Emotional Intelligence & Performance, Keith Lawrence Miller


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Emotional Intelligence & Performance, Keith Lawrence Miller

  1. 1. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 1 A Review of Emotional Intelligence and Performance Keith Miller CEO & Professional Coach Columbia University© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  2. 2. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 2© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  3. 3. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 3Introduction Emotional intelligence (EQ) is one of the hottest social-psychological topics at thispresent time because the accumulative literature spanning over the last twenty-years suggest thatEQ has the potential to be a viable component to predicting overall performance. Personnelperformance in our new economic platform is more important than ever because competition isat record heights thanks to globalization. The ultimate factor that separates companies from oneanother is the human component, and having an ability that raises overall performance is anadded advantage that no organization can overlook. The high-potential status of EQ is the reasonwhy this study aims to identify the main components of the EQ concept, and to explain thetheories that have formed EQ over the past two decades. This study explores the viability of EQas well as the connection it possesses with cognitive intelligence, personality, academicperformance, work performance, and leadership. The eventual research that will post-date thisreview intends to manipulate EQ in terms of performance in order to experimentally determineEQ’s influence on individual ability.Emotional Intelligence The concept of emotional intelligence (EQ) involves emotions playing an important rolein our lives, people having different abilities to perceive, understand, use, and manage emotions,and these differences affect our adaptation in a variety of contexts (Cherniss, 2010 p.111).According to Cherniss (2000), the concept of emotional intelligence mainly involves knowingwhen and how to express emotion more so than it has to do with controlling it. Major theoristsin the field of EQ commonly accept EQ’s definition as “the ability to perceive and expressemotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulateemotion in the self and others” (Cherniss, 2010; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000, p.396).© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  4. 4. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 4 The theory of emotional intelligence was first articulated by Salovey & Mayer in 1990, inwhich they detailed the emotional abilities that are needed to improve individual performance.The concept of emotional intelligence was popularized by Daniel Goleman through hisbestselling book, Emotional Intelligence in 1995 which claimed that emotional intelligence was apredictor of success at home, work, and in school (Goleman, 1995; Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade,in press). The five components of emotional intelligence at work include self-awareness – beingaware of how our behavior is affecting others in a social environment, self-regulation – theability to regulate moods to conform to adverse situations, motivation – an inner desire toachieve a higher level of performance, empathy – the general willingness to feel compassion, andsocial skills – which is the ability to interact with various individuals without causing anemotional disruption in others. These five skills that encompass the concept of emotionalintelligence can be learned and transferred to the workplace (Goleman, 1998; Zeidner, Matthews,& Roberts, 2009). Additionally, it is believed that the primary focus of emotional intelligence isconcerned with reasoning about emotions and using emotions to enhance thought (Mayer,Roberts, & Barsade, 2008, p.511). There has been much debate concerning the validity of Emotional Intelligence beingidentified as a form of intelligence. Intelligence is defined as a mental ability that permitsrecognition, learning, memory, and the capacity to reason about information (Mayer, et al, inpress). Emotional intelligence fits this formal meaning of intelligence based on the theoryexpressed by Salovey & Mayer (1990), because for an individual to express the five traits: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, & social skills – one needs the mental ability toshow recognition of emotions, learning of situations that contain emotional stimuli, memory ofexperiences to regulate behavior, and the capacity to reason about emotionally charged© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  5. 5. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 5information. Opponents have argued against the validity of EQ because studies have determinedvalidity based on correlational evidence and by using unsound measuring procedures (Antonakis,Ashkanasy, & Dasborough, 2009). The concentration on multiple intelligences was renewed in the 1980s by HowardGardener when he proposed that there are other intelligences besides cognitive intelligence suchas musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence (Gardener, 1983; Zeidner, etal., 2009). According to Cote & Miners (2006), research has shown that the term emotionalintelligence is consistent with definitions of traditional intelligences, and can be conceptualizedas the ability to reason correctly with emotional abstractions and to solve emotional problems.Additionally, research has shown that emotional intelligence is correlated with verbal andcognitive intelligence which is a criteria needed to be identified as an intelligence (Cote &Miners, 2006).Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance The potential impact of emotional intelligence on performance is immense and thiscollective belief has spearheaded multifaceted research which has discovered significantrelationships between emotional intelligence and performance in numerous areas of concern.According to Greenstein (2001), emotional intelligence was the distinguishing factor thatseparated the successful American President from the unsuccessful American President.Presidential success was defined as a leader who was able to clearly communicate values,behaviors, and actions to the American society which motivated the country to essentiallyenhance their overall performance in times of crisis. This finding suggests that the most important leadership position in the world isimpacted by the individual’s ability to use their emotional intelligence, and a higher level of© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  6. 6. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 6emotional intelligence led to greater overall success. According to the research conducted byShipley, Jackson, & Segrest (in press), emotional intelligence was positively associated withwork experience (full-time work – 40 or more hours compared to part-time work – 39 hours orless), and their study suggest that there are certain sub-factors such as self-control, behavioraldispositions, & self-perceived abilities of emotional intelligence that are related to academicperformance (GPA). Additionally, their study showed that age was not positively correlatedwith emotional intelligence. This finding suggests that emotional intelligence is predictive to anextent by determining a person’s work experience. According to a meta-analysis of 59 studies conducted by Van Rooy & Viswesvaran(2004), emotional intelligence was found to be correlated positively with job performance. In astudy conducted by Cote & Miners (2006), they measured emotional intelligence with theMSCEIT, cognitive ability with the Cattell Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT), and controlledfor personality. Their research found that emotional intelligence is a stronger predictor of taskperformance & organizational citizenship behavior when cognitive intelligence decreases (Cote& Miners, 2006). Lopes, Grewal, Kadis, Gall, & Salovey (2006), suggests that emotionalintelligence may contribute to work performance by enhancing relationships and enhance workteam effectiveness. Lopes, et al (2006), hypothesized that emotional intelligence is related toindicators of job performance (salary, merit increase, company rank, and ratings of interpersonalfacilitation). Lopes et al (2006), found in their research, evidence to suggest that emotionalintelligence was related to company rank, merit increase, interpersonal ratings, and personalattitudes which are indicators of work performance.© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  7. 7. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 7Emotional Intelligence & Academic Performance According to Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan, & Majeski (2004), successful first yearstudents with an 80% or better grade point average (GPA) scored higher in intrapersonal ability,stress management, and adaptability when compared to unsuccessful first year students whoscored under 59% on GPA. Marquez, Martin, & Brackett (2006), found that emotionalintelligence measured by the MSCEIT in high school students was correlated with academicachievement when cognitive ability and personality was controlled. This study suggests thatstudents with high emotional intelligence tend to display enhanced pro-social behavior andperform better in school (Marquez, et. al, 2006). According to Parker, Creque, Harris, Majeski, Wood, & Hogan (in press), in a samplesize of (n = 667) emotional intelligence was found to be a significant predictor of academicsuccess and EI was measured by the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) which is a self report test. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was strongly associatedwith interpersonal, adaptability, and stress management abilities (Parker, et. al, in press). Mayer,et. al, (in press), suggests that people with higher emotional intelligence have an ability to spreadtheir control via emotional contagion thus improving others emotional intelligence and areperceived more positively by others. Additionally, when emotional intelligence is validlymeasured, it is a significant predictor of social relations, work performance, and well-being(Mayer, et. al, in press). Cherniss (2000) suggests that having the ability to understand what another person isfeeling enables one to develop the skill of influence on others which is an important tool forleadership. Barchard (2003) found that measures of emotional intelligence are not as good atpredicting academic success as are cognitive ability measures. Studies have shown that the© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  8. 8. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 8predictive ability of EI decreases when controlling for cognitive intelligence and personality(Mayer, et. al, 2008). Studies seem to indicate that the predictive ability of emotionalintelligence is higher for men than for women (Mayer, et. al, 2008). Future research shouldfocus on establishing the predictive ability of emotional intelligence in order to determine thevalue of using such a measure (Barchard, 2003).EQ Models The specific ability model of emotional intelligence focuses on a fundamental traitassociated with emotional intelligence such as non-verbal perception which is an ability todecipher social information and recognize emotional expression (Mayer, et. al, 2008). The bestmeasures of specific abilities of emotional intelligence are the Diagnostic Analysis of NonverbalAccuracy Scales (DANVA & DANVA-2), the Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect RecognitionTest (JACBART), and the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) (Mayer, et. al, 2008). The mixed model approach focuses on a broader understanding of the attributes thatcontribute to emotional intelligence such as adaptability, impulsiveness, creative thinking,intuition, happiness, motivation, and more (Mayer, et. al, 2008). This mixed model approachincludes the criteria for the work performance traits of self-awareness, self-regulation,motivation, empathy, and social skills as explained by Daniel Goleman (Zeidner, et. al, 2009). The basis behind the integrative model of emotional intelligence is to join severalspecific abilities together to obtain an overall concept of emotional intelligence (Mayer, et. al,2008). The four branch model of emotional intelligence incorporates accurately perceiving andidentifying emotion in oneself and others (branch 1), using emotions to facilitate thought, focusattention, think rationally, logically, and creatively (branch 2), understanding emotion which isidentified as an ability to understand emotional information (branch 3), and managing emotion© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  9. 9. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 9which includes regulating moods and emotions (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Mayer, et. at, 2008;(Brackett & Salovey, 2006). The best measure of the four branch model of emotionalintelligence is the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) (Mayer, et. al,2008).MSCEIT The MSCEIT is an objective test that was created to measure the four branch model ofEQ with 141 items divided into 8 tasks that provide a score for each of the four branches, twoarea scores, and an overall emotional intelligence score (Brackett & Salovey, 2006). The scoringis calculated by consensus (over 5,000 people) and expert scoring (21 members of theInternational Society Research on Emotions (ISRE)) (Brackett & Salovey, 2006). The consensusnorms and the expert norms correlate at r= .91(Mayer et. al, 2003). The test-retest reliability ofthe full test MSCEIT over a three week period with a sample of 59 college students was .86 andthe split-half reliabilities including 2000 individuals were .93 and .91(Brackett & Mayer, 2003;Mayer, et. al, 2003). These findings suggest that the MSCEIT is both content and structurallyvalid. The MSCEIT is superior to self-report tests such as the Schutte Self Report EmotionalIntelligence Test (SSEIT), because self-report tests correlate highly with measures of well-beingand personality and are susceptible to faking (Brackett & Mayer, 2003). Multiple studies haveshown that the MSCEIT has expected convergent and discriminant validity (Brackett, Rivers, &Salovey, 2011). Additionally, the MSCEIT has been shown to be statistically independent fromother constructs (Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011). The construct-weakness in the MSCEIT isthat it does not test emotional intelligence in real-time which relates the results more closely withcrystallized intelligence – involves learning, knowledge, and skills - rather than, fluidintelligence – involves the ability to reason and the ability to understand abstract concepts© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  10. 10. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 10(Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011). Furthermore, the MSCEIT has a small range of facialexpression and non-verbal questions - which are the primary way humans, communicateinformation across cultures (O’Sullivan & Ekman, 2004). According to Brackett & Salovey(2006), the relation between emotional intelligence and academic performance is not clearlydefined and further research needs to be done.Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Intelligence Cognitive intelligence is the ability to use fluid reasoning, retain and use knowledge, todisplay quantitative reasoning, to succinctly use visual-spatial abilities, and process workingmemory efficiently. Previous research has shown that cognitive ability tests (CAT) are thestrongest predictors of performance with a mean validity coefficient (shows the strength of therelationship) of .30 according to meta-analytic research (Outtz, 2002). The predictive ability ofcognitive intelligence (IQ) has been shown to be predictive of the variance in life success atapproximately 20% (Goleman, 1995; Barchard, 2003). In order for emotional intelligence to bea measure of intelligence, the predictive value has to be above and beyond the overlap associatedwith cognitive intelligence. According to Barchard (2003), the concept of emotional intelligencehas to predict individual performance separately from cognitive intelligence in order to be a validindependent intelligence. As noted by Cote & Miners (2006), previous findings suggest that asmuch as 20 percent of emotional intelligence overlaps with other intelligences includingcognitive intelligence which separates 80 percent of EQ from other intelligences and is furtherevidence that EQ meets the criteria of intelligence.Emotional Intelligence and Personality Researchers developed a hierarchy of personality traits that are categorized into ataxonomy called the Five Factor Model (FFM). Additionally, this hierarchal personality model© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  11. 11. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 11has been developed through extensive research by psychologists such as Guilford, Cattell, Fiske,Tupes, Christal, Digman, Goldberg, Costa, and McCrae (Barrick & Mount, 1991). The FiveFactor Model (FFM) consists of five dimensions called: Agreeableness – the ability to becompassionate and cooperative, Conscientiousness – the ability to display self-discipline and aimfor higher achievement, Extraversion – the ability to display positive characteristics while in thecompany of others, and to generally enjoy being in the company of others rather than being alone,Neuroticism – the ability to display negative emotions such as anger and disgust, and Intellect –openness to experience and the ability to express imagination (Goldberg, 1993). The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) is a measure of the Big 5 personalityinventory, and it was created to enhance the presently slow research in the area of personality(Goldberg, Johnson, Eber, Hogan, Ashton, Cloninger, & Gough, 2005). This personalitymeasure is comparable to the NEO-PI (McCrae & Costa, 1985), which is considered the mostrobust measure of personality. The IPIP measures the five-factor model of agreeableness,extraversion, neuroticism/emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness toexperience/intellect similarly to the NEO/PI. The IPIP is highly correlated with the NEO-PI onall of the big five personality factors and Chronbach’s alpha is > .85 for all 5 personality factorsbetween the IPIP and the NEO-PI (Goldberg, et. al, 2005; Goldberg, ipip.ori.org/ipip). Themeasures of the Big five personality inventory include 204 labels for 269 IPIP scales that coverthe facet levels of personality as well as the Big 5 and each scale provides the correlation withother well know measures of personality such as the NEO-PI (Goldberg, ipip.ori.org/ipip). EImeasured by the MSCEIT has been found to correlate with the Big Five personality traits ofOpenness, r = .17 to .18, and with Agreeableness, r = .21 to .28, but not significantly related with© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  12. 12. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 12conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extroversion (Mayer, et al, in press; Mayer, et al, 2008;Brackett & Salovey, 2006).In Conclusion This review identified the components and theories associated with EmotionalIntelligence, and the preceding research has shown promising results that outlined the predictivenature and the importance of the EQ concept. We need to determine what best constitutesemotional intelligence, and seek to implement training methods to enhance this innate ability thatcan be learned or enhanced. The ability to communicate expertly and effectively hinges on thelevel of emotional intelligence that we possess. This necessary component of self has beenshown in correlational studies to strongly impact our ability to perform in a multitude ofsituations and areas of great concern. This universal trait is not the sole ingredient in what wedefine as success, but rather, a major concept that strongly affects the nature of our interactionswith the world around us. Self-regulation, empathy, motivation, social skills, & self-awareness are essential toolsthat the individual needs to greatly succeed at higher levels of understanding. Our presentenvironmental landscape is dissimilar because of the political, organizational, educational, &fundamental changes that have taken place which requires a different intellectual approach – theemotionally intelligent individual has the ability to interact & communicate effectively in diversesituations which will greatly benefit the individual and prospective situation. These self-abilitiesof emotional intelligence can be learned and enhanced with an open-minded disciplinedapproach, and through the assistance of an expert with a deep understanding of the emotionalintelligence phenomenon.© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  13. 13. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 13 ReferencesAntonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Dasborough, M. T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 247-261.Barchard, K. A. (2003). Does emotional intelligence assist in the prediction of academic success? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63, 840-858.Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1-26.Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., & Salovey, P. (2011). Emotional intelligence: implications for personal, social, academic, and workplace success. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 88-103.Brackett, M. A., Salovey, P. (2006). Measuring emotional intelligence with the mayer-salovery- caruso emotional intelligence test (msceit). Psicothema. 18, 34-41.Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1147-1158.Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Toward clarification of a concept. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3, 110-126.Cherniss, C. (2000). Emotional intelligence: what it is and why it matters. Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, 1-14.Cote, S., Miners, T. H. C. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, 1-26.Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist, 48, 26-34.Goldberg, L.R., Johnson, J.A., Eber, H.W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M.C., Cloninger, C.R., Gough, H.G. (2005). The international personality item pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 84-96.Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 76, 93–102.Greenstein, F. I. (2001). The presidential difference: leadership style from fdr to Clinton. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  14. 14. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 14Lopes, P. N., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M., & Salovey, P. (2006). Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work. Psicothema, 18, 132-138.Márquez, P. G. O., Martín, R. P., & Brackett, M. A. (2006). Relating emotional intelligence to social competence and academic achievement in high school students. Psicothema, 18, 118-123.Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (in press). Emerging research in emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59.Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. Handbook of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.McCrae, R.R., Costa, P.T. Jr., (1985). I updating norman’s “adequate taxonomy”: intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, 710-721.O’Boyle, E. H. Jr., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., & Story, P. A. (2010). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Retrieved March 2, 2011, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.cpm/doi/10.1002/job.714/full.O’Sullivan, M., & Ekman, P. (2004). Facial expression recognition and emotional intelligence. emotional intelligence: common ground and controversy. 89-109, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Outtz, J.L. (2002). The role of cognitive ability tests in employment selection. Human Performance, 15, 161-171.Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.Shipley, N. L., Jackson, M. J., & Segrest, S. L. (in press). The effects of emotional intelligence, age, work experience, and academic performance. Research in Higher Education Journal, 1-18.Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotion intelligence: a meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71-95.© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC
  15. 15. Emotional Intelligence and Performance 15Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2009). What we know about emotional intelligence; how it affects learning, work, relationships and our mental health. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA; London, England.International Personality Item Pool: A Scientific Collaboratory for the Development of Advanced Measures of Personality Traits and Other Individual Differences (http://ipip.ori.org/). Internet Web Site.© July 2011, Keith Lawrence Miller Million Dollar Enterprises, LLC