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  1. 1. Chapter 22Terms in Pharmacology<br />Thierer, N. & Breitland, L. (2006) Medical Terminology: Language for Healthcare, second edition (pp. 658-678). New York, NY: the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. <br />
  2. 2. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration<br />Drugs are biological or chemical agents<br />They are therapeutic when used to cure, alleviate, diagnose or prevent illness<br />They are addictive or habit-forming when used in unregulated and/or excess quantities to stimulate or depress moods<br />Drugs come from: plants, animals, or chemical synthesis in laboratories<br />Vitamins are organic substances found in food, are also considered to be a form of drugs<br />
  3. 3. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration<br />The Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates testing, manufacturing, content and distribution of all drugs that are not part of or derived from food<br />United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.) is anindependent committee that approves and set standards, that are collected, then published<br />Hospital Formulary are lists of drugs that are approved for patient care in that particular facility<br />Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR) is widely used reference manual for physicians <br />
  4. 4. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration<br />Pharmacology is the science that studies, develops, and tests drugs<br />Pharmacodynamics is the study of how drugs affect the body<br />Toxicology is the study of harmful drug effects on the body<br />Pharmacokinetics is the study of how drugs are absorbed, metabolized, and excreted over time<br />
  5. 5. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration<br />Over-the-counter (OTC): sold without a prescription<br />Prescription is an order for medications with dosages, directions, route, and timing of administration included<br />Pharmacist (druggist) is someone who dispenses prescription drugs from a pharmacy<br />Contraindications are other drugs that are advised against being taken along with another medication that is being given<br />
  6. 6. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration<br />Chemical name describes the chemical formula of the drug<br />Generic name is the official name of the drug <br />Trade, brand name is the name given and copyrighted by the manufacturer<br />Example: acetylsalicylic acid is the chemical name for aspirin, the generic name packaged under various trade names, such as Bayer aspirin<br />Dosages of drugs vary depending on age, weight, severity of symptoms, and other medications in use <br />
  7. 7. Pharmacological Agents, Functions and Examples<br />
  8. 8. Pharmacological Agents, Functions and Examples<br />**The examples are from pages 660-662 of the class text, please refer to these pages for the lists of ALL examples. You will need to know ALL examples.<br />
  9. 9. Drug Sources, Types and Administration<br />Drugs come in many forms: pills, liquids, semiliquids, suppositories, lotions, creams, powders, transdermal patches, sprays, or gases.<br />Vial- where pills are stored<br />Enteric-coated- an easily dissolved capsule coating<br />Sublingually- medication to be place under the tongue<br />Buccally- to be placed inside the cheek<br />Oral administration- the most common method for giving/taking pills and some liquids. <br />
  10. 10. Drug Sources, Types and Administration<br />Types of liquid and semiliquid medications:<br />Elixir- oral liquid dissolved in alcohol<br />Tincture- topical liquid dissolved in alcohol<br />Solution- drug dissolved in liquid<br />Suspension- drug particles suspended in liquid that you must shake well before administration<br />Emulsion- drug particles with oil or fat in the water<br />Lozenge- drug in a candy-like base, dissolves slowly and coats the oral pharynx<br />Syrup- oral liquid drug in a thick solution that coats the oral pharynx<br />
  11. 11. Drug Sources, Types and Administration<br />Drugs that are meant to go through the body are systemic (able to travel through the bloodstream to affect any part of the body). Such as:<br />Suppositories- drugs mixed in a semisolid melting substance that are inserted into the vagina, rectum, or urethra<br />Topically- how lotions and creams are applied<br />Inhalation- liquids or gases that form in tiny droplets inhaled through an inhaler, nebulizer, or spray<br />
  12. 12. Drug Sources, Types and Administration<br />Parenteral Administration- injection of a drug that is done by a health care professional. Such as:<br />Interdermal (or intercutaneous)- injection of a needle (syringe) just beneath the outer layer of skin to check for local reactions<br />Subcutaneous- injection of a substance into the fatty layer of tissue below the outer portion of the skin<br />Intramuscular- injection of drugs deep into the muscles<br />Intravenous (IV)- injection of drugs through an IV tube that has been placed in the arm or hand <br />
  13. 13. Drug Sources, Types and Administration<br />IV Infusion- slow intravenous (IV) administration of a drug so that fluid can be added to the bloodstream at a slow and steady rate.<br />Intra-cardiac- drug injected directly into the heart muscle<br />Intra-arterial- drug injected directly into an artery<br />Intraspinal- drug injected directly into spinal spaces as in a case of severe pain or cancer<br />Intraosseus- drug injected directly into the bone<br />Intra-articularly- drug injected directly into a joint<br />
  14. 14. Combining Forms and Abbreviations<br />
  15. 15. Combining Forms and Abbreviations<br />
  16. 16. Combining Forms and Abbreviations<br />
  17. 17. Combining Forms and Abbreviations<br />
  18. 18. Combining Forms and Abbreviations<br />
  19. 19. Sample Prescription<br />Dr. Seymour Bones<br />123 Xray Dr.<br />Anytown, OH 44444<br />Name_________________________ Date__________<br />Amoxil 500mg<br />#30<br />1 p.o. t.i.d. until gone<br />Seymour Bones0 refills<br />Amoxicillin 500mg (antibiotic)<br />quantity #30 capsules<br />take 1 capsule by mouth 3 times a day until gone<br />