Forest and Wood Residues in a Low Carbon Future

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Presents a look at woody biomass as a viable feedstock for renewable fuel and power generation. Sustainability, climate change, wildfires, ghg, forest management, and policy issues are addressed.

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Forest and Wood Residues in a Low Carbon Future

  1. 1. Forest and Wood Residues in a Low Carbon Future C. Scott Miller Price BIOstock, Marketing Consultant BIOstock Blog, Editor May, 2008
  2. 2. The Price Companies Business Model  Provide all services upstream of the wood processing facility: – Paper and pulp mills – Saw mills  Services include: – Procurement – Harvesting and hauling logistics – Design/construction of the receiving/processing site – Processing site management
  3. 3. 14+ million tons per year Victoria, Australia PBS Headquarters Wood Chipping
  4. 4. The Price BIOstock Mission: To apply The Price Companies business model to making biomass supply simple for emerging bioenergy companies. The Commitment: Use the most environmentally sustainable biomass available to supply emerging bioenergy technologies - wood, energy crops, MSW, etc.
  5. 5. Raven Energy Kamloops, BC Range Fuels Soperton, GA PB Headquarters Biorefinery Agreements
  6. 6. Overview:  Woody biomass fundamentals  Lessons learned from the forest products industry  The need to manage forests  State and federal policies that frustrate market development
  7. 7. Woody biomass fundamentals
  8. 8. Wood built and powered early America Quad BTU 40  Fossil fuels are carbon positive Petroleum and “getting dirtier” 30  Biofuels are carbon neutral and “getting cleaner” Natural 20 Gas Coal 10 Nuclear Wood Hydro 0 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Energy Information Administration
  9. 9. Forests do not consume resources Palm Sugar Corn Oil Soy Canola Cane Lifecycle GHG vs. Roughly 25-50% >75% equal less less Oil-based The Nature Conservancy
  10. 10. Forests do not consume resources Palm Sugar Corn Oil Soy Canola Cane Lifecycle GHG vs. Roughly 25-50% >75% equal less less Oil-based Water Fertilizer Pesticides Energy Resource Consumption Very High Low The Nature Conservancy
  11. 11. Forests do not consume resources Palm Sugar Agric. Woody Corn Oil Soy Canola Cane Waste Biomass Lifecycle GHG vs. Roughly 25-50% >75% >95% less to equal less less net sequestration* Oil-based Water Fertilizer Pesticides Energy *depends on methods & type Resource Consumption Very High Low The Nature Conservancy
  12. 12. Forests do not consume resources Palm Sugar Agric. Woody Switch Native Corn Oil Soy Canola Cane Waste Biomass grass prairie Algae Lifecycle GHG vs. Roughly 25-50% >75% >95% less to Net equal less less net sequestration* sequestration Oil-based Water Fertilizer Pesticides Energy *depends on methods & type Resource Consumption Very High Low The Nature Conservancy
  13. 13. Wood industry produces residuals Residues of logging & forest products industry USDA Billion Ton Report, 4/2005
  14. 14. Lessons learned from the forest products industry
  15. 15. ‘70’s “Cradle-to-grave” material value cycle Wood Biomass +$ & Grid Power Biomass Conversion Waste to Pulp & Paper Landfill
  16. 16. ‘80’s “Cradle-to-cradle” bioenergy value cycle Wood Biomass +$ Waste as an Energy Biomass Feedstock Conversion Parasitic - Black liquor Load - Sawdust - Wood residues - Bark Pulp & Paper
  17. 17. New “Cradle-to-cradle” bioenergy value cycle Flexible Feedstock - Wood - Energy crops +$ - Residues - MSW Waste as Biomass Parasitic Conversion an Energy Load Feedstock Flexible Products -Pulp & Paper -Biofuels -Bioplastics -Centralized Heat -Power to Grid
  18. 18. Stumpage Prices
  19. 19. Example: $25/ton Biomass Delivered to Mill $7 Stumpage $13 Site Logging and Processing $5 Freight
  20. 20. The need to manage forests
  21. 21. Forest Service litigation 1989-2002 728 land management cases over 13 years 4% 18% 58% 21% Society of American Foresters, 2007
  22. 22. USDA - Greenhouse Gas Impact 1990-2030 Temperature USDA Climate Change Program Office May 2008 Report based on IPCC, 2006
  23. 23. USDA - Greenhouse Gas Impact 1990-2030 Temperature Precipitation USDA Climate Change Program Office May 2008 Report based on IPCC, 2006
