .
  15. 15. Dvortsovaya Square - Alexander Column and General Staff building, seen from the Winter Palace which houses the Hermitage Museum.
  16. 16. Hermitage Museum – white and green Rococo, and epoch’s coaches.
  17. 17. Hermitage Museum seen from the side facing the Dvortsovaya Square with the Alexander Column.
  18. 18. Catherine II, the Great, , wife of Peter III, was the first imperial occupant of the palace that is now the Hermitage Museum. Its collection exceeds three million works, and one of its first major acquisitions took place in 1865 - The Madonna and Child (Madonna Litta), Leonardo da Vinci. Painting of Catherine II by Ivan Argunov
  19. 19. Alexandra’s Bedroom - In 1825, ascended to the throne Nicholas I who, despite having been married for convenience of families, fell in love and was fully reciprocated by his wife Alexandra Feodorovna.
  20. 20. Winter Palace Alexandra’s toilette suite. Despite the sophistication that still can be seen in all its rooms, Alexandra prioritized simplicity and privacy.
  21. 21. One of the rooms of Alexandra’s suite – She has always been closely linked to her home family, devoted and loving mother, perfect in her role as Consort Empress, but always made it clear that ​ for her, Russia was resumed in the person of her beloved husband .
  22. 22. Hermitage Museum – interior balcony
  23. 23. The main or Jordan Staircase of the Winter Palace, now Hermitage Museum.
  24. 24. Hermitage Museum – architecture and chandeliers.
  25. 25. Hermitage Museum – the old royal library
  26. 26. Hermitage Museum – the great room of Italian Arts
  27. 27. One of the Throne Rooms - there are a much bigger throne room, but this one is the more attractive.
  28. 28. Hermitage Museum - Raphael Loggias – a Catherine II's wish, is a copy of the famous Gallery created in the 16th century in the Vatican Palace. There are 13 arches forming a gallery of 65 by 4 m.
  29. 29. The Bronze Horseman – in the Senate Square was erected a monument on a stone pedestal with about 1,500 tons - the largest ever moved by man - carved during its transport to the present place. The equestrian statue of Peter I, the Great, was commissioned by Catherine II and only after 12 years it was completed - 1782. The name Bronze Horseman comes from the poem by Aleksandr Pushkin, from 1833, considered one of the most significant works of Russian Literature. The statue is now one of the symbols of St. Petersburg. (click)
  30. 30. Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan (1810-1811) – the main cathedral of the metropolis of St. Petersburg.
  31. 31. Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan - in neoclassical style exterior, architectural detail.
  32. 32. The Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange building – 1811 – and the south Rostral Column are examples of Greek Architecture revival. A sculptural group similar in form to a quadriga featuring Neptune and symbolizing maritime commerce is mounted above the building’s portico.
  33. 33. Neva River and the Twelve Colleges of the University of St. Petersburg, in continuous operation since 1819 as the successor to the university established in January 24, 1724 by a decree of Peter, the Great, together with the Academic Gymnasium and the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg.
  34. 34. Mikhailovsky Palace, built in 1819-1825, houses the State Russian Museum since 1895.
  35. 35. Yusupov Palace - The most sumptuous non-imperial palace was built in 1760; in 1830 was bought by the Duke NB Yusupov. On a visit to Italy the eccentric Duke fell in love with a white marble staircase and bought the whole palace only to transport its stairs to St. Petersburg. Today this palace is a museum.
  36. 36. The construction of a church in St. Isaac Square was already ordered by Alexander I. This was the origin of the Orthodox Cathedral of St. Isaac, which took 40 years to build – from 1818 to 1858.
  37. 37. St. Isaac's Cathedral - the main dome reaches 101.5 meters high and is all gold plated. It is also decorated with 12 statues of angels.
  38. 38. Mariinsky Theatre - Opened in 1860, is a historic orchestra, opera, and ballet theater (Kirov State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet from 1935 until 1992). The name Kirov is now used by the Ballet Company only in its excursions outside of Russia.
  39. 39. Mariinsky Theatre – interior and royal box
  40. 40. Nevsky Prospekt, or Neva - (Prospekt, in Russian, means the street or avenue in a straight line) is still the main avenue of St. Petersburg, planned by Peter the Great to be the beginning of the road to Novogorod and Moscow. This city’s proud milestone was cut through nearly 4.5 km of forest (c1718) and its width varies between 25 and 60 meters.
  41. 41. Grand Hotel Europe - a five star hotel situated on the famous Nevsky street. It was opened in 1875 and is registered in the architectural heritage of the Northern Capital – St. Petersburg.
  42. 42. In a summer night with the Church of Our Savior on Spilled Blood in background…
  43. 43. … the same place... at a winter’s day...
  44. 44. ... and the colors of Spring returning to St. Petersburg, enhance the beauty of the Church of the Resurrection of Christ, better known as the Church of Our Savior On the Spilled Blood, built between 1883 and 1907. This marvelous Russianstyle church was built in honor to the Emperor Alexander II and in the place where he was assassinated in 1881.
  45. 45. Architectural details of the Church of the Resurrection of Christ, or the Church of Our Saviour On the Spilled Blood.
  46. 46. Egyptian Bridge – intersection of Lermontov Avenue over the Fontanka River. "Sphinx" by sculptor Pavel Sokolov - 1825-1826.
  47. 47. Bank Bridge - pedestrian bridge over the Griboyedov Canal, decorated with four mythological golden-winged griffons, sculpted by Pavel Sokolov - nineteenth century.
  48. 48. Dostoyevsky Memorial Museum - Fyodor Dostoyevsky, writer whose works - including "Crime and Punishment" and "The Brothers Karamazov" - have had profound and lasting effects on intellectual thought and literature, wrote in this house "Crime and Punishment," published in 1866.
  49. 49. Aurora Cruiser – launched in 1900, participated in the Russo-Japanese war of 1905, and directing cannon fire against the Winter Palace, has initiated and became a symbol of the October 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. Today, a docked museum.
  50. 50. Troitsky bridge - a landmark of Art Nouveau, was completed in 1903, in time for the bi-centenial anniversary of Saint Petersburg.
  51. 51. "Singer" Building – created in Art Nouveau (1902-1904) at the corner of Nevsky Prospect with Griboyedov Canal and in front of Kazan Cathedral, it is officially recognized as historic-cultural heritage of Russia.
  52. 52. Facade of the "Singer” building, where the first bookstore of Soviet Russia was installed - Dom Knigi
  53. 53. The authorization for the construction of this bridge by Nicholas I was part of a development plan for the city. However it was built much later and inaugurated in 1911 with the name of Peter the Great Bridge.
  54. 54. At the will of History in March 15, 1917, the aggregation of political opposition forces (liberals, bourgeois, and socialists) depose Tsar Nicholas II, starting the Russian Revolution. The Tsar was later murdered along with his family. St. Petersburg, that at that time was already called Petrograd, lost its title of capital of the Empire to Moscow - capital of Russia.
  55. 55. Петроград (Petrogrado)
  56. 56. Images – from Internet, with credits to authors, or from Wikipedia’s site Music – Tchaikovsky – Waltz of the Flowers from the nutcracker suite Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Seiji Ozawa AlexanderAlexandrov – Russian National Anthem with the Red Army Choir Creation, research and formating: Delza Dias Ferreira English version – Flavio Musa de Freitas Guimarães Revision: Claudia Ricci Brasil – São Paulo – VIII – 2007 reedited in VI - 2012 (click)
  57. 57. The End