  24. 24. Multiple stresses of a changing climate 2003 National Assessment Synthesis Team, US Global Change Research Program
  25. 25. Forest Management means Fire Prevention 6 of the 7 worst fire seasons U.S. Forest Fires 1960-2007 National Interagency Fire Center, 2008
  26. 26. 2002 fire - 80,000 acres Where there’s fire, there’s smoke. Colorado Hayman Fire, emitted more CO2 in one day than all the cars in the U.S. in one week. - NASA Lasted 14 days.
  27. 27. The problem of forest density “Many forests, particularly those on public lands, have grown dangerously overcrowded due to a century of fire suppression and decades of restricted timber harvesting.” 4-10 times more dense Thomas Bonnicksen, Ph.D
  28. 28. We need “more infrastructure.” Rod Vineyard Eagle Lake Ranger District Lassen National Forest
  29. 29. 2002 fire - Cone fire
  30. 30. GHG during decay Unsalvaged trunks contribute 300% more GHG during decay “Nearly four years after fires burned more than 133,000 acres of national forest land in California, less than one percent of those acres have been replanted.” The Forest Foundation
  31. 31. The sustainable solution: 1. Salvage decaying biomass to pay for forest management 2. Reforest to historic model 3. Mechanically thin vulnerable forests for biomass Tahoe - 1911 Tahoe - 2003
  32. 32. Beetle kill deforestation
  33. 33. Hurricane disaster debris Destruction demolition waste Katrina knockdown - 5,000,000 acres (Mount St. Helens - 130,000 acres) J.Q. Chambers et al., Science 318, 1107 (2007) Published by AAAS
  34. 34. State and federal policies that frustrate market development
  35. 35. 1. CARB LCFS land use change  Direct - cultivating corn and energy crops adds carbon to the atmosphere – Tilling soil - releases Biogenic carbon – Fossil inputs - fertilizer and diesel fuel
  36. 36. 1. CARB LCFS land use change  Direct - cultivating corn and energy crops adds carbon to the atmosphere – Tilling soil - releases Biogenic carbon – Fossil inputs - fertilizer and diesel fuel  Indirect - Developing countries will deforest acres to compensate for acres changed in U.S. – Soy acres changed to corn acres in U.S. means… – Amazonian deforestation to soy acres in Brazil
  37. 37. Future carbon improvements  No-till agriculture  Increased yield per acre  Biogenic inputs replace fossil inputs  Hybrid crops that are: – Perennial – Faster growing – Nitrogen fixing – Bug & drought resistant
  38. 38. If we don’t create alternative fuels here… Won’t that increase market demand for creating it elsewhere?
  39. 39. 2. 15% Ethanol Blend Wall Billion Gallons/Year 40 35 Other Biofuels BioDiesel 30 25 21B Cellulosic Biofuels 15% Blend Wall 20 15 10% Blend Wall 10 2005 Corn Ethanol 7.5B x 2012 15B 5 0 Green Car Congress
  40. 40. 3. EISA’s RFS2 definition Georgia before EISA RFS 23,000,000 acres One dot = 5,000 acres Federal land USDA Forest Service - Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program
  41. 41. 3. EISA’s RFS2 definition Georgia before EISA RFS 23,000,000 acres vs. 7,300,000 acres After RFS One dot = 5,000 acres Federal land USDA Forest Service - Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program
  42. 42. 3. EISA’s RFS2 definition 75 Miles 50 Miles 25 Miles  Logistics uneconomical  Feedstock tracking unworkable
  43. 43. 3. EISA’s RFS2 definition California before EISA RFS 19,000,000 acres One dot = 5,000 acres Federal land USDA Forest Service - Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program
  44. 44. 3. EISA’s RFS2 definition California before EISA RFS 19,000,000 acres vs. 500,000 acres After RFS One dot = 5,000 acres Federal land USDA Forest Service - Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program
  45. 45. Bad precedents beget bad policies The same RFS2 definitions are being used as RES definitions in the Waxman / Markey cap and trade bill
  46. 46. Summary  Bioenergy addresses carbon footprint challenge  Forest products industry is a blueprint for developing integrated biorefineries  Bioenergy infrastructure helps environment  Biomass opportunities and challenges require advocacy and public education
  47. 47. BIOenergy BlogRing @ Biostock.blogspot.com C. Scott Miller Price BIOstock, Marketing Consultant May, 2008

